2. A social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet
a need or to pursue collective goals. All organizations have
a management structure that determines relationships between
the different activities and the members, and subdivides
and assigns roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out
different tasks. Organizations are open systems--they affect and
are affected by their environment.
3. Benefits of Specialisation:
Under organising all the activities are subdivided into various works or
jobs. For all the sub works, competent people are appointed who become
experts by doing a particular job time and again. In this way, maximum
work is accomplished in the minimum span of time and the organisation
gets the benefit of specialisation.
Clarity in Working Relationship:
Organising clarifies the working relations among employees. It specifies
who is to report to whom. Therefore, communication becomes effective. It
also helps in fixing accountability.
4. Optimum Utilisation of Resources:
Under the process of organising the entire work is divided into various small
activities. There is a different employee performing every different job.
Consequently, there is optimum utilisation of all the available resources (e.g.,
material, machine, financial, human resource, etc.) in the organisation.
Adaptation to Change:
Organising process makes the organisation capable of adapting to any change
connected with the post of the employees. This becomes possible only because
of the fact that there is a clear scalar chain of authority for the manager’s right
from the top to the lower level.
It has generally been observed that there is always a condition of doubt about
the authority of the managers among themselves. The process of organising
makes a clear mention of each and every activity of every manager and also of
their extent of authority.
5. Development of Personnel:
Under the process of organising, delegation of authority is practiced. This is
done not because of the limited capacity of any individual, but also to
discover new techniques of work.
Expansion and Growth:
The process of organising allows the employees the freedom to take
decisions which helps them to grow. They are always ready to face new
challenges. This situation can help in the development of the enterprise.
This helps in increasing the earning capacity of the enterprise which in turn
helps its development.
6. 1. Principle of unity of objectives: Organizational goals, departmental goals,
and individual goals must be clearly defined. All goals and objectives must have
uniformity. When there is contradiction among different level of goals desired
goals can’t be achieved. Therefore, unity of objectives is necessary
2. Principle of specialization: Sound and effective organization believes on
organization. The term specialization is related to work and employees. When
an employee takes special type of knowledge and skill in any area, it is known
as specialization. Modern business organization needs the specialization, skill
and knowledge by this desired sector of economy and thus, efficiency would be
3. Principle of coordination: In an organization many equipment, tools are
used. Coordination can be obtained by group effort that emphasize on unity of
action. Therefore, coordination facilitates in several management concepts.
7. 4. Principle of authority: Authority is the kind of right and power through
which it guides and directs the actions of others so that the organizational goals
can be achieved. It is also related with decision making. It is vested in particular
position, not to the person because authority is given by an institution and
therefore it is legal. It generally flows from higher level to lowest level of
management. There should be unbroken line of authority.
5. Principle of responsibility: Authentic body of an organization is top level
management, top level management direct the subordinates. Departmental
managers and other personnel take the direction from top level management to
perform the task. Authority is necessary to perform the work .only authority is
not provided to the people but obligation is also provided. So the obligation to
perform the duties and task is known as responsibility. Responsibility can’t be
delegated. It can’t be avoided.
6. Principle of delegation: Process of transferring authority and creation of
responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish a certain task is
called delegation of authority. Authority is only delegated, not responsibilities
in all levels of management. The authority delegated should be equal to
8. 7. Principle of efficiency: In enterprise different resources are used.
Therese resources must be used in effective manner. When the organization
fulfill the objectives with minimum cost, it is effective. Organization must
always concentrate on efficiency.
8. Principle of unity of command: subordinates should receive orders
from single superior at a time and all subordinates should be accountable to
that superior. More superior leads to confusion, delay and so on.
9. Principle of span of control: unlimited subordinates cant be supervised
by manager, this principle thus helps to determine numerical limit if
subordinates to be supervised by a manager. This improves efficiency.
9. 10. Principle of balance: the functional activities their establishment and other
performances should be balanced properly. Authority, centralization,
decentralization must be balance equally. This is very challenging job but
efficient management must keep it.
11. Principle of communication: Communication is the process of
transformation of information from one person to another of different levels. It
involves the systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and
understanding opinions ideas, feelings, information, views etc, in flow of
information. Effective communication is important.
12. Principle of personal ability: for sound organization, human resources is
important. Employees must be capable. Able employees can perform higher.
Mainly training and development programs must be encouraged to develop the
skill in the employees.
10. Departmentalization is an aspect of organizational design that
includes the subdivision of a business into units based on their
function or other criteria. Most companies, including
restaurants, are likely to use two or more types of
departmentalization simultaneously. Some of the standard
methods of departmentalization include grouping jobs by
functional activities, product types, customer groups,
geography or location, processes, and chain of command.
11. Span of control is simply the number of staff that report to a manager. Some
companies also have an ideal span of control, which is the number of reports
they feel a manager can effectively manage. In this case, if a manager has fewer
reports than the ideal, they may feel he or she is not being effectively used,
while if he or she is handling more they may feel that the manager is over-
stretched and the reports will not receive enough direction.
What Are the Implications of the Span of Control?
The span of control of the average manager in an organization determines the
width of the organization as seen when viewing the organizational chart. Fewer
reports to the average manager will result in a taller organizational chart, with
more management positions relative to the number of individual contributors. A
higher number of reports to the average manager will result in a flatter or wider
chart, with fewer management positions relative to the number of individual
SPAN OF CONTROL
12. An organization is a social entity with collective goals that is
linked to an external environment. Most organizational
structures fall into one of four types: pyramids/hierarchies,
committees/juries, matrix organizations, and ecologies. From a
business perspective, the choice of organizational design has
substantial implications for strategy, authority distribution,
resource allocation, and functional approaches.
14. Authority is the right or power assigned to an executive or a manager in
order to achieve certain organizational objectives.
A manager will not be able to function efficiently without proper authority.
Authority is the genesis of organizational framework. It is an essential
accompaniment of the job of management. Without authority, a manager
ceases to be a manager, because he cannot get his policies carried out
through others. Authority is one of the founding stones of formal and
informal organisations. An Organisation cannot survive without authority. It
indicates the right and power of making decisions, giving orders and
instructions to subordinates. Authority is delegated from above but must be
accepted from below i.e. by the subordinates. In other words, authority
15. According to Henri Fayol, "Authority is the right to give
orders and the power to exact obedience."
According to Mooney and Reily, "Authority is the principle at
the root of Organisation and so important that it is impossible
to conceive of an Organisation at all unless some person or
persons are in a position to require action of others."
16. All activities are not performed by one person. Authority should be
provided to the subordinates too. Process of transferring authority and
creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish
a certain task is called delegation of authority. It can take place without
decentralization. It can be withdrawn by delegator at any time. It minimizes
the burden of managers of unit, departments or plant. Relationship is
between superior and immediate subordinates are indicated. It is technique
of management used to get the things done through others. It is confined to
manager and subordinates. Authority is only delegated, not responsibilities.
Very important to management process Control remains in hand of superior
who supervise the activities of subordinates. It is an art of management
science. When authority is not given to subordinates there is no
performance. Delegation is the process of sharing power and work (deliver
the power from one to another).