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Educational technology 1

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Educational Technology 1

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Educational technology 1

  1. 1. Educational Technology
  2. 2. Learning Episode 1: Meaning of Educational Technology “Technology is more than hardware. Technology consists of the designs and the environments that engage learners.” - D. Jonassen
  3. 3. • The word "technology " comes from he greek word techne which means craft or art. • Educational technology refers to the art or craft of responding to our educational needs • Technology is not just machines. It is a "planned, systematic method of working to achieve planned outcomes-a process not a product. Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  4. 4. Base from Dale 1969 • Technology also refers to any valid and reliable process or procedure that is derived from basic research using the scientifc method. Based from Wikipedia • Technology refers to “all the ways people use their inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs and desires.” Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  5. 5. Based from The world Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 19 • So, educational technology refers to how people use their inventions and discoveries to satisfy their educational needs and desires, i. e. learning. Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  6. 6. Based from In the Definition of Educational Technology • Educational technology is “a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices and organization for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solution to those problems, involved in all aspects of human learning.” Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  7. 7. Based from David H. Jonassen • Educational Technology “consists of designs and environments that engage learners … and reliable technique and method for engaging learning such as cognitive learning strategies and critical thinking skills.” • It is a theory about how problems in human learning are identified and solved. • Is a field involved in applying a complex, integrated process to analyze and solve problems in human learning. Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  8. 8. Based from David H. Jonassen • Is a profession like teaching. It is made up of organized effort to implement the theory, intellectual technique and practical application of educational technology. Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  9. 9. Based from Lucido and Borabo • Educational Technology is a field study which is concerned with the practice of using educational methods and resources for the ultimate goal of facilitating the learning process. Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  10. 10. Other terms that are associated with Educational Technology • Technology in education • Instructional technology • Technology integration in education books, educational media Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  11. 11. Technology in Education “The application of technology to any of those processes involved in operating the institutions in which house the educational enterprise. It includes the application of technology to food, health, finance, scheduling, grade, reporting and other processes which support education within institutions.” Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  12. 12. Instructional Technology • “Is a part of Educational Technology.” • Refers to those aspects of educational technology that “are concerned with instruction as contrasted to designs and operations of educational institutions.” Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  13. 13. Technology Integration • “Means learning technologies to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills.” • “Technology is a part and parcel of instructional technology, which in turn is a part of educational technology.” Learning Episode 1-Meaning of Educational Technology
  14. 14. Learning Episode 2: Technology: Boon or Bane? “Technology is in our hands. We can use it to build or destroy.”
  15. 15. In Education technology is Bane when: • The learner is made to accept Gospel truth information they get from the internet. • The learner surfs the Internet for Learning Episode 2-Technology: Boon or Bane? pornography. • The learner has an uncritical mind on images floating on televisions and computers that represent modernity and progress.
  16. 16. In Education technology is Bane when: • The TV makes the learner a mere spectator not an active participant in the drama of life. • The learner gets glued to his computer for computer-assisted instruction unmindful of the world and so fails to develop the ability to relate to others. • We make use of the Internet to do character assassination of people whom we hardly like. Learning Episode 2-Technology: Boon or Bane?
  17. 17. In Education technology is Bane when: • Because of our cell phone, we spend most of our time in the classroom or in our workplace texting. • We use overuse and abuse TV or film viewing as a strategy to kill time Learning Episode 2-Technology: Boon or Bane?
  18. 18. Learning Episode 3: The Roles of Educational Technology in Learning “Technology makes the world a new place.”
  19. 19. Roles of Technology in Learning • As tools support knowledge construction: for representing learners’ ideas, understandings and beliefs for producing organized, multimedia knowledge bases by learners Learning Episode 3-The Roles of Educational Technology in Learning • As information vehicles for exploring knowledge to support learning-by-constructing: for accessing needed information for comparing perspectives, beliefs and world views
  20. 20. Roles of Technology in Learning • As context to support learning-by-doing: for representing and simulating meaningful real-world problems, situations and context, for representing beliefs, perspectives, arguments and stories of others, for defining a safe, controllable problem space for student thinking. • As a social medium to support learning by conversing: for collaboration with others, for discussing, arguing and building consensus among members of a community, for supporting discourse among knowledge-building communities Learning Episode 3-The Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
  21. 21. Roles of Technology in Learning As intellectual partner to support learning-by-reflecting: • For helping learners to articulate and represent what they know • For reflecting on what they have learned and how they come to know it • For supporting learners internal negotiations and meaning making • For constructing personal representations of meaning for supporting mindful thinking Learning Episode 3-The Roles of Educational Technology in Learning
  22. 22. Learning Episode 4: Systematic Approach to Teaching “A plan that emphasizes the parts may pay the cost of failing to consider the whole and plan that emphasizes the whole must pay to cost of failing to get down to the real depth with respect to the parts.” - C. West Churchman
  23. 23. • Instruction begins with the definition of instructional objectives that consider the students’ needs, interests and readiness. • The use of learning materials, equipment and facilities necessities assigning the appropriate personnel to assist the teacher and defining the role of any personnel involved in the preparation, setting and returning of these learning resources. Learning Episode 4-Systematic Approach to Teaching
  24. 24. • The effective use of learning resources is dependent on the expertise of the teacher, the motivation level or responsiveness and the involvement of the students in the learning process. • With instructional objective in mind, the teacher implements planned instruction with the use of selected teaching method, learning activities and learning materials with the help of other personnel whose role has been defined by the teacher. Learning Episode 4-Systematic Approach to Teaching
  25. 25. Examples of Learning Activities • Reading • Writing • Interviewing • Reporting or Doing Presentation • Discussing • Thinking • Reflecting • Dramatizing • Visualizing • Creating Judging • Evaluating Learning Episode 4-Systematic Approach to Teaching
  26. 26. Examples of Learning Resources • Textbooks • Workbooks • Programmed materials • Computer • Television • Programs • Flat Pictures • Slides and Transparencies • Maps • Charts • Cartoons • Posters • Models • Mock Ups • Flannel Board Materials • Chalkboard • Real objects Learning Episode 4-Systematic Approach to Teaching
  27. 27. After instruction, teacher evaluates the outcome of the instruction. From the evaluation results, teachers comes to know if the instructional objective was attained. Learning Episode 4-Systematic Approach to Teaching
  28. 28. Learning Episode 5: The Cone of Experience “The cone is a visual analogy and like all analogies, it does not bear an exact and detailed relationship to the complex elements it present.” - Edgar Dale
  29. 29. The Cone of Experience is a visual model, a pictorial device that presents bans of experience arranged according to degree of abstraction and not degree of difficulty. The farther you go from the bottom of the cone, the more abstract the experience becomes. Learning Episode 5- The Cone of Experience
  30. 30. • Direct Purposeful Experiences These are the first hand experiences which serves as the foundation of our learning. • Contrived Experiences In here, we make use of representative models or mock ups of reality for practical reasons and so that we can make the real life accessible to the students’ perception and understanding. • Dramatized Experiences By dramatization, we can participate in a reconstructed experience, even though the original event is far removed from us in time. Learning Episode 5- The Cone of Experience
  31. 31. • Demonstrations It is a visualized explanation of an important fact, ideas or process by the use of photographs, drawings, films, displays or guided motions. • Study Trips These are excursions and visits conducted to observe an event that is unavailable within the classroom. • Exhibits These are displays to be seen by spectators. They may consist of working models arranged meaningfully or photographs with models, charts and posters. Learning Episode 5- The Cone of Experience
  32. 32. • Television and Motion Pictures Television and motion pictures can reconstruct the reality of the past so effectively that we are made to feel we are there. • Still Pictures, Recordings, Radio These are visual and auditory devices may be used by an individual or a group. • Visual Symbols These are no longer realistic reproduction of physical things for these are highly abstract representation. • Verbal Symbols They are not like the objects or ideas for which they stand. They usually do not contain visual clues to their meaning. Learning Episode 5- The Cone of Experience
  33. 33. Learning Episode 6: Using and Evaluating Instructional Material “The cone is a visual analogy and like all analogies, it does not bear an exact and detailed relationship to the complex elements it present.” - Edgar Dale
  34. 34. For an effective use of instructional material such as fieldtrip, there are guidelines that ought to be observed , first of all, in their selection, second, in their use. Learning Episode 6- Using and Evaluating Instructional Material
  35. 35. Selections of Materials The following guide questions express standards to consider in the selection of instructional materials: • Do the materials give a true picture of the ideas they present? • Do the materials contribute meaningful content to the topic under study? • Is the material appropriate for the age, intelligence and experience of the learners? • Is the physical condition of the material satisfactory? Learning Episode 6- Using and Evaluating Instructional Material
  36. 36. • Is there a teacher’s guide to provide a briefing for effective use? • Can the materials in question help to make students better thinkers and develop their critical faculties? • Is the material worth the time, expense and effort involved? Learning Episode 6- Using and Evaluating Instructional Material
  37. 37. The Proper use of Materials To ensure the effective use of instructional material, Hayden Smith and Thomas Nangel (1972) book of authors on Instructional Media, advise us to abide by the acronym PPFF. Learning Episode 6- Using and Evaluating Instructional Material
  38. 38. P – Prepare yourself P – Prepare your Student P – Present the Material F – Follow Up Learning Episode 6- Using and Evaluating Instructional Material
  39. 39. • Prepare Yourself You know your lesson objective and what you expect from the class after the session and why you have selected such particular instructional material. • Prepare Your Students Set class expectations and learning goals. It is sound practice to give them guide questions for them to be able to answer during discussion. Learning Episode 6- Using and Evaluating Instructional Material
  40. 40. • Present the Material Present the materials under the best possible conditions. Many teachers are guilty of R. O. G. Syndrome. This means “running out of gas” which usually results from poor planning. • Follow up Remember that you use instructional material to achieve an objective, not to kill time nor to give yourself a break, neither to merely entertain class. Learning Episode 6- Using and Evaluating Instructional Material
  41. 41. Learning Episode 7: Direct, Purposeful Experiences and Beyond “From the rich experiences that our senses bring, we construct the ideas, the concepts, the generalizations that give meaning and order to our lives.”
  42. 42. Direct, purposeful Experiences • These are our concrete and firsthand experiences that make up the foundation of our learning. • These are rich experiences that our senses bring from which we construct the ideas, the concepts, the generalizations that give meaning and order to our lives. Learning Episode 7-Direct, Purposeful Experiences and Beyond
  43. 43. Learning Episode 7-Direct, Purposeful Experiences and Beyond • Direct Activities These may be preparing meals, making a piece of furniture, doing power point presentation, performing a laboratory experiment, delivering a speech or taking a trip. • Indirect Activities These are people we observe, read or here about. They are not our own self-experiences but still experiences in the sense that we see, read and hear about them.
  44. 44. Why are these direct experiences described to be purposeful? • Purposeful because the experiences are not purely mechanical, they are not matter of going through the motion. These are not “mere sensory excitation”. Learning Episode 7-Direct, Purposeful Experiences and Beyond
  45. 45. If direct, purposeful experiences or firsthand sensory experiences make us learn concepts and skills effectively, what does this imply to the teaching-learning process? • It lets the students given the opportunities to learn by doing. • It lets us make us use of real things as instructional materials as long as we can. • It lets us help the students to develop the 5 senses to the full to heighten their sensitivity to the world. Learning Episode 7-Direct, Purposeful Experiences and Beyond
  46. 46. Learning Episode 8: Teaching with Contrived Experiences “We teach through a re-arrangement of the raw reality: a specimen, a manageable sample of a whole…when the direct experience cannot be used properly in its natural setting .”
  47. 47. Contrived Experiences • These are “edited” copies of reality and are used as substitute for real things when it is not practical or not possible to bring or do the real thing in the classroom. • The atom, the planetarium are classified as models. A model is a “reproduction of a real thing in a small scale or large scale, or exact size. ” Learning Episode 8-Teaching with Contrived Experiences
  48. 48. • The planetarium may also be considered as a mock up. Mock up is an “an arrangement of a real device or associated devices displayed in such a way that representation of reality is created. ” • The preserved specimens fall under specimens and objects. A specimen is any individual or item considered typical of a group, class or whole. Objects may also include artifacts displayed in the museum or objects displayed in exhibits or preserved insect specimen in science. Learning Episode 8-Teaching with Contrived Experiences
  49. 49. • School election is and example of simulation. Simulation is a “representation of a manageable real event in which the learner is an active participant engaged in learning a behavior or in applying previously acquired skills or knowledge.” • Another instructional material included in contrived experiences is games. Games are played to win while simulations need not to have a winner. Learning Episode 8-Teaching with Contrived Experiences
  50. 50. General Purposes of simulations and games in Education: • To develop changes in attitudes. • To change specific behaviors. • To prepare participants for assuming new roles in the future. • To help individuals to understand their current roles. • To increase the students’ ability to apply principles. Learning Episode 8-Teaching with Contrived Experiences
  51. 51. General Purposes of simulations and games in Education: • To reduce complex problems or situations to manageable elements • To illustrate the roles that may effect one’s life but one may never assume. • To motivate learners. • To develop analytical processes • To sensitize individuals to another person’s life role. Learning Episode 8-Teaching with Contrived Experiences
  52. 52. Learning Episode 9: Teaching with Dramatized Experiences “All dramatization is essentially a process of communication, in which both participant and spectators are engaged. A creative interaction takes place, a sharing of ideas .”
  53. 53. • A dramatic entrance is something that catches and holds our attention and has an emotional impact. If our teaching is dramatic our students get attracted, interested and affected. • Dramatized experiences can range from the formal plays, pageants to less formal tableau, pantomime, puppets and role playing. Learning Episode 9-Teaching with Dramatized Experiences
  54. 54. • Plays depict life, character or culture or a combination of all three. They offer excellent opportunities to portray vividly important ideas about life. • Pageants are usually community dramas that are based on local history, presented by local actors. • Pantomime is the art of conveying a story through bodily movements only. • Tableau is a picture like scene composed of people against a background. Learning Episode 9-Teaching with Dramatized Experiences
  55. 55. • Puppets can present ideas with extremely simplicity without elaborate scenery or costume yet effectively. Types of puppet • Shadow puppets Flat black silhouette made from light weight cardboard and shown behind a screen. • Rod puppets Flat cut out figures tacked to a stick, with one or more movable parts and operated from below the stage level by wire rods or slender sticks. Learning Episode 9-Teaching with Dramatized Experiences
  56. 56. • Hand puppets The puppets head is operated by the forefinger of the puppeteer, the little finger and thumb being used to animate the puppet hands. • Glove and finger puppets Make use of the old gloves to which small costumed figure are attached. • Marionettes Flexible, jointed puppets operated by strings or wires attached to a cross bar and maneuvered from directly above the stage. Learning Episode 9-Teaching with Dramatized Experiences
  57. 57. • Role playing Is an unrehearsed, unprepared and spontaneous dramatization of a “lets pretend” situation where assigned participants are absorbed by their own roles in the situation described by the teachers. Learning Episode 9-Teaching with Dramatized Experiences
  58. 58. Learning Episode 10: Demonstration in Teaching “Good demonstration is good communication.”
  59. 59. Learning Episode 10-Demonstrations in Teaching Demonstration • Webster’s International Dictionary defines it as “a public showing and emphasizing of the salient merits, utility, efficiency etc, or product.” • In teaching it is showing how a thing is done and emphasizing of the salient merits, utility and efficiency of a concept, method or processes or an attitude.
  60. 60. Edgar Dale’s guiding principles that must be observed in using demonstration as a teaching and learning experience: • Establish Rapport Get your audience. Make them feel at ease by your warmth and sincerity. • Avoid the COIK fallacy (Clear Only If Know) It is an assumption that what is clear known to the person for whom the message is intended. • Watch for key points They are the ones at which an error is likely to be made, the places at which many people stumble and where the knacks and tricks of trade are especially important. Learning Episode 10-Demonstrations in Teaching
  61. 61. Question for Methodical procedures for planning and preparing for demonstration by Brown: • What are our objectives? • How does your class stand with respect to these objectives? • Is there a better way to achieve your ends? • Do you have access to all necessary materials and equipment to make the demonstration? • Are you familiar with the sequence and contents of the proposed demonstration? • Are the time limits realistic? Learning Episode 10-Demonstrations in Teaching
  62. 62. Several points to observe in demonstrating by Dale: • Set the tone for good communication. Get and keep your audience interested. • Keep your demonstration simple. • Don’t wander from the main ideas. • Check to see that the demonstration is being understood. • Do not hurry your demonstration. Learning Episode 10-Demonstrations in Teaching
  63. 63. • Do not drug out the demonstration. • Summarize as you go along and provide a concluding summary. • Hand out written materials at the conclusion. Learning Episode 10-Demonstrations in Teaching
  64. 64. Questions that can be asked in the classroom demonstration evaluation by Dale: • Was the question adequately and skillfully prepared? • Did you follow the step by step plan? • Did you make use of additional materials appropriate to your purposes-chalkboard, felt board, pictures, charts, diagrams, models, overhead transparencies or slides? Learning Episode 10-Demonstrations in Teaching
  65. 65. • Was the demonstration itself correct? • Was your explanation simple enough so that most of the students understood it easily? • Did you keep checking to see that all your students were concentrating on what you are doing? • Could every person could see and hear? • Did you help students do their own generalizing? Learning Episode 10-Demonstrations in Teaching
  66. 66. • Did you take enough time to demonstrate the key points? • Did you review and summarize the key points? • Did your students participate in what you were doing by asking thoughtful questions at the appropriate time? • Did your evaluation of the student learning indicate that your demonstration achieved its purpose? Learning Episode 10-Demonstrations in Teaching
  67. 67. Learning Episode 11: Making the Most of Community Resources and Field Trips “Field Trips offer an excellent bridge between the work of the school and the work of the world outside.”
  68. 68. Planning a fieldtrip incudes these steps: Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips • Preliminary planning by the teacher • Preplanning with others going on the trip • Taking the fieldtrip itself • Post-fieldtrip follow up activities
  69. 69. Preliminary planning by the teacher by Brown: • Make preliminary contact, a tour on final arrangement with the place to be visited. • Make final arrangements with the school principal about the details of the trip, time, schedule, transportation arrangements, finances and permission slips from parents. • Make a tentative route plan, subject to later alternation based on class planning and objectives. Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
  70. 70. • Try to work out mutually satisfactory arrangements with other teachers if the trip will conflict with their classes. • Prepare preliminary lists of questions or other materials which will be helpful in planning with the students. Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
  71. 71. Preplanning with students joining the trip • Discuss the objective of the trip and write them down. • Prepare a list of questions to send ahead to the guide of the study trip. • Define safety and behavior standards for the journey there and for the fieldtrip site itself. • Discuss and decide on what ways to document the trip. Everyone is expected to take notes. Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
  72. 72. Preplanning with others joining the trip • Other people accompanying the group need to be oriented on the objectives, route, behavior standards required of everyone so they can help enforce these standards. Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
  73. 73. Taking the fieldtrip • Distribute the route map of places to be observed. • Upon arriving at the destination, teacher should check the group and introduce the guide. • Special effort should be made so that: - the trip keeps to the time schedule. - the students have the opportunity to obtain answers to questions. - the group participate courteously in the entire trip. - the guide sticks closely to the list of questions. Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
  74. 74. Evaluating the fieldtrip Question that can be asked in evaluating the fieldtrip: • Could the same benefits be achieved by other materials? • Were there unexpected problems which could be foreseen another time? • Were new interest developed? • Should the trip be recommended to other classes studying similar topics? Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
  75. 75. Educational benefits derived from Fieldtrip Educational Benefits of Fieldtrip: • The acquisition of lasting concepts and change in attitudes are rooted on concrete and rich experiences. • Field trips bring us to the world beyond the classroom. • Field Trips have a wide range of application. • It can bring about a lot of realizations which may lead to changes attitudes and insights. Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
  76. 76. Disadvantages of Field trips: • Field trips is costly. • It involves logistics. • It is extravagant with time. • Contains an element of uncertainty. Learning Episode 11-Making the Most Community Resources and Field Trips
  77. 77. Learning Episode 12: The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom “Next to the home and school, I believe television to have a more profound influence on the human race than any other medium of communication.” - Edgar Dale
  78. 78. Learning Episode 12-The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom The film, the video and the TV are indeed very powerful. Dale says they can: • Transmit a wide range of audio. • Bring models of excellence to the viewer. • Bring world of reality to the home and to the classroom through a “live” broadcast or as mediated through film or videotape. • Make us see and hear for ourselves world events as they happen.
  79. 79. • Be the most believable news source. • Make some programs understandable and appealing to a wide variety of age and educational level. • Become a great equalizer of educational opportunity because programs can be presented over national and regional networks. Learning Episode 12-The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
  80. 80. • Provide us with sounds and insights not easily available even to the viewer of real event through long shots, close ups, zoom shots, magnification and split screen made possible by the TV camera. • Can give opportunity to teachers to view themselves while they teach for purposes of self – improvement. • Can be both instructive and enjoyable. Learning Episode 12-The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
  81. 81. Film, Video and TV limitations: • TV and film are one-way communication device consequently, they encourage passivity. • The small screen size puts TV at a disadvantage when compared with possible size of projected motion pictures, for example. • Excessive TV viewing works against the development of the child’s ability to visualize and create imaginative, skills that are needed in problem solving. • There is much violence in TV. Learning Episode 12-The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
  82. 82. Basic Procedures in the use of TV as a supplementary enrichment • Prepare the classroom - darken the room - the students should not be seated too near nor too far from the TV. Learning Episode 12-The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
  83. 83. Pre-viewing activities - set goals and expectations. - link the TV lesson with past lesson and/or with your students experiences for integration and relevance. - set the rules by viewing. - put the film in context. - point out the key points they need to focus on. Learning Episode 12-The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
  84. 84. Viewing - don’t interrupt viewing by inserting cautions and announcements you forgot during the pre- viewing stage. - just make sure sights and sound are clear. Learning Episode 12-The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
  85. 85. Post-viewing To make them feel at ease begin by asking the following questions: • What do you like the best in the film? • What part of the film makes you wonder? Doubt? • Does the film remind you of something or someone? • What questions are you asking about the film? Learning Episode 12-The Power of Film, Video and TV in the Classroom
  86. 86. Learning Episode 13: Teaching with Visual Symbols “Visual symbols will be made meaningful if we can use them as summaries of our own direct experiences or our own rich indirect experiences…A little can stand for a lot!.”
  87. 87. Visuals symbols include drawings, cartoons, strips drawings, diagrams, formulas, charts, graphs, maps, globes and globes. Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols • Drawings A drawing may not be a real thing but better to have a concrete visual aid than nothing. To avoid confusion, it is good that our drawing correctly represent the real thing.
  88. 88. • Cartoons Another useful visual symbol that can bring novelty to our teaching is the cartoon. The perfect cartoon needs no caption. The less artist depends on words, the more effective the symbolism. • Strips drawings These are commonly called comics or comics strip. Make use of strips that a educational and entertaining at the same time. Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  89. 89. • Diagrams It is “any line drawing that shows arrangement and relations as of parts to the whole, relative values, origins and development, chronological fluctuations, distribution, etc.” Types of diagram • Affinity diagram Used to cluster complex apparently unrelated data into natural and meaningful groups. Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  90. 90. • Tree diagram Used to chart out, in increasing detail, the various tasks that must be accomplished to complete a project or achieve a specific objective. • Fishbone diagram It is also called cause-and-effect diagram. It is a structured form of brainstorming that graphically shows relationship of possible causes and subcauses directly related to an identified effect/problem. Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  91. 91. • Charts A chart is a diagrammatic representation of relationships among individuals within an organization. Examples of charts • Time chart Is a tabular time chart that represents data in ordinal sequence. • Tree or stream chart Depicts development, growth and change by beginning with single course which spreads out into many branches. Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  92. 92. • Flow chart Is a visual way of charting or showing a process from the beginning to the end. • Organizational chart Shows how one part of the organization relates to other parts of the organization. • Comparison and contrast chart • Pareto chart Is a type of bar chart, prioritized in descending order of magnitude or Importance from left to right. • Gantt chart Is an activity time chart Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  93. 93. • Graphs Kinds of Graphs • Pie graph or circle graph Recommended for showing parts of a whole. • Bar graph Used in comparing the magnitude of similar items at different ties or seeing relative sizes of the parts of the whole. • Pictograph Make use of picture symbols. • Graphic Organizers You met several graphic organizers in your subject, Principles of Teaching . Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  94. 94. • Maps • A map is a representation of the surface of the earth or some part of it. Kinds of Map • Physical Map Combines in a single projection data like altitude, temperature, rainfall, precipitation, vegetation and soil. • Relief Map Has three dimensional representation and show contours of physical data of the earth or part of the earth. Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  95. 95. • Commercial or economic map Also called product or industrial map since they show land areas in relation to the economy. • Political map Gives detailed information about country, provinces, cities and towns, roads and highways. Oceans, rivers and lakes are the main features of most political maps. Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  96. 96. • Map Language • Scale Shows how much of the actual earth’s surface is represented by a give measurement on a map. • Symbols Usually a map has a legend that explains what each symbol means. • Color The different colors of the map are part of the map language. • Geographic grids The entire system of this grid lines are called grid lines. These grid lines are called meridians and parallels. Learning Episode 13-Teching with Visual Symbols
  97. 97. Learning Episode 14: Maximizing the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard “Indeed in no…country have I ever seen a good school without a blackboard or a successful teacher who did not use it frequently.” - Horace Mann
  98. 98. • The Chalkboard Except extremely deprived classrooms, every classroom has a chalkboard. I fact, a school may have no computer, radio, TV, etc. but will always have a chalkboard. The following practices of dedicated personal teachers may help us in the effective use of the chalkboard: • Write clearly and legibly on the board. • It helps if you have a hard copy of your chalkboard diagram of outline. • Don’t crowd your notes on the board. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  99. 99. • Make use of colored chalk to highlight key points. • Do not turn your back to your class while you write on the chalkboard. • For the sake of order and clarity, start to write from the left side of the board going to the right. • If you teach the Grades and you think the lines on the chalkboard are needed for writing exercise, then provide line for your board. • Look at your board work from all corners of the room to test if the pupils from all sides of the room can read your board work. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  100. 100. • If there is a glare on the chalkboard at certain times of the day, a curtain on the window may solve the problem. • If you need to replace your chalkboard or if you are having a new classroom with new chalkboard suggest to the carpenter to mount the chalkboard a little concave from the left to right to avoid glare for the pupils’ benefits. • If you need to have a board work in advance or that need to be saved for tomorrow’s use write “please save” and cover the same with curtain. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  101. 101. • Make full use of the chalkboard. Chalkboard techniques • Sharpen your chalk to get good line quality. • Stand with your elbow high. Move along as you write. • Use dots as “aiming points”. This keeps writing level. • Make all writing and printing between 2 and 4 inches high for legibility. • When using colored chalk, use soft chalk so that it can be erased easily. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  102. 102. • The Overhead Projector (OHP) There are other kinds of projector like opaque projector and slide projector. The overhead projector seems more available in schools. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  103. 103. Advantages of Overhead Projector by Brown: • The projector itself is simple to operate. • The overhead projector is used in the front of the room by the instructor, who has complete control of the sequence, timing and manipulation of his material. • Facing his class and observing the students reactions, the instructor can guide his audience, control its attention and regulate the flow of information in the presentation. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  104. 104. • The projected image behind the instructor can be as large as necessary for all in the audience to see; it is clear and bright, even in fairly well-lighted room. • Since the transparency, as it is placed on the projector, is seen by the instructor exactly as students see it on the screen, he may point, write, or otherwise make indications upon it to facilitate communication. • Since the transparency, as it is placed on the projector, is seen by the instructor exactly as students see it on the screen, he may point, write or otherwise make indications upon it to facilitate communication. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  105. 105. • The stage, of the projector is large , thus allowing the teacher to write information with ease or to show prepared transparencies. His works appears immediately on the screen. • It is especially easy for teachers and students to create their own materials for use in the overhead projector. • An increasing number of high-quality commercial transparencies. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  106. 106. Overhead Projection Techniques • You can show pictures and diagrams, using a pointer on the transparency to direct attention to a detail. • You can use a felt pen or wax based pencil to add details or to make points on the transparency during projection. • You can control the rate of presenting in formation by covering a transparency with a sheet o paper or card board and then exposing data as you are ready to discuss each point. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  107. 107. • You can superimpose additional transparency sheets as overlays on the base transparency so as to separate processes and complex ideas into elements and present them in step by step order. • You can show three dimensional objects from the stage of the projector – in silhouette if the object is opaque, or in color if an object is made of transparent color plastic. • You can move overlays back and forth across the base in order to rearrange elements of diagrams or problems. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  108. 108. • For special purposes you can simulate motion on parts of a transparency by using the effects of polarized light. • You can simultaneously project on an adjacent screen other visual materials, usually slides or motion pictures, which illustrate or apply the generalization shown on a transparency. Learning Episode 14-Maximizig the use of the Overhead Projector and the Chalkboard.
  109. 109. Learning Episode 15: Project-based Learning and Multimedia: What it is? “Project-based learning redefines the boundaries of the classroom. No longer are students confined to learning within four wall.”
  110. 110. Project-based Multimedia Learning Is a teaching method in which students “acquire new knowledge and skills in the course of designing, planning and producing multimedia.” Dimensions of Project-based Multimedia Learning • Core curriculum At the foundation of any unit of this type is a clear setoff learning goals drawn from whatever curriculum or set of standards is in use. Learning Episode 15-Project-based Learning and Multimedia: What it is?.
  111. 111. • Real-world connection It seeks to connect students’ work in school with the wider world in which students live. • Extend time frame A good project is not a one-shot lesson: it extends over a significant period of time. • Student decision making In project-based multimedia learning, students have a say. Learning Episode 15-Project-based Learning and Multimedia: What it is?.
  112. 112. • Collaboration We define collaboration as working together jointly to accomplish a common intellectual purpose in a manner superior to what might have been accomplished working alone. • Assessment Regardless of the teaching methods used, data must be gathered on what the students have learned. Learning Episode 15-Project-based Learning and Multimedia: What it is?.
  113. 113. • Multimedia In multimedia projects, students do not learn simply by “using” multimedia produced by others; they learn by creating themselves. • Why we use multimedia learning? Because it is “value added” to your teaching. • What can be some limitations of the use of the project-based multimedia learning strategies? o One limitation that we see is the need for an extended period of time. Learning Episode 15-Project-based Learning and Multimedia: What it is?.
  114. 114. Learning Episode 16: Using the Project-based Learning Multimedia as a Teaching- Learning Strategy “Project-based learning enables classrooms to emphasize this undervalued part of the “invisible curriculum” what author Daniel Goleman has called “emotional intelligence”.”
  115. 115. • Goals and objectives are always the starting point of planning. When we plan a multimedia learning project as a teaching strategy, we begin by clarifying our goals and objectives. • Another important thing is to determine the resources available from library materials, community resources both material and human, internet, news media since this project calls for multimedia. Learning Episode 16-Using the Project-based Learning Multimedia as a Teaching-Learning Strategy.
  116. 116. Before the project starts • Create a project description and milestones. • Work with real-world connections. • Prepare resources. • Prepare software and peripherals such as microphones. • Organize your computer files. • Prepare the classroom. Learning Episode 16-Using the Project-based Learning Multimedia as a Teaching-Learning Strategy.
  117. 117. Introducing the project (one or two days) • Review project documents. • Perform pre-assessments. • Perform relevant activities. • Group students. • Organize materials. Learning Episode 16-Using the Project-based Learning Multimedia as a Teaching-Learning Strategy.
  118. 118. Learning the technology (one to three days) Give a chance for the students to work with whatever software and technology they will be using. Is some students are already familiar with the tools and processes as them to help you train the others. If students are new to multimedia, then begin with the lessons that involve using the different media types . Remember, you and your students are colearners and you both learn as you go. Learning Episode 16-Using the Project-based Learning Multimedia as a Teaching-Learning Strategy.
  119. 119. • Preliminary research and planning At this stage, the students should immerse themselves in the content or the subject matter they need to understand to create their presentations. • Concepts design and storyboarding After collecting initial information, hold a brainstorming session where the whole class or a subgroup define a tentative approach to the subjects and discusses some preliminary design ideas. Learning Episode 16-Using the Project-based Learning Multimedia as a Teaching-Learning Strategy.
  120. 120. Here are a few design tips to keep in mind throughout storyboarding and production: • Use scanned, handmade artwork to make a project look personal and to manage scarce technology resources. • Keep navigation • Organize information similarity throughout so users can find what they are looking for. • Care for collaboration. • Organize manageable steps. • Check and assess often Learning Episode 16-Using the Project-based Learning Multimedia as a Teaching-Learning Strategy.
  121. 121. Learning Episode 17: Assessment in a Constructivist Technology-Supported Learning “Complex learning cannot be assessed or evaluated using any single measure. We must examine both the processes and products of student learning .”
  122. 122. • In a constructivist classroom, learning transcends memorization of facts. It is putting these isolated facts together, form concepts and construct meaning from them. • Authentic assessment is most appropriate for the constructivist classroom measures collective abilities, written and oral expression skills, analytical skills, manipulative skills, integration activity and ability to work collaboratively. Learning Episode 17-Assessment in a Constructivist, Technology- Supported Learning.
  123. 123. • In authentic assessment, students perform real world tasks, thus the word “authentic”. It is an assessment of a process or a product. • You and your students may develop a rubric. It can be a collaborative effort for both of you teacher and students, in line with the practice of self-assessment, which is highly favored and encourage. • Assessment in a technology-supported environment necessarily includes display of skillful and creative use of technologies, old and recent, because that is what is naturally expected of us in the real world, a technology dominated world. Learning Episode 17-Assessment in a Constructivist, Technology- Supported Learning.
  124. 124. • A technology supported classroom maximizes the use of old and new technology. Students are expected to demonstrate learning with the use of both old and new technology. • Assess as it is occurring. This is process or performance assessment. • The traditional paper and pencil tests are not adequate to assess learning in constructivist technology supported learning. Learning Episode 17-Assessment in a Constructivist, Technology- Supported Learning.
  125. 125. Learning Episode 18: Roles and Functions of an Educational Media Center “We have said that the best ideas in the world are to be found I a modern library. But the modern educational media center must include excellence in varied media.” - Edgar Dale
  126. 126. Mission/Vision of EMC • it reflects and supports the philosophy of the school. • It shares and implements the school’s aims and objectives. • It is involved in the teaching and learning process. • It is a source center. • It is a learning laboratory. Learning Episode 18-Roles and Functions of an Educational Media Center.
  127. 127. • It is a teaching agency. • It is a service agency. • A coordinating agency. • A center for recreational reading, viewing and listening. • It introduces the students to the resources available in other community resource centers. Learning Episode 18-Roles and Functions of an Educational Media Center.
  128. 128. EMC Services • Orientation • Selection of print and non-print materials. • Organization of print and non-print materials. • Circulation of print and non-print materials. • Reference • Bibliographic service. Learning Episode 18-Roles and Functions of an Educational Media Center.
  129. 129. • Media Instruction Program • Class Supervised Research • Grade Level newspaper • Mags-on-wheels • Photocopying Services • Video and sound Production • Multimedia Services Learning Episode 18-Roles and Functions of an Educational Media Center.

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