Design & Technology Homework
Wood is the most accessible and renewable
material used by humankind during its history.
Today, the consumption of wood exceeds all
other known materials. The industry of various
products made of wood grows continuously.
By Pranav Bisumbher,9R
This type of wood comes from deciduous
trees. These trees are seasonal and lose
their leaves during the winter. This means
that they don’t grow as fast as other trees
and, as a result, they take longer to harvest.
Slow growth results in the wood having a
closer grain. This makes it stronger and
harder. It also gives better aesthetic
qualities due to the interesting colours and
The slow-growing nature of hardwoods
makes them more expensive. They are less
Hardwood are mainly used in high quality
indoor and outdoor furniture. They are also
used in decorative interior and exterior
joinery within construction such as doors,
window frames, and gates.
Examples of hardwoods include:-
Like other hardwoods, mahogany is a
strong wood with a close grain
Wood is used in manufacture of an
artefact (for example, tables, chairs,
furniture and etc. Wood is also referred as
timber. There are three types of woods:
Hardwoods, Softwoods, and
Manufactured boards. Each of these
different wood types can be used in a
number of different ways.
Softwoods like pine grow quickly
and have a wider grain.
Softwoods like pine grow quickly and have a
This type of wood comes from coniferous,
evergreen trees that grow all year round.
This means that they grow quicker than
other types of trees and they can be
harvested more regularly and replaced in a
sustainable way. Due to this there is always
steady supply and they are usually cheaper.
Faster growth results in a grain structure that is wider and less dense that hardwoods. This
makes softwoods easy to work with but less durable. Softwoods tend to mainly be light in
The easy availability of softwoods means that they tend to be used to make less expensive
furniture and constructions, such as sheds and timber frames.
Examples of softwoods include:-
4. Manufactured boards
Manufactured wooden board is a cheap, strong product that can be sustainable
Manufactured boards are a mechanically engineered form of wood. They offer a number of
different advantages over traditional hard and softwoods as they use a combination of
different sources of woods to create a new material.
Boards can be made in several
different ways such as:-
wood particles and glue
a build-up of thin wooden
sandwiches of strips of wood
They can be made from recycled
woods and by-products, creating a
cheap, strong product that can look
expensive. It also can be made
available in large formats that are
Manufactured boards have a range of
uses and are often used to create
inexpensive flat-pack furniture.
Examples of manufactured boards
MDF (Medium Density
Manufactured wooden board is a cheap,
strong product that can be sustainable
5. Box joints
Wood joints are a traditional method of joining timber. There are a range of different
joints that can be used for different situations that provide a variety of levels of
strength and structure. Joints are often glued to make them secure and permanent.
Wood joints are classified into two construction categories:
The butt joint is the simplest joint to use as with all
joints, both pieces of wood need to be cut accurately. It
has no mechanical strength of its own and relies entirely
on glue and nails.
The lap joint has a shoulder which gives it little more rigidity
than the butt joint. Like the butt joint it relies on glue and
nails for its strength.
A dowel joint does have mechanical strength, because
the wooden peg (dowel) goes into both pieces of wood.
Glue adds further strength.
A comb joint is an interlocking joint which, when
well-made and glued has a lot of strength.
A dovetail joint is more complicated and difficult
to make than the others described, but if it is well
made and glued, it is very strong.
6. Frame Joints
Frames are used when making stools, hairs or doors. The joints can be made in many ways.
Some of the most common ways are shown below.
The haling joint is the simplest frame joint. It has
no mechanical strength and relies on glue and
screws or wooden peg (dowels) for its strength.
The bridle joint is an interlocking joint, which when
glued is very strong. It is important to get the thickness
of each piece right so as not to weaken the joint.
The mortice and tenon joint is the
strongest of all frame joints. It is also
neater in appearance. When glued
together, none of the joints show. This
type of joint is often found on stools,
chairs and tables.
The dowel joint is a strong joint, especially when
glued. It is commonly used in industrial furniture
making. When making dowel joints by hand it can
be difficult to drill the holes accurately. Not only do
they have to be in the correct position but they
have to be straight. If they are not accurate the
joint will not fit together.