2. Definition of Motivation
The driving force within
individuals by which they attempt
to achieve some goal in order to
fulfill some needs or expectation.
The degree to which an individual
wants to choose in certain
3. Motivation as a process..
It is a process by which a person’s efforts are
energized,directed and sustained towards attaining
Energy- A measure of intensity or drive.
Direction- Towards organizational goal.
Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal
Motivation works best when individual needs are
compatible with organizational goal.
4. Basic model of motivation
Needs or Result in Drive force To Achieve
expectations (Behavior or
fulfillments Which Provides
6. Qualities of Motivation
Enable persistence towards a goal
Exists in varying details
7. Six C’s of Motivation..
Consequences Constructing meaning
8. Groups of Motivational Theories
Suggest that variables within the individual give
rise to motivation and behavior
Example: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
Emphasize the nature of the interaction between
the individual and the environment
Example: Expectancy theory
Focus on environmental elements to explain
Example: Two-factor theory
9. Early Theories of Motivation
Emphasis on what motivates individuals.
Maslow’s need Hierarchy
Macgregor's Theories X & Y
Herzberg’s two factors theory
10. Process Theories of Motivation
Emphasis on actual process of motivation.
Three needs Theory ( McClelland)
Designing Motivating theory
11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Needs were categories as five levels of lower-
Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before
they can satisfy higher order needs.
Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
Motivating a person depends on knowing at what
level that a person is on the hierarchy.
12. POTENCY of NEEDS
The needs are INNATE, but they are not of
equal potency (strength). They are arranged in
a hierarchy of potency.
AN INDIVIDUAL IS MOTIVATED BY HER/HIS
13. HIERARCHY and SEQUENCE
What Is a Hierarchy?
You must successfully complete (resolve,
equilibrate one stage before you go to the
How Is Hierarchy Related To Sequence?
All hierarchical theories are sequential, but
not all sequential theories are hierarchical.
14. Hierarchy of Needs
Lover order ( External ) : Physiological and safety
Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and
15. McGregor’s Theory X and Y
Assume that workers have little ambition,dislike
work, avoid responsibility,and require close
Assumes that workers can exercise self-
direction,desire, responsibility, and like to work.
Motivation is maximized by participative
decision making, interesting jobs, and good
16. Motivational Theories X & Y
SA Theory Y - a set of
assumptions of how to
Esteem manage individuals
motivated by higher
Social order needs
Theory X - a set of
Safety & Security assumptions of how to
Physiological motivated by lower order
17. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene
Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created y
Hygiene factors- Extrinsic ( Environmental )
factors that create job dissatisfaction.
Motivation Factors- Intrinsic ( Psychological )
factors that create job satisfaction.
Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not
result in increased performance
The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction
but rather no satisfaction.
18. Motivation–Hygiene Theory of
• Company policy & Motivation factors
administration increase job satisfaction
• Interpersonal relations
• Working conditions • Achievement
• Salary • Achievement recognition
• Status • Work itself
• Security • Responsibility
Hygiene factors avoid
job dissatisfaction • Salary?
19. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Safety & Security
23. Motivational Need Theories
Maslow Alderfer McClelland
Self-actualization Growth Need for
Higher Esteem Achievement
Order self Need for
Needs interpersonal Power
(social & love) Relatedness Need for
Lower Safety & Security
24. Adams’s Theory of Inequity
Inequity - the situation in which a person
perceives he or she is receiving less than he
or she is giving, or is giving less than he or
she is receiving
25. Motivational Theory of Social
Equity Outcomes = Outcomes
Negative Outcomes < Outcomes
Inequity Inputs Inputs
Positive Outcomes > Outcomes
Inequity Inputs Inputs
26. Strategies for Resolution of Inequity
Alter the person’s outcomes
Alter the person’s inputs
Alter the comparison other’s outputs
Alter the comparison other’s inputs
Change who is used as a comparison other
Rationalize the inequity
Leave the organizational situation
27. New Perspectives on Equity Theory
I prefer an equity ratio
equal to that of my
28. New Perspectives on Equity Theory
Benevolent I am comfortable with
an equity ratio less
than that of my
29. New Perspectives on Equity Theory
I am comfortable with
an equity ratio greater
than that of my
30. Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key
Valence - value or importance placed on a particular
Expectancy - belief that effort leads to performance
Instrumentality - belief that performance is related
31. Expectancy Model of Motivation
Effort Performance Reward
Perceived effort– Perceived Perceived
performance performance– value of reward
probability reward probability
“If I work hard, “What rewards “What rewards
will I get the job will I get when do I value?”
done?” the job is well