• Inflammation is the process in which a series of reactions occur as a part of body’s
defense mechanism against various endogenous and exogenous stimuli
• is an immune response of the body; to remove foreign body from the body, it may be
living organism, chemical or physical stimuli
• The main symptoms of inflammation are pain, swelling, redness, heat, and immobility
• The major signs of the inflammation are pain, swelling, and fever.
• The development of in vitro methods is important in drug discovery process due to the
restriction of animal use in the pharmacological screening process. In vitro assays are
simple and not complex like in vivo methods
3. PHASES OF INFLAMMATION
• Acute: vasodilatation & increased capillary permeability
• Delayed: infiltration of leukocytes and phagocyte cells
• Chronic proliferative: tissue degeneration and fibrosis
4. TYPES OF INFLAMMATION
1. Acute Inflammation-: When a tissue injury is caused by a single event such as
mechanical trauma, a thermal or chemical burn.
2. Chronic Inflammations-: There are many diseases which are distinguished by signs
and symptoms characteristic of response to chronic inflammatory process of unknown
3. Miscellaneous kinds o f inflammation-: This group of disorders is not essentially
inflammatory but its components are of inflammatory origin. Many of the
dermatological conditions consist of acute, subacute and chronic inflammatory
reactions to various known and unknown prime causes.
5. METHODS FOR SCREENING
A) IN VITRO METHODS
• COX assay.
• Mast cell degranulation.
• Inhibition of NO production induced by TNF- a in mouse macrophages.
• Measurement of NO production in mouse macrophages.
• Adhesion assays.
• Platelet- neutrophils adhesion.
• Cell based reporter gene assay.
• FMLP- induced O2 generation by polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs).
• FMLP- induced adhesion of PMN of HUVEC.
6. B) IN VIVO METHOD
• UV- B induced erythema in guinea pigs.
• Carrageen induced paw edema model.
• Plural exudation method.
• Cotton pellet induced granuloma.
• Adjuvant arthritis.
• Papaya latex induced arthritis.
• Candida albicans induced arthritis in mice.
• Air pouch model.
• Croton oil induced ear edema in mice.
• Arachidonic acid induced ear edema in mice.
• Dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis in mic
7. COTTON PELLET INDUCED
• This model is commonly used for evaluation of chronic inflammation.
• This model is commonly used for assessing newer compounds.
• It shows fibroblast proliferation, monocyte infiltration, angiogenesis and exudation.
• In this method, the cotton pellet absorbs the fluid which affects the moist weight of
• The moist weight of cotton pellet is related with moist transudate while the dry weight is
linked with granulomatous tissue formation.
• For this model corticosteroids are found to be effective as they show their action at
proliferative stage and inhibit the inflammation.
8. • For measurements of activity of anti- inflammatory drugs on proliferative components
of subacute and chronic inflammatory processes
• Procedure :
1. Sterile cotton pellets (wt- 5mg-50mg)
2. SC sites of back, axilla and groin for duration: 1-14 days
3. Pellet along with granuloma removed and weighed.
Weight of granulomatous tissue =
Dry weight of granuloma cotton – Initial weight of cotton pellet.
Drugs effective: corticosteroids.
1. This model is commonly used for chronic inflammation.
2. The moist weight of granuloma is related to amount of transudate while the dry weight of
granuloma is related with granulomatous tissue formation.
3. The chronic irritation and inflammation proliferative changes occur where the granuloma’s
biochemical analysis of gives information regarding these proliferative changes.
4. This model is used as for assessing newer anti-inflammatory drugs.
1. In this method localized sepsis occurs due to implantation which leads to dumbfound
2. This method anaesthetic and surgical skills.
3. Removing surgical stitches, repeated handling of animals and sacrifice the animals are the
limitations of this model.