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Kerb's cycle.


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Kerb's cycle.

  1. 1. TCA Cycle
  2. 2. TCA Cycle  Also known as Krebs cycle  TCA cycle essentially involves the oxidation of acetyl CoA to CO2 and H2O.  TCA cycle –the central metabolic pathway  The TCA cycle is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats, amino acids.
  3. 3.  TCA cycle supplies energy & also provides many intermediates required for the synthesis of amino acids, glucose, heme etc.  TCA cycle is the most important central pathway connecting almost all the individual metabolic pathways.
  4. 4.  Definition  Citric acid cycle or TCA cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle essentially involves the oxidation of acetyl CoA to CO2 & H2O.  Location of the TCA cycle  Reactions of occur in mitochondrial matrix, in close proximity to the ETC.
  5. 5. Reactions of TCA cycle  Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA by PDH complex.  This step is connecting link between glycolysis and TCA cycle.
  6. 6. Reactions of TCA Cycle  Step:1 Formation of citrate  Oxaloacetate condenses with acetyl CoA to form Citrate, catalysed by the enzyme citrate synthase  Inhibited by:  ATP, NADH, Citrate - competitive inhibitor of oxaloacetate.
  7. 7. Steps 2 & 3 Citrate is isomerized to isocitrate  Citrate is isomerized to isocitrate by the enzyme aconitase  This is achieved in a two stage reaction of dehydration followed by hydration through the formation of an intermediate -cis-aconiase
  8. 8. Steps 4 & 5 Formation of -ketoglutarate  Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) catalyses the conversion of (oxidative decarboxylation) of isocitrate to oxalosuccinate & then to -ketoglutarate.  The formation of NADH & the liberation of CO2 occure at this stage.  Stimulated (cooperative) by isocitrate, NAD+, Mg2+, ADP, Ca2+ (links with contraction).  Inhibited by NADH & ATP
  9. 9. Step: 6 Conversion of -ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA  Occurs through oxidative decarboxylation, catalysed by -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex.  -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is an multienzyme complex.  At this stage of TCA cycle, second NADH is produced & the second CO2 is liberated.
  10. 10. Step: 7 Formation of succinate  Succinyl CoA is converted to succinate by succinate thiokinase.  This reaction is coupled with the phosphorylation of GDP to GTP.  This is a substrate level phosphorylation.  GTP is converted to ATP by the enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase.
  11. 11. Step: 8 Conversion of succinate to fumarate  Succinate is oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase to fumarate.  This reaction results in the production of FADH2.  Step: 9 Formation of malate: The enzyme fumarase catalyses the conversion of fumarate to malate with the addition of H2O.
  12. 12. Step:10 Conversion of malate to oxaloacetate  Malate is then oxidized to oxaloacetate by malate dehydrogenase.  The third & final synthesis of NADH occurs at this stage.  The oxaloacetate is regenerated which can combine with another molecule of acetyl CoA & continue the cycle.
  13. 13. Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Citrate Cis-Aconitase Iso-citrate Oxalosuccinate ɑ-Ketoglutarate Succinyl CoA Succinate Fumarate Malate Oxaloacatete PDH CO2, NADH + H+ NAD+ NADH + H+ NAD+ CO2, NADH + H+ NAD+ GDP+Pi GTP FADH2 FAD - H2O NADH + H+ NAD+ Citrate synthase Aconitase Aconitase SDH Fumarase TCA
  14. 14. From: Summerlin LR (1981) Chemistry for the Life Sciences. New York: Random House p 550.
  15. 15. Regeneration of oxaloacetate  The TCA cycle basically involves the oxidation of acetyl CoA to CO2 with the simultaneous regeneration of oxaloacetate.  There is no net consumption of oxaloacetate or any other intermediate in the cycle.
  16. 16. Significance of TCA cycle  Complete oxidation of acetyl CoA.  ATP generation.  Final common oxidative pathway.  Integration of major metabolic pathways.  Fat is burned on the wick of carbohydrates.  Excess carbohydrates are converted as neutral fat  No net synthesis of carbohydrates from fat.  Carbon skeleton of amino acids finally enter the TCA cycle.
  17. 17. Requirement of O2 by TCA cycle  There is no direct participation of O2 in TCA cycle.  Operates only under aerobic conditions.  This is due to, NAD+ & FAD required for the operation of the cycle can be regenerated in the respiratory chain only in presence of O2.  Therefore, citric acid cycle is strictly aerobic.
  18. 18. Energetics of TCA Cycle  Oxidation of 3 NADH by ETC coupled with oxidative phosphorylation results in the synthesis of 9ATP.  FADH2 leads to the formation of 2ATP.  One substrate level phosphorylation.  Thus, a total of 12 ATP are produced from one acetyl CoA.
  19. 19. Regulation of TCA Cycle  Three regulatory enzymes 1. Citrate synthase 2. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 3.α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  20. 20.  Citrate synthase is inhibited by ATP, NADH, acyl CoA & succinyl CoA.  Isocitrate dehydrogenase is activated by ADP & inhibited by ATP and NADH  α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase is inhibited by succinyl CoA & NADH.  Availability of ADP is very important for TCA cycle to proceed.
  21. 21. Inhibitors of TCA Cycle  Aconitase is inhibited by fluoro-acetate.  This is a non-competitive inhibition.  Alpha ketoglutarate is inhibited by Arsenite.  This is also a non-competitive.  Succinate dehydrogenase is inhibited by malonate.  This is competitive inhibition.
  22. 22. Amphibolic nature of the TCA cycle  TCA cycle is both catabolic & anabolic in nature, called as amphibolic.  Since various compounds enter into or leave from TCA cycle, it is sometimes called as metabolic traffic circle.
  23. 23. Important anabolic reactions of TCA cycle  Oxaloacetate is precursor for aspartate.  α-ketoglutarate can be transaminated to glutamate.  Succinyl CoA is used for synthesis of heme.  Mitochondrial citrate is transported to cytoplasm & it is cleaved into acetyl CoA to provide substrate for fatty acid synthesis.
  24. 24. Anaplerosis or anaplerotic reactions  The reactions concerned to replenish or to fill up the intermediates of citric acid cycle are called anaplerotic reactions or Anaplerosis
  25. 25. Important anaplerotic reactions  Pyruvate carboxylase catalyses conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate.  This is an ATP dependent carboxylation reaction. Pyruvate+CO2+ATP Oxaloacetate + ADP + Pi
  26. 26. • Pyruvate is converted to malate by NADP+ dependent malate dehydrogenase (malic enzyme). Pyruvate + CO2 + NADPH + H+ malate + NADPH + H2O
  27. 27.  α- ketoglutarate can also be synthesized from glutamate by glutamate dehydrogenase. Glutamate + NAD(P) + H2O α- ketoglutarate +NAD(P)H + H+ + NH4 +
  28. 28. Transamination  Transamination is a process where an amino acid transfers its amino group to a keto group and itself gets converted to a keto acid.  The formation of Alpha ketoglutarate & oxaloacetate occures by this mechanism.
  29. 29. Thank You

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