1. CASE STUDY
(SOCIO-ECONOMIC SUSTAINABLE HOUSING)
AR. SOHAN LAL SAHARAN
AR. RAJNISH WATTAS
AR. GARISHMA PATLE
AR. SIDDHARTHA WIG
Chandigarh College Of Architecture,
2. UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY AND ITS
• The main aim of social sustainable development is to improve the quality of human life and to pay attention to
their welfare, cultural and psychological needs, the need for adaptability and the need for growth and
• Meet the basic needs of food, shelter, occupation, income, living and activity conditions.
• Be egalitarian and ensure that the benefits of development are fairly evenly distributed throughout the
• Improve or at least not damage the physical, mental and social welfare of the community.
• Promote education, creativity and development of human capacity for the whole society.
• Preserve cultural and biological heritage and enhance a sense of connection with history and environment.
• Be democratic and promote the participation and involvement of citizens.
• Provide better living conditions and establish relationships between the design of public places within the city
and the physical and social welfare and the excitement of city residents.
• How to thrive in the next Economy – John Thackara , The City in History
– Lewis Mumford, GRIHA For Large Development
3. "The physical design of cities and their economic
functions are secondary to their relationship to the
natural environment and to the spiritual values of
human community.” – The City in History, Lewis
SAFETY AND SANITATION FOR CONSTRUCTION
• All the safety facilities and provisions listed in the National Building Code
(NBC) 2005 should be implemented on site.
• Must have access to clean drinking water as well as clean and hygienic toilets.
• Provision of clean and hygienic labor huts.
• Ban on child labor on site.
• Should be designed according to NBC 2005 guidelines on universal
• Provision of railings and non-slippery surfaces on all footpaths.
• Provision for disable-friendly public toilets.
DEDICATED FACILITIES FOR SERVICE STAFF
• Provision of dedicated toilet facilities for the service staff in the project.
• Each toilet block must have an adjoining, covered resting area.
• Adequate provision of EWS housing on site itself.
• Environmental Awareness is important to ensure future occupants adopt low
• Through installation of information panels, digital displays, etc., with facts and
tips about the environment and habitats.
• Public areas to designated as no smoking zones as per the regulations passed
by government of India.
ACCESSIBILITY AND AMENITIES
• Provision of areas reserved for informal markets to ensure livelihood security for
lower income groups and improving accessibility for the residents of essential
daily needs like fruits and vegetables, etc., to the residents.
• Some percentage of land should be utilized for horticulture gardens or urban
4. • Designed by OFIS Architects.
• Site Area-5452Msq.
• The project is a winning entry for two housing blocks
• competition convoked by the Slovenia Housing Fund,
a government- run program that is providing low-cost
apartments for young families.
• The proposal won for economic, rational and
functional issues but mostly for the ratio between
gross vs. saleable surface area and the flexibility of the
• The brief required 30 apartments of different sizes and
structures, varying from studio flats to 3-bedroom
apartments. The apartments are small, with minimum-
sized rooms according to Slovenian standards. There
are no structural elements inside the apartments, thus
providing flexibility and the possibility of
• The urban plot consists of 2 blocks of 60X28 M OF
• By the end of 1980’s housing was
• H o m e o w n e r s h i p b a s e d o n
• Home ownership in the urban areas
were not affordable, overprized for
• most of the people.
• Rental units available but scarce.
• Housing shortages underestimated.
• This seaside structure appeals young, small families
• There was increased need for small, affordable
housing for these young families.
• Constructed for low-income residency.
• The concept of a rhythmic beehive was an attempt to
• by paralleling the drive of worker bees in the hive.
• The honeycomb housing complex brings together
people of similar backgrounds and social and
economic standards in one building.
• The staggered elevations of the balconies is successful
in creating private space between neighbours.
ABOUT THE PROJECT
ABOUT THE PROJECT HOUSING ISSUES IN THE PAST
• The blocks are set out on a hill with a view
of Izola Bay on one side and of the surrounding hills
on the other. The given urban plot was 2blocks of
Each floor has 6 Dwelling units with
different carpet area & floor plan. The
objective is to facilitate accommodation
to people of varying backgrounds &
socio-economic sectors in the same
building. A building gets its identity from
the inhabitants as much as from the
design. Hence, allowing for a cohesive &
safe environment for the dwellers to build
a strong community is important.
TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN
SOUTHWEST FACADE NORTHWEST FACADE
NORTHEAST FACADE SOUTHWEST FACADE
• These are designed as efficient system
for shading and ventilation for the
• Textile elements fixed on the front of the
balconies block direct sunlight and
accumulate “air buffer” zone.
• In the summer hot accumulated area
behind the shading is naturally ventilated
through 10cm holes perforated side
partitions of the balconies. In the winter
the warm air stays in the area and
provides additional heading to the
• Helps build stable neighbourhood because can
remain in the same house through many lifestyle
changes. Reduces the running cost of build.
• Allows more young households to enter the
homeownership market because a smaller annual
income is required to quality of mortgage than a
• Flexibility is seen as something that give the user
the choice as to how they want to use space
instead of architecturally predetermine their
• Human behaviour and environment are dynamic
in nature. Since there is an uncertainty in the
decision of people. Hence we can conclude
flexible housing as option.
ADVANTAGES OF FLEXIBLE HOUSING
HONEY COMB APARTMENT, IZOLA SLOVENIA
5. •Architects: Guedes Cruz Arquitectos
•Area: 9956 m²
Portugal is not a Mediterranean country, but the fact that it has been conquered by people
from the south, Romans and Arabs, has left us with a southern culture and life style, where
there is a balance between privacy and life in society.
SOCIAL COMPLEX IN ALCABIDECHE, PORTUGAL
• The Alcabideche Social Complex is a housing complex promoted by the Fundação
Social do Quadro Bancário (Social Foundation for the Banking Sector), of high
quality in terms of construction and landscape, which aims to help to fill a gap in the
elderly support system.
• Located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, next to what was a clandestine urban
area and rural fields, with a total construction area of approximately 10.000 m2, the
Social Complex of Alcabideche aims to reconstitute a Mediterranean life style in
which the outdoor spaces of streets, plazas and gardens are like an extension of the
• This project, concluded in 2012, using a regular layout with a modulation of 7.5m,
supports an edified structure of 52 houses and a support building.
• As in a Medina the streets of different widths are reserved for pedestrians who enjoy the
protection of the shade provided by the houses by day and at night are guided by the light the
houses give off.
• The translucid roofs light up at the end of the day in groups of 10, alternately, over the area of
the complex, subtly and evenly lighting up streets, plazas and gardens.
• A calm but cheerful atmosphere is created that allows users to circulate at night among the
different levels and spaces of the complex without worries or constraints.
• The roofs of the housing units also have other functions. In the event of an emergency, users
can activate an alarm that alerts the control station located in the central building and the box-
shaped roof’s light changes from white to red.
• Lastly the environmental balance inside the houses is due to the
white box of the roof’s ability to reflect light and the thermal
efficiency of the cushion of air created between the roof and the
habitable area on the base of exposed concrete.
• The central building, within the same modelling and principles,
contains all of the common services necessary for proper
functioning and quality of living.
• The concern to recycle natural resources was also reflected in the
use of water from a groundwater source, which appeared when the
foundations were being dug, for irrigating the green areas and
washing the roads and pavements, thereby also helping to reduce
the cost of running the complex.
CLIMATE CHANGE ON SITE
6. BOGERSE VELDEN SOCIAL HOUSING / META ARCHITECTUURBUREAU
SOCIAL HOUSING, LIER, BELGIUM
• Architects: META architectuurbureau
• Area: 8979 m²
• Year: 2019
• Lead Architects: META architectuurbureau
• City : Lier
• Country : Belgium
• Contains 3 autonomous and identical
• 13 semi-detached homes
• 14 terraced houses with a dynamic volumetric.
FACADES DEMARCATE THE OPEN SPACE
• When designing emphasis was on the open
• The practice expanded the terrain
earmarked for the play network required
by the program, Created a well- organized
area that is geared towards cyclists and
• The surrounding green belt, hitherto
comprised of small and large zones, was
completed through the inclusion of
• The balconies on the buildings resemble
robust sun wheels on the facades: they
interrupt the volumetric of the overall
design but without diminishing the clean-
cut nature of the building.
• The 3 apartment buildings present themselves as autonomous volumes.
• The program envisaged each individual building as comprising 11 apartments plus
a common semi-underground garage for 11 cars and 35 bicycles.
• The ground floor is raised by half a level. This provides a number of advantages:
• It eliminates direct sightlines into the building and thus ensures privacy;
• Unnecessary energy consumption is avoided because the semi-underground garages
are naturally ventilated;
• Finally, the depth of the underground level can be limited, which makes it a budget-
THREE CLEAN-CUT AND AUTONOMOUS APARTMENT BUILDINGS
COMMON SEMI-UNDERGROUND GARAGE FOR 11 CARS AND
GROUND FLOOR - RAISED LEVEL TYPICAL PLAN
7. • In addition to the apartments, META has
designed 13 semi-detached houses
• A configuration that was created following
an in-depth analysis of the various
• Grouping of wet functions,
• Avoidance of long flat facades
• The semi-detached houses have the
advantage of interrupting a flat row of
• The connections enable sufficient houses to
be constructed while also facilitating the
inclusion of wider living rooms.
• The windows in the living spaces face each
other diagonally and let in plenty of light.
• Each of these rooms is adjacent to an
• A walled outdoor area at the front,
• A garden at the back.
• All of these details contribute towards a
high quality of life for the residents.
INTERRUPTION OF THE FACADE ROW WITH SEMI-DETACHED HOUSES
FIRST FLOOR GROUND FLOOR
• Last but not least, the project also includes 14 terraced houses in
which the ground floor and first floor are always identical.
• A shallower volume is provided on the second floor, which is either
on the street or the garden side.
• In the more compact houses, the second floor has been omitted.
• The alternation of the different types of dwellings creates an
attractive volumetric within the row of houses.
DYNAMIC VOLUMETRIC WITHIN TERRACED HOUSES
FLOOR PLANS OF SOME OUT OF 14 TERRACE HOUSES
ELEVATION OF 14 TERRACE HOUSES
8. GROUND FLOOR PLANS OF 14 TERRACE HOUSES
FIRST FLOOR PLANS OF 14 TERRACE HOUSES
SECOND FLOOR PLANS OF 14 TERRACE HOUSES
DYNAMIC VOLUMETRIC WITHIN TERRACED HOUSES
• Various elements are reiterated throughout the project:
• Window openings with fixed widths,
• Identical concrete elements,
• Characteristic balconies,
• Choice of 3 types of bricks...
• The repetitions not only create rhythm in the streetscape, thereby enhancing clarity and recognizability, but also forge a collective identity.
• The use of different but matching color tones, coupled with the receding rhythm of the 13 dwellings, binds the entire project into a harmonious whole
DYNAMIC VOLUMETRIC WITHIN TERRACED HOUSES
9. RESIDENCIAL CORRUÍRAS / BOLDARINI ARQUITETURA E URBANISMO
APARTMENT HANDICAP FRIENDLY HOUSING, BRASIL
• Residential Corruíras is a large-scale housing development, part of the urban operation “Operação Urbana
• The urban operation has as its main goal the revitalization of the region under its jurisdiction with
interventions that include road systems, public transportation, housing and creating public spaces for leisure
• The development project was designed to accommodate residents transferred from a local slum before its
immediate demolition and construction of a new subway line.
• The project comprises of two buildings with a total of 7 or 9 levels, in a total of 244 apartments.
SITE PLAN FLEXIBLE UNIT DESIGN_TYPICAL DWELLING UNIT
ACCESSIBLE HOUSING FEATURES
• In the adapted units, there is no partition between the kitchen and the living room.
• Additionally, the restrooms have larger dimensions in relation to the ordinary apartments.
• Applicable regulations at the time of the project’s execution required 3 per cent (14 units) of accessible dwellings.
• The adapted units have direct access from the ground floor, and ramps connect the courtyard and common areas.
• To minimize costs, the ramped access to the buildings was strategically placed in the less sloped part of the plot.
FLEXIBLE UNIT DESIGN_TYPICAL DWELLING UNIT
MADE FOR DISABLE FRIENDLY
• An exterior corridor allowed bedrooms to be well ventilated and easily
accessible from the outside;
• A covered roof along the corridor allotted additional shaded outdoor space;
• Doors provided a minimum 914 mm clearance, with no door thresholds;
• Walls were laid out to reduce sharp turns, especially in tight interior
• Kitchen counters were approximately 600 mm deep and installed no taller
than 1120 mm to facilitate wheelchair accessibility;
• There was a 1525 mm diameter clearance to allow wheelchair maneuvering
in both the kitchen and shower;
FLEXIBLE UNIT DESIGN_USED AS COMMON AREA
RAMP TO ACCESS HANDICAP ACESSIBLE DWELLINGS UNITS
RAMP & LIFTS FOR ACCESS TO HANDICAP ACESSIBLE
10. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
BHOPAL, MADHYA PRADESH
Standard Conditions (Construction Phase)
2. All required sanitary and
hygienic measures should be in place before starting
any construction work and are to be maintained
throughout the project phase.
The sanitary and hygienic
measures are adopted
construction phase of the
3. Provision shall be made for the housing of
construction labor within the site with all
necessary infrastructure and facilities such as fuel
cooking. Mobile toilets, safe drinking water, medical
health care crèche etc. The housing may be in the
form of temporary structures to be removed after
the completion of the project.
Proper temporary housing for
workmen is being provided at
site with all
basic facilities. Photograph
4. Occupational health and safety measures for the
workers including identification of work related
health hazards, training on malaria eradication, HIV
and health effects on exposure to dust on the
workers shall be conducted and record maintained
including health records of the workers. Awareness
program for workers on impact of duct on their
health and precautionary measures like use of
personal equipment etc. shall be carried out
Personnel protective devises
have been provided. And also
and awareness programs are
organized periodically for the
engaged in the construction
5. A First Aid Room will be provided in the project both
during construction and operation phase of the
Agreed and we have provided
first aid room.
COMPLIANCE OF CONDITIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE
(JANUARY-19 TO JUNE-19)
Name of the Project Indian Council of Medical Research - National
Institute For Research in Environmental
Health (NIREH), Ministry Of Health &
Family Welfare, Kamla Nehru Hospital,
Hamidia Hospital Campus
Environmental Clearance Letter No. 1372/SEIAA/2014
In lieu of safety and sanitation for construction workers as discussed earlier, here is a case study for the same .
Below is the SEIAA compliance report which shows the conditions mentioned for the above mentioned aspect and
how the project authorities have satisfied those conditions.
Below are some pictures of the construction site, depicting the temporary housing for construction workers and
provisions for their toilets.
By ensuring good health of construction workers the authorities could ensure both from the perspective of promoting
social sustainability as well as the timely progress of construction.
11. The seven Principles of Universal Design are
presented as follows16:
1. Equitable use - the design is useful and relevant to a wide group of users;
2. Flexibility in use - the design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities;
3. Simple and intuitive use - the design is easy to understand regardless of the knowledge, experience,
language skills or concentration level of the user;
4. Perceptive information - the design communicates information effectively to the user regardless of the
ambient condition or the sensory abilities of the user;
5. Tolerance for error - the design minimizes the hazards and adverse consequences of unintended actions
of the user;
6. Low physical effort - the design can be used easily, efficiently and comfortably with a minimum of
7. Size and space for approach and use - the size and space for approach, reach, manipulation and use
should be appropriate regardless of the body size, posture or mobility of the user.
12. Inclusive environments
• Environments may impose barriers or enable people with impairments, directly affecting their participation
and inclusion in society. To succeed, accessibility initiatives need to take into account external constraints
including affordability, competing priorities, availability of technology and knowledge, and cultural
• An inclusive environment recognises and accommodates differences in the way people use the built
environment and provides solutions that enable all users (regardless of age, gender or disability) to participate
in activities equally, independently, with choice and with dignity. Inclusive environments consider people’s
diversity and break down unnecessary barriers and exclusions in a manner that benefits all.
• Slums and their inhabitants have historically faced exclusion from urban infrastructure and access to social,
health and educational services. When developing or implementing slum-upgrading programmes, there is an
pportunity to adopt creative solutions, propose alternative accessible routes and open spaces and create a more
inclusive environment, instead of surrendering to the challenge of budget constraints.
13. Vulnerability and disability
• Sustainable development is a multidimensional
process that connects the four primary aspects of
s u s t a i n a b i l i t y : c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c ,
environmental,and social. In order to achieve
sustainable human settlements, adequate provision
for basic needs such as affordable housing is
indispensable and issues such as poverty and
inequalities related to vulnerabilities such as gender
and disability should be addressed.
• According to the World Health Survey data from
2004, across all countries, vulnerable groups such
as women, hose in the poorest wealth quintile, and
older persons have higher prevalence of disability.
As seen in Table 1, the revalence of disability in
lower income countries among people aged 60
years and above is 43.4 per cent, compared with
29.5 per cent in higher income countries. This
vulnerability, exponentially increased by the built
environment, can and must be avoided.
14. Inclusive human settlements development
• Human settlements should be socially enhancing and environmentally friendly. To apply a sustainable
approach to human settlements, it is important to establish goals, set priorities and preconditions, aiming at a
balanced association between all dimensions.
• Moreover, sustainable housing generates permanent improvement in the quality of life of the people involved.
To achieve this, construction strategies may differ in context and content from region to region and therefore,
must be addressed locally.
• The inclusion of solutions of accessibility in the built environment through universal design allows better
mobility, a higher level of independence and self-esteem. It increases possibilities of participation in
community life, from social activities to decision making processes. Additionally, accessibility in the contexts
discussed in this handbook also means the possibility of income generation through economic activities
provided by the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the economic market which in turn leads to the
reduction of poverty and vulnerability. Accessibility leads to a healthier and more equal environment.
15. • 1. Cultural sustainability takes into consideration cultural worldviews and values, norms and traditions, as
well as lifestyles and behaviours of occupants, communities and society. For many communities, housing
represents much more than an asset: it has an historic, aesthetic, spiritual or cultural value. Maintaining and
protecting heritage of different groups in a society supports the dignity of communal life, enhancing equity
and helping to maintain peace and stability.
• 2. The economic dimension of housing sustainability, on the other hand, arises from the fact that housing is
indeed a capital asset. It is an important part of household and public expenditure. Construction, services and
real estate markets are some of the key economic and employment activities, including home-based activities
and entrepreneurship. Decent affordable housing and infrastructure is key to sustainable economic
development at the local level, as it makes places more attractive, inclusive and competitive.
• 3. Environmental sustainability of housing is concerned with the impacts of housing on the environment and
climate change, and vice versa. It means balancing multiple matters and choices: designing with the local
climate, prioritizing natural or recycled materials and its availability (manufacturing and transportation),
connecting housing with sustainable energy provision and avoiding poisons and pollutants, among others.
• 4. Social sustainability in housing relates to the integration of housing, residential areas and communities into
urban and national socio-spatial systems. Moreover, social sustainability is achieved through affordable and
good quality housing in secure and healthy dwellings, as part of an inclusive and diverse (mixed-tenure and
Inclusive human settlements development
16. Using sustainable local building materials to
• Local building materials may offer feasible
solutions to address lack of resources: limited
budget, difficulty in accessing construction sites or
industrialized material, or in introducing new
technologies to local people (workers and
community in general) especially in the contexts of
slum upgrading and reconstruction. The adequate
use of local resources is an excellent strategy to
increase sustainability, as it reduces costs and
pollution caused by transportation. Moreover if
appropriately used as several examples in the past
(e.g. vernacular architecture), some local materials
have very good thermal performance, therefore
reducing the needs of expensive high-tech solutions
to increase indoors comfort. The wise combination
of traditional and new technologies has a strong
potential to increase energy efficiency in buildings.
Low embodied energy materials are also important
for the environmental sustainability of housing.
17. Using sustainable local building materials to
• It is important to note that solutions aimed at
increasing accessibility in buildings such as railings,
handrails and grab bars, are structures that must be
fixed on walls and ceilings. Even if most of the
building is made with a light structure, the walls and
ceilings in which supporting fixtures as previously
mentioned are installed must be reinforced. They must
guarantee safety of all occupants’ without
disregarding durability. This will ensure the structural
integrity, energy efficiency and longevity of the
• When building up disaster resistance of flood prone
areas, consideration should be given to durability,
resilience and resistance of indigenous materials.
Durable and water resistant materials allow structures
to withstand extreme flood events, and maintain the
structural integrity of the building. This is crucial
when designing curb ramps and accessible routes.
18. Some specific guidance related to the use of local
materials and sustainable construction principles:
• Give preference to building materials with a minimum of complex integrated parts, in their natural state or
minimally processed (stone, raw timber, earth, straw). They require less energy inputs. Choose locally
available building materials, it avoids long distance transportation from the site of extraction/manufacturing
to the construction site.
• Avoid the use of building materials that have a significant environmental impact during its extraction or
manufacturing (heavy mining, destructive logging, high energy processing, or massive water use).
• Attempt to reduce the use of Portland cement substituting concrete, mortar and cement based plasters for
clay, earthen based or biomass-based materials (wood, bamboo, adobe or compressed earth block, or utilize
substitute pozzolanas), without reducing the structural integrity of the construction.
• Whenever possible, prefer re-used, recycled (or with recycled content) and recyclable materials.
• Given that they are locally found and sustainably harvested, use renewable materials: wood, straw, bamboo
and bagasse. They are biomass based building products which are not as scarce as conventional building
19. Anthropometrics of wheelchair and cane user
• The dimensions displayed below can be used as basis when designing for people in wheelchair and using
canes or similar auxiliary devices. Nevertheless, it is important to note that individual measures vary with
time (from childhood to old age), from one person toanother and also from one region of the globe to another.
20. Street Furniture and accessible urban design
• Street furniture means objects and
equipment installed on streets and roads for
different purposes such as benches, bus stops,
fountains, garbage bins, kiosks, mailboxes,
phone boxes, plants, streetlamps, traffic
barriers, traffic lights and traffic signs. These
objects and equipment can become an
obstruction instead of a supportive urban
element when not properly located and
designed: they should be placed outside the
path of travel, in a continuous line, located in
a way that it will not hinder the passage of
pedestrians. Additionally, street furniture
should be clearly indicated and easy
21. Street Furniture and accessible urban design
• to be identified by a vision-impaired person
(VIP). Textural changes in the footpath surface
help vision impaired persons to identify the
location of public amenities.
• The appropriate placement of objects or
equipment has a significant impact on
mobility in any context,urbanized or not. In
order not to jeopardize upgrading rogrammes,
it is key to coordinate design and
implementation with service providers such as
telecommunications, lighting and landscaping
companies, among others.
• When developing affordable,
social housing, reconstruction or
slum upgrading programmes, it
is crucial to provide at least one
accessible and safe route, linking
main public facilities as bus stops,
to public spaces and buildings.