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Group-2.BSIE-ICT_3A.GEC8 (1).pptx

  1. GROUP 2 ETHICS
  2. ETHICS ACCORDING TO ARISTOTLE & SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS
  3. GROUPMATES Manipon, Mary Rose C. Braza, Liberty S. Evangelista, Marie P. Mañago, Shaeana Mae C. Sinyahan, Princess A. Vinson, Dastin R.
  4. Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics – Moral Virtue as Good Habit MANIPON
  5. Aristotle was an Ancient Greek Philosopher on 384- 322 B.C. .  Made significant and lasting contributions to nearly every aspect of human knowledge, from logic to biology to ethics and aesthetics. Composed approximately 200 works at the Lyceum but only 31 was survive. Categorized into Organon, Metaphysics, Rhetoric and Poetics MANIPON
  6. TOPICS A. Meaning of Virtue Ethics B. The Golden Mean by Aristotle C. The Three Main Strands of Virtue Ethics D. Concept of Virtue: Telos or the Ultimate End MANIPON
  7. A. MEANING OF VIRTUE ETHICS  Philosophy developed by Aristotle and other ancient Greeks.  It is the quest to understand and live a life of moral character.  According to Aristotle, by honing virtuous habits, people will likely make the right choice when faced with ethical challenge.  Virtue ethics helps us understand what it means to be a virtuous human being. MANIPON
  8.  Gives us a guide for living life without giving us specific rules for resolving ethical dilemmas.  Virtue ethics is a broad term for theories that emphasize the role of character and virtue in moral philosophy rather than either doing one’s duty or acting in order to bring about good consequences.  Aristotle defines moral virtue as a disposition to behave in the right manner and as a mean between extremes of deficiency and excess, which are vices. A. MEANING OF VIRTUE ETHICS MANIPON
  9. B. The Golden Mean by Aristotle SHAEANA
  10. B. The Golden Mean by Aristotle  Virtue, then, is a kind of moderation as it aims at the mean or moderate amount. Three core aspects of the doctrine of the mean. 1. virtue, like health, 2. virtue is a mean relative to us. 3. virtue is a mean between two vices  golden mean is represented in his work called “Nicomachean Ethics”  virtue (arête ) or excellence of a thing causes that thing both to be itself in good condition and to perform its function well. SHAEANA
  11. SHAEANA
  12. C. The Three Main Strands of Virtue Ethics 1. Eudaimonism 2. Agent-Based Theories 3. The Ethics of Care SHAEANA
  13. Eudemonia Aristotelian term loosely translated as happiness.  described as "well-being" or "human flourishing" or "good life". More literally it means "having a good guardian spirit". Eudaimonia as the ultimate goal is an objective, not a subjective, state, and it characterizes the well-lived life, irrespective of the emotional state of the person experiencing it. C. The Three Main Strands of Virtue Ethics SHAEANA
  14. Agent-Based Theories is a unitary normative theory according to which the moral status of actions is entirely dependent upon the moral status of an agent's motives and character traits. C. The Three Main Strands of Virtue Ethics SHAEANA
  15. The Ethics of Care  Carol Gilligan, who is considered the originator of the ethics of care  Basis for care-focused feminist theorizing on maternal ethics.  Ethics of care is a feminist approach to ethics.  Some assumptions of the theory are basic: 1. Persons are understood to have varying degrees of dependence and interdependence on one another. 2. Other individuals affected by the consequences of one's choices deserve consideration in proportion to their vulnerability. 3. Situational details determine how to safeguard and promote the interests of those involved. C. The Three Main Strands of Virtue Ethics SHAEANA
  16. D. Concept of Virtue: Telos or the Ultimate End MANIPON
  17. D. Concept of Virtue: Telos or the Ultimate End According to Aristotle, happiness is the only end or good that we desire for its own sake, and it is for the sake of happiness that we desire all other ends or goods.  Greek term telos refers to what we might call a purpose, goal, end or true final function of an object. Telos refers to the fulfilment, completion or perfection of something and these ideas are involved in the notion of teleology.  happiness, for Aristotle, is an activity of the human soul in accordance with excellence and virtue, and it is manifested over an entire lifetime. MANIPON
  18. St. Thomas Aquinas’ Christian Ethics – Happiness as Man’s Ultimate End MARIE
  19.  Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) was an intellectual and religious revolutionary, living at a time of great philosophical, theological and scientific development. He was a member of the Dominican Friars, which at that time was considered to be a cult, and was taught by one of the greatest intellects of the age, Albert the Great (1208–1280). PRINCESS
  20. JUSTICE PRUDENCE TEMPERANCE COURAGE CARDINAL VIRTUES NATURAL HAPPINESS MANIPON
  21. FAITH HOPE LOVE OR CHARITY THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES SUPERNATURAL HAPPINESS MANIPON
  22. PERFECTS THE INTELLECT BESTOWS HIGHER LIGHT ON MIND ATTAINS TO TRUTH ABOUT GOD MAKE US LIKE THE DIVINE WORD FAITH MANIPON
  23. ELEVATES THE WILL TO TRUST IN GOD WE HOPE FOR UNION WITH GOD HIMSELF WE HOPE TO REACH HIM BY HIMSELF HOPE MANIPON
  24. ELEVATES THE WILL TO LOVE GOD LOVE GOD FOR HIS OWN SAKE AND ABOVE ALL MAKE US LIKE THE HOLY SPIRIT LOVE OR CHARITY MANIPON
  25. TOPICS A. Motivating Natural Law Theory: The Euthyphro Dilemma and Divine Command Theory B. Natural Law Theory C. St. Thomas Aquinas, Natural Law and the Common Good D. Thomas Aquinas Combined Reason and Faith E. Government and the “Common Good” F. The Principle of Double Effect PRINCESS
  26. A. Motivating Natural Law Theory: The Euthyphro Dilemma and Divine Command Theory The likely answer from a religious person as to why we should not steal, or commit adultery is: “because God forbids us”; or if we ask why we should love our neighbor or give money to charity then the answer is likely to be “because God commands it”. PRINCESS
  27.  Aquinas’s Natural Law Theory • Eternal Law, • Natural Law, • Human Law • Divine Law.  “Eternal Law’” Aquinas means God’s rational purpose and plan for all things. B. Natural Law Theory PRINCESS
  28.  Natural law does not generate an external set of rules that are written down for us to consult but rather it generates general rules that any rational agent can come to recognize simply in virtue of being rational  Aquinas gives some more examples of primary precepts:  Protect and preserve human life.  Reproduce and educate one’s offspring.  Know and worship God.  Live in a society. B. Natural Law Theory PRINCESS
  29.  Human Law which gives rise to what he calls “Secondary Precepts”. Secondary precepts are not generated by our reason but rather they are imposed by governments, groups, clubs, societies etc.  The Divine Law, which is discovered through revelation, should be thought of as the Divine equivalent of the Human Law (those discovered through rational reflection and created by people). Divine laws are those that God has, in His grace, seen fit to give us and are those “mysteries”, those rules given by God which we find in scripture; for example, the ten commandments. B. Natural Law Theory PRINCESS
  30. C. St. Thomas Aquinas, Natural Law and the Common Good MARIE
  31. C. St. Thomas Aquinas, Natural Law and the Common Good Before the time of Jesus, the Greeks developed concepts about how the world worked and human beings behaved.  St. Thomas Aquinas, a medieval Roman Catholic scholar, reconciled the political philosophy of Aristotle with Christian faith. In doing so, he contended that a just ruler or government must work for the "common good" of all.  Throughout his writings, Aristotle did not teach that the Greek gods or religion controlled the world and its people. Instead, his observations led him to conclude that nature was purposeful and driven by natural laws that human reason could discover. MARIE
  32. C. St. Thomas Aquinas, Natural Law and the Common Good  he meant that people were naturally destined to live in groups, which required some sort of ruler or government. According to Aristotle, only by living in a community "to secure the good life" could human beings achieve such virtues as courage, honesty, and justice. Aristotle concluded that the best government was one that "mixed" the features of oligarchy and democracy. MARIE
  33.  The rediscovery of Aristotle’s works with their sophisticated explanation of the world based on natural law and reason seemed to challenge the teachings of the Christian faith.  But some church scholars such as Albert the Great at the University of Paris thought it was possible to combine human reason and Christian faith. Thomas Aquinas, an Italian Roman Catholic theologian (religious scholar), devoted his life to this task. D. Thomas Aquinas Combined Reason and Faith MARIE
  34.  In 1245, Aquinas traveled to the University of Paris where a great debate was going on about Aristotle’s ideas. The young Aquinas studied under Albert the Great who sided with those who believed Aristotle’s view of the world was compatible with that of Christianity.  Aquinas came to think that one should believe only what is self-evident (e.g., human beings use reason) or can be deduced from self-evident propositions (e.g., human reason can discover truth). D. Thomas Aquinas Combined Reason and Faith MARIE
  35.  He continued to study the works of Aristotle and the Muslim commentaries on them.  Aquinas wrote his own commentaries on Aristotle, which included reasoned propositions based on certainties revealed by God. He also wrote summaries of Catholic doctrine that also attempted to combine reason and faith. D. Thomas Aquinas Combined Reason and Faith MARIE
  36. E. Government and the “Common Good”  Aquinas further observed that people tend to look only after their own self-interest. "Therefore," he concluded, "in every multitude there must be some governing power" to direct people toward the "common good."  Thus, Aquinas did not agree with St. Augustine that the main purpose of government was simply to keep the sinful in line. Aquinas saw government as also helping to work for the "common good" that benefits all. The common good included such things as protecting life, preserving the state, and promoting the peace. Aristotle would have called this "the good life." LIBERTY
  37. E. Government and the “Common Good”  Aquinas noted that when rulers make laws that violate natural law, they become "tyrants." Aquinas went on to conclude, "A tyrannical government is not just, because it is directed not to the common good, but to the private good of the ruler, as the Philosopher [Aristotle] says."  Aquinas further developed the meaning of "just war" that had been discussed by the Roman statesman Cicero and by St. Augustine. For a war to be just, there must be these three conditions:  A declaration by the ruler to defend the "common good" against enemies.  A "just cause" for an attack on an enemy "because they deserve it on account of some fault" such as avenging wrongs they have committed.  A "rightful intention" to advance good or avoid evil such as punishing evil-doers and not simply grabbing land or goods. LIBERTY
  38. F. The Principle of Double Effect The history of the principle of double effect dates at least as far back as the work of St. Thomas Aquinas. Although St. Thomas did not use the term "double effect" or refer to the principle, he used the concept in justifying killing in self-defense . LIBERTY
  39. F. The Principle of Double Effect  To make such a determination, one must analyze an action on the basis of four conditions; all of which must be met for the action to be morally justifiable. The conditions of the principle of double effect are the following: 1) The act-in-itself cannot be morally wrong or intrinsically evil. 2)The bad effect cannot cause the good effect. 3)The agent cannot intend the bad effect. 4)The bad effect cannot outweigh the good effect; there is a proportionate reason to tolerate the bad effect. LIBERTY
  40. THANK YOU!
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