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Namesake: The name "Europe" comes from
Major Languages: Languages vary greatly
across the entire European continent. French,
Italian and Spanish are the most prevalent.
English and Germanic languages are used in
It is the third most populous continent, after Asia
Population Density: 70 per sq km (181 per sq
Europe is the World's
covering approximately 6.7%
of the Earth's land and 2% of
the Earth's surface
It is bordered by the Atlantic
Ocean to the west, the Arctic
Ocean to the north and the
Mediterranean Sea to the
south. The Ural mountains in
Russia mark the eastern
The longest river in Europe
is the Volga (2,850 km) in
The highest mountain is
Elbrus (5,642 m) in Russia.
REGIONS AND SEASONS
Europe lies entirely in the Northern hemisphere and
has four distinct seasons
1. Spring - March, April, May
2. Summer - June, July, August
3. Autumn - September, October, November
4. Winter - December, January, February
Europe is the third most populated
continent with a total population about
11% of the World's population.
Southern England, western Germany,
the Netherlands and northern Italy are
the most populated areas while Iceland,
northern Scandinavia and northern
Russia are the least populated.
The countries with the highest
populations (to the nearest million) are:
Germany - 83 million
United Kingdom - 60 million
France - 60 million
Italy - 60 million
Europe has the largest economy of
the world with Germany and the United
Kingdom being the most economically
Europe extends from the island
nation of Iceland in the west to the Ural
Mountains of Russia in the east.
Europe’s northernmost point is the
Svalbard archipelago of Norway, and it
reaches as far south as the islands of
Greece and Malta.
Europe is sometimes described as a
“peninsula of peninsulas.”
Europe is a peninsula of the
Eurasian supercontinent and is
bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the
north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west,
and the Mediterranean, Black, and
Caspian Seas to the south.
Europe’s main peninsulas are the
Iberian, Italian, and Balkan, located in
southern Europe, and the Scandinavian
and Jutland, located in northern
Europe can be divided
into four major physical
1) Western Uplands
2) North European
3) Central Uplands
4) Alpine Mountains
The Western Uplands, also known
as the Northern Highlands, curve up
the western edge of Europe and
define the physical landscape of
Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, and
Denmark), Finland, Iceland, Scotland,
Ireland, the Brittany region of France,
Spain, and Portugal.
The Western Uplands is defined by
hard, ancient rock that was shaped by
As glaciers receded from the area,
they left a number of distinct physical
features, including abundant
marshlands, lakes, and fjords.
A fjord is a long and narrow inlet of
the sea that is surrounded by high,
rugged cliffs. Many of Europe’s fjords
are located in Iceland and
NORTH EUROPEAN PLAIN
Most of the “Great European
Plain” lies (500 feet) in elevation. It
is home to many navigable rivers,
including the Rhine, Elbe and Oder.
The climate supports a wide
variety of seasonal crops. These
physical features allowed for early
communication, travel, and
The North European Plain
remains the most densely populated
region of Europe.
The North European Plain
extends from the southern United
Kingdom east to Russia.
It includes parts of France,
Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany,
The Central Uplands
extend east-west across
central Europe and include
western France and
Belgium, southern Germany,
Switzerland and Austria.
The Central Uplands are
lower in altitude and less
rugged than the Alpine
region and are heavily
This region is sparsely
populated except in the
Rhine, Elbe, and Danube
The Alpine Mountains include
ranges in the Italian and Balkan
peninsulas, northern Spain, and
The region includes the
mountains of the Alps, Pyrenees,
Apennines, Dinaric Alps, Balkans,
High elevations, rugged
plateaus, and steeply sloping land
define the region.
Europe’s highest peak, Mount
Elbrus (5,642 meters/18,510 feet),
is in the Caucasus Mountains of
The Alpine region also includes
active volcanoes, such as Mount
Etna and Mount Vesuvius in Italy.
Europe has a variety of
climates, but most of the
continent has mild weather.
mild climate is caused by
winds that blow across the
continent from the Atlantic
Ocean. The winds are warmed
by the Gulf Stream, a powerful
ocean current that carries warm
water from the Gulf of Mexico to
the western coast of Europe.
The winds affect most of the
continent because no mountain
barrier is large enough to block
them and because much of
Europe is located within 300
miles (480 kilometers) of the
In general, northern Europe
has longer, colder winters and
shorter, cooler summers than
In addition, winters are longer
and colder, and summers shorter
and hotter, in the east than in the
Most of Europe receives from
50 to 150 centimeters of
precipitation each year. The
greatest annual precipitation--
usually more than 200
centimeters--occurs in areas just
west of mountains.
Such regions include parts of
western Britain and western
The plant life of Europe is characterised
according to climatic region.
The deciduous forest region has a
wealth of plant life and includes tall and
short trees, shrubs, small plants and
The coniferous forest region contains
trees such as pine, fir and spruce.
Due to the cold during the winter
months, only short grasses and shrubs
can survive in the tundra region.
The grassland region is characterised
by large open areas of tall or short grass.
Plants found in the Mediterranean
region have adapted to the differences in
rainfall and temperature between winter
and summer and include, palm trees,
citrus trees, forest and scrub
Due to the density of
population in Europe there
are few areas of natural
habitat remaining and many
indigenous animals are now
extinct or in danger of
Brown bears and wolves
can be found in the northern
coniferous forest regions.
Deer, foxes, snakes and
wild cats can be found in the
deciduous forest regions.