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Poultry housing system

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Poultry housing system

  1. 1. Different Types of Poultry Housing System for Tropical Climate Presented By Pragya Bhadauria Scientist Poultry Housing & Management CARI, Izatnagar
  2. 2. Introduction Genetic improvement Nutritional improvement Environment
  3. 3. Poultry Physiology Body temperature 105°F - 107°F Poultry house design should be directly related to environmental conditions Strong effect of environmental factors Tropical environmental effect more high yielding birds High yielding exotic breeds have temperate origin Less tolerant of heat than cold Comfort zone: 18-22 °C
  4. 4. Comfort and Protection Scientific management in a controlled manner Easy, convenient and economic operations Reduces the total cost of production Maximizes flock performance Ensuring better health and welfare Proper micro-climatic conditions Increased stocking density Optimum and uniform growth rate Importanceof Housing
  5. 5. Type of poultry housing Systems Free Range /Extensive Semi-Intensive Intensive Deep Litter Cage Stair-step/ California Battery/ Vertical Individual Slat cum litter Slatted floor
  6. 6. Free Range System  Oldest system and adopted only when adequate land is available  Rearing of poultry by letting them loose on ground (Field) called as range  A range should provide shelter, greens, feed, water, shade etc  Foraging is major source of feeding for birds  Shelter is usually provided by temporary roofing supported by ordinary poles  Stocking density: 300-400 birds per hectare  At present, almost outdated
  7. 7. Semi-intensive System  Commonly used by smallscale producers  Birds are half way reared in houses and half way on ground or range  Birds are confined to houses in night or as per the need, they are also given access to runs  Houses may be simple house, thatched roof, littered earthfloor or slatted  Provides protection from inclement weather predators and shade  Stocking density: 4-5 birds m.sq. in houses
  8. 8. Fold Unit System  House and run combined, part of which is covered with chicken wire and the remainder with solid walls  A unit 6 metres by 1.5 metres for 6-18 birds  Floor space 2 square metres per bird  Moved each day over an area of grassland  Similar to the deep-litter system, but requires more space, a considerable amount of litter for the yard, and the fresh green food for the birds  More expensive and less durable
  9. 9. Deep Litter System  Poultry birds are kept in large pens on floor, mainly for broilers  Floor is covered with litters , such as straw, saw dust or leaves up to depth of 2-3 inches  Bird density: 5-7 birds per square meter  Easy assess for feed, water, egg collection, provide good protection  Disadvantage: Require high quality liter and litter born diseases
  10. 10.  Small houses with a slatted or wire mesh floor  Slats- wooden pieces of 2.5-5 cm wide placed 2.5 cm apart, running through the length of house  Slats placed 3 ft above the ground floor to allow accumulation of dropping  Bird density can be 6–8 per square metre  Feeding, watering & egg collection handled from outside the house  Cooler houses but expensive & suitable for adult bird only Slatted or wire-floor system
  11. 11. Combination of slatted floor and deep litter  60% slat area and 40% litter area Slats on either side of house against each side wall leaving central portion for litter floor The area is raised above the concrete floor by 0.5 metres or more to accumulate manure below the slatted area Waterers and feeders are placed on the slatted area Bird density upto 5-7 per sqaure meter Expensive & complicated management slat area litter area
  12. 12. Aviaries  Multi-tiered buildings for cage-free housing  Several levels of flooring  Use of vertical space (perches and platforms) – allow birds to jump to different levels  High density of birds upto- 25 birds per sqaure meter
  13. 13. Cage System  Rearing of poultry on raised wire netting floor in smaller compartments, called cages  Initially introduce for individual egg & pedigree recording & culling of poor layers  At present, 75% of commercial layers in the world are kept in cages  Suitable for keeping high density of birds, when space is limitation  Scientific managemental practices can be followed  Feeders and waterers are attached to cages from outside, except nipple waterers, for which pipeline is installed through or above cages  Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg collection belts can also be used  The droppings are either collected in trays underneath cages, on belts or on floor or deep pit under the cages  Recommended Floor space Chick (0 to 8 weeks) = 0.3 Sq.ft Grower (9 to 16 weeks) = 0.5 Sq.ft Layer (Above 17 weeks) = 0.6 Sq.ft
  14. 14. Structure of Cage Floor slope: 1.5 inch per running 12 inch
  15. 15. Based on the bird density  Single or individual bird cage (Only one bird in a cage)  Multiple bird cage (From 2 to 10 birds)  Colony cages (More than 11 birds per cage) Based on the number of rows  Single-deck  Double-deck  Triple-deck  Four-deck Based on arrangement of cages  Battery cages (Vertical cages)  Stair-step cages a) M-type cages b) L-type cages Based on the type of bird reared  Brooder / chick cages  Grower cages  Layer cages  Breeder cages Types of cages
  16. 16. Colony cages Battery cages Individual cage
  17. 17.  This type of houses provides sufficient ventilation & waste management in tropical countries  The height of the shed is raised by 7-8 feet from ground level using concrete pillars  The distance between two pillars is 10 feet  Two feet wide concrete platforms are made over the pillars  For 3 ‘M’ type cages are arranged 4 platforms are needed  The inter-platform distance is 5-8 feet depending upon the type of the cages used  The total height of the house is 20-25 feet and the width is 30-33 feet California Housing (High Rise/ Elevated cage house)
  18. 18. 7-8 ft 8 to 9 ft 10- 15 ft interval 2 ft Depends on cage design (5 to 8 ft
  19. 19.  In recent years, most poultry operation are intensive type houses with Environment Controlled house, in which inside conditions are maintained as near as to the bird’s optimum requirements  Temperature: 24oC Relative Humidity- 50 to 60%  A closed building with no windows, longitudinal preferably east to west, with big exhaust fans on west side while evaporative cooling pads on east side along with automatic feeding and drinking systems inside  Fully system controlled with no manual controls, feeding system, watering system, manure collection system, egg collection system are all mechanized and automatic  ECH helps to achieve better FCR, improving production, care of birds, control diseases and meet other safe breeding conditions  One extra batch (or cycle) per year per shed Modern Housing System
  20. 20. Environmentally Controlled House
  21. 21. Selection of site Housing Design Housing Environment Housing Equipment's Housing Space Light Housing hygiene and sanitation Biosecurity Principles of Housing
  22. 22.  Located away from residential and industrial area  Soil and drainage  Basic amenities like water and electricity  Shade and protection  Relation to other building  Proper ventilation  Availability of farm labourers at relatively cheaper wages  Market  Proper road facilities 1. Selection of site
  23. 23. Hot& cold climate Hot climate S N S W E N W E Cold climate N WE S 2. Housing Design Distance between sheds  Preferably locate chicks, growers & layers in different localities for better biosecurity  Distance between sheds = 0.4 x H √L House Orientation (Direction) 20- 50 m
  24. 24. Foundation  Solid & Concrete, concrete blocks & bricks with 1 to 1.5 feet below the surface and 1 to 1.5 feet above the ground level Length  Can be of any extent Width  Not more than 30 feet  If the width of the shed is more than 30 feet, ridge ventilation at the middle line of the roof top with proper overhang is must  Can be of any width in EC houses upto 40 ft 1.5ft 30 ft
  25. 25. Height  Height of the sides from foundation to the roof line should be 8-10 feet (eaves height) and at the centre 10 -12 feet  In case of cage houses, the height is decided by the type of cage arrangements (3 tier or 4 tier) Side walls  Protects the bird from adverse climate and provides sufficient ventilation  Usually half to two-thirds area will be kept open and fitted with wire mesh in floor houses  In cage houses, avoid side wall  EC houses should have solid side walls 8-10 ft10 -12 ft
  26. 26. Types of Roofs  Draft and moisture proof  Sufficient overhang  Insulation values of R-4 and R-2 for ceiling and walls, respectively in hot climate  Painted with a reflecting type of paint such as aluminum paint or polyurethane insulation under the roof or above the ceiling  Dropped ceilings • Modern houses are well insulated with blown in cellulose or glass fiber batt • Protect the trusses and ceiling insulation by acting as a vapor barrier • Reduce the ceiling surface area and reduce heat gain during hot weather and heat loss during cold weather 2-3 ft Dropped ceiling
  27. 27. Shed Type Two-thirds span roof Gable roof/double-pitch /equal-span roof
  28. 28. Monitor style Half-monitor style 1 feet height
  29. 29. Asphaltic roofing material Thatched roof Asbestos sheets Types of roofing material Roof white washed Spray polyurethane insulation Rigid board insulation
  30. 30. Types of Floors Concrete with rat proof device and free from dampness Extended 1.5 feet outside the wall on all sides to prevent rat and snake problems Consist of well-drained soil or gravel or concrete which is more desirable, it is easy to clean, durable and more rat proof A concrete floor should be 80–100 mm thick and be made of a stiff 1:2:4 or 1:3:5 mix, laid on a firm base at least 150 mm above ground level, and given a smooth finish with a steel trowel Doors The door must be open outside mostly in deep- litter poultry houses The size of door is preferably 6 x 2.5 feet At the entry, a foot bath should be constructed to fill with a disinfectant
  31. 31. Plastic slatted floor Katcha floor Concrete floor Wire mesh floor
  32. 32. Macro environment Not possible to manipulate Local environment around a animal Temperature Gases Humidity Dust and Microorganisms Particulate matter Microenvironment Air quality Relative humidity Temperature 3. Housing Environment
  33. 33. Control over micro-environment can be achieved by By completely eliminating macro environment contact with the house By completely enclosed from outside incliment weather conditions Hence environment inside house is in our control, Here the concept of EC has arisen
  34. 34. Ventilation/ Air Movement Moving FRESH AIR INTO a house and moving STALE AIR OUT of the house Sending UNWANTED heat, EXCESS moisture, ammonia OUT of the house Limiting the buildup of HARMFUL GASES Providing OXYGEN for respiration
  35. 35.  Natural outside air can easily flow into and out of the house  Ventilated shelter must be expose to the wind  Windbreaks reduce natural air movement, keep them 100 ft away  Increased air-exchange rates by installing fans  Proper building design & construction major factors which affect ventilation Natural Ventilation
  36. 36. Mechanical/ Forced Ventilation systems  All air movement is produced by fans and controlled by automatic environmental control mechanisms in the building  Positive pressure systems use fans to blow fresh air into the building, creating a slightly higher pressure inside the house  Pressure difference moves the stale air to escape through strategically placed exhaust vents or outlets
  37. 37.  Negative-pressure ventilation: Exhaust fans expel air from the building & creates a partial vacuum inside that pulls air into the house evenly through all inlets, creating more uniform conditions in the house  Inlets are distributed around the periphery of the building  Having a tightly sealed house is critical for successful control of in-house conditions in negative-pressure ventilation
  38. 38. Tunnel ventilation  Most effective in tropical climate due to higher air exchange rate & faster air movement @ 2.5-3 m/sec  Fresh air enters the house at one end and pulled through the house in longitudinal direction by means of high-performance fans
  39. 39.  Cross ventilation (fans on one side of the house and inlets on the other side –works best in houses of less than 10 m wide)  Sidewall ventilation: fans and inlets on same sidewalls  Attic inlet ventilation: fans are distributed at the side-walls, inlets are in the roof
  40. 40.  Fans and openings: Control the amount of air exchange Effect air distribution and mixing  Heaters: provide supplemental heat during cold weather and brooding  Controls: to adjust ventilating rates (fan controls), supplemental heating rates, and the air velocity rates (fan controls), supplemental heating rates, and the air velocity through openings as weather, bird age and size change Components of Mechanical Ventilation systems
  41. 41.  Placed on the windward direction of the houses  Install slow speed, industrial fans 1m above the ground  Use 1x 620 mm rpm fan/1,000 layers  In EC houses: Important to determine how much air flow through the building which determine the no: of fans required  Air flow rate = cross sectional area of the house x required speed desired  A minimum of 1 m2 inlet area per 14 m3/h exhaust fan capacity is recommended Fans
  42. 42. Openings • Air inlets: to provide fresh air throughout the building, control direction of airflow, and maintain sufficient inlet air velocity • Inlets for negative-pressure ventilation systems: continuous slots and discrete box or area inlets • Continuous slot inlets have a rigid movable baffle for controlling the size of the opening, Bottom-hinged baffles are preferred. • Continuous inlets may be positioned along both eaves • Tunnel ventilation requires a separate set of inlets • Unplanned inlets includes large openings such as doors, windows, and fans without shutters, which are not originally designed to be part of the ventilation system
  43. 43. Heaters  Supplemental heat is needed in natural & powered ventilated houses to maintain desired indoor temperatures during cold weather & brooding  Different types of heaters are used for supplemental heating in poultry houses including radiant, space and make-up air heaters
  44. 44.  To maintain the indoor temperature and provide air exchange as weather changes hourly and seasonally  Regulate the supplemental heating rate  Sold state controllers and computer systems capable of controlling the inlet and outlet opening and supplemental heaters Automatic controls
  45. 45. A well-insulated building is needed for EC houses  It prevent condensation on the inside surfaces, reduce heat loss in cold weather, and reduce solar heat gain in warm weather Insulation
  46. 46. Evaporative Cooling FOGGING systems Naturally ventilated housing Power- ventilated housing PAD systems Power- ventilated house SPRINKLING systems Very dry climates Cooling the House: cooling effect byevaporation
  47. 47. Foggers FOGGER SYSTEM Low pressure fogging • Inject fine water particles • Low cost fogging system • High quality and durable PVC Pipes are used High pressure fogging • Micro mist fog size (10-15µ) • Fogger in true sense discharges fog not water • Operated intermittently or designed to avoid excessive water • High pressure and durable Stainless Steel Pipes are used Fogger Sprinkler
  48. 48. Evaporative cooling pads Operate on the same cooling principle as foggers Cooled air entered the house, when it passes through the wet pads above which water runs through perforated pipes This method avoids the problem of wet litter Concrete coated bagasse pad, Aspen fiber, rubberised hogshair pad and corrugated cellulose or fluted cardboard pads materials widely used as cooling pads
  49. 49. Feeding  Automatic feeders have one loop of feeder chain and trough capable of feeding a given number of birds  A feeding control system to turn the feeders on and off  Feed monitoring systems are available to measure the amount of feed consumed by bird  It is important that, same amount of feed to be available at all locations along the feeder
  50. 50. The feed hopper in the house holds the feed before it goes out through the auger & into the feed pans Feed goes through the auger lines & drops into each feed pan for the chickens to eat
  51. 51. Round bottom feeders Square bottom feeders Automatic feeder Linear Trough feedersTube Feeder Hanging type Feeder
  52. 52. Watering Nipple drinkersAutomatic drinkersFountain drinkers
  53. 53. Medication system allows for medicines to be administered through the water lines
  54. 54. Egg collection Conveyor belt system
  55. 55. Sensors Small computer box
  56. 56. A stand-by generator for emergency power supply to all houses in case of power failure
  57. 57. Lighting • EC houses should be light proof, use of light trap at fan openings • A monitoring and control system for scheduling of lights • A system than can pre-program lighting schedules over the life of the flock is very useful for management • It is also important to provide the desired intensity of light • Lighting is provided by incandescent lights with dimmer switches Incandescent lights Fluorescent tube light Compact Fluorescent light
  58. 58. Waste management Biosecurity
  59. 59. CONCLUSION  Automation is the need of hour to reduce labor cost and increase poultry production  California houses with automation is better option in tropical climate  Thought should be given to Environmental Control houses while constructing houses in hot climate, if capital is available  Civil engineers or architectures should be involved while planning and designing poultry houses
  60. 60. Bibliography  Appleby, M.C, Hughes, B.O, and Elson (1992) A. Poultry Production System. CAB International, Wallingford.  Bhanja S. K. Notes on poultry housing and management. Technical Bulletin, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar.  Daghir, N. J. (2008). Poultry Production in Hot Climates. CAB International, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxfordshire.  Elson (1986). Poultry managemnt systems; looking to the future. WPSA 7th European Poultry Confrence Paris, 24-28 Aug, 1986 . (1) 1-11  FAO (2011). Rural structures in the tropics: Design and development.  Lohmann Tierzucht. ManagementGuide (Hot Climate)  North, Mack O. Commercial chicken production manual.  News letters on Poultry Housing Tips. University of Georgia's College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Cooperative Extension service

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