In India it is possible to
define six regions with
distinct climates. These are
designated as Hot and Dry,
Warm and Humid, Moderate,
Cold and Sunny, Cold and
Cloudy and Composite. The
criteria of allocating any
location in India to one of
the first five climate zones
are that the defined
conditions prevail for more
than six months. In cases
where none of these
categories can be identified
for six months or longer, the
climatic zone is called
Coastal areas in south India and hilly areas in
north east comes under this region.
Major cities having this climate are Goa,
Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata, Chennai,
High humidity, strong sun, glare from the sky
characterize this climate.
There are long monsoon periods with heavy
rain. But the breezes, especially in coastal
areas, can increase discomfort considerably.
7. High humidity, strong sun, glare from the sky,long monsoon
periods and horizon characterize this climate. But the
breezes, especially in coastal areas, can alleviate discomfort
The Padmanabhapuram Palace in Trivandrum, responds to
the climate with steep sloping high tiled roofs, with deep
eaves. The sides are open to the breeze, and air ventilates up
through the porous tile roofs.
Using open slatted or perforated timber screens on sides of
verandahs cuts out glare, ensures privacy but allows the
breeze flow across the rooms. Walls are white to reflect the
sun, and often completely shaded by the verandahs.
Cluster of buildings are managed by openness in planning.
9. HOT DRY
The desert climate , is a climate in which there is
an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The
typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert
climates hold little moisture and evaporate the
little rainfall they receive.
In these locations, stable descending air and high
pressure aloft create hot, arid, conditions with
intense sunshine. Hot desert climates are generally
hot, sunny and dry year-round.
12. Very high daytime temperatures, with very little precipitation
and a short and mild winter season characterize this climate.
High diurnal temperature variations are seen i.e Very hot day
and very cold at night. This is due to the rapid radiative heat
loss from the ground or the building to the clear night sky.
The desert town of Jaisalmer deals with this by building
homes that abut against each other, with the inner rooms
opening towards small courtyards and the front rooms
opening through screened openings towards narrow shaded
streets. This pattern minimizes the exposure of building
surfaces to the outside. The windows are small, because of
which the indoor temperature changes very little through the
day or night, staying close to a more comfortable daily mean
In summers,the day is hot, nights are cool, and people spend
time out on the roof terrace. humidity is low in the region.
This region receives strong winds during
monsoons from the south east and dry cold winds
from the north east.
In summer, the winds are hot and dusty.
The sky is overcast and dull in the monsoon, clear
in winter and frequently hazy in summer.
The presence of high humidity during monsoon
months is one of the reasons why places like New
Delhi and Nagpur are grouped under the
composite and not hot and dry climate.
17. New Delhi has a Composite climate. It has a very hot and dry
summer, followed by a humid season with monsoon rains.
With the departure of the monsoon it gradually becomes
comfortable in autumn, followed by a short winter with the
cloudy and wet as well as sunny periods. Before the summer
returns there is a comfortable but short spring season.
The Rang Mahal at the Red Fort royal palace has spaces
suitable for every season. Rooms have thick walls and small
openings for summer days and winter nights. Verandahs are
for evenings and mornings. There is a screened balcony that
will cut out the sun but enjoy the monsoon breeze during
the humid season.
Additionally, there is water stream flowing through the
middle and the screens and awnings that can be raised or
lowered to modulate temperature.
Regions that lie in the cold climate zone are
situated at high altitudes.
The temperature range between 20-30 degree
celcius in summers, while in winters it can range
from -3 to -8 degree celcius or less.
22. Leh in Ladakh is a "mountain desert." There is very
little precipitation and the temperatures vary greatly
between the day and night and also from summer to
winter. The traditional Ladhaki settlement is usually
built on steep slopes facing southward. This allows
good insolation during the day.
Heavy walls (mud) and a well insulated roof (timber &
mud) dampen the variations of indoor temperatures.
The use of glass and nowadays, trombe- wall is very
successful as heat can be stored in the building mass
during the day, to stay warm indoors at night.
26. Winters are prolonged and summers are short in this
climate. There is also a fair amount of precipitation-
snow or rain.
The traditional homes and villages of the sub -
Himalayan region are built on hill slopes for diffused
sunshine. The lower floor is occupied by cattle and
storage. The upper floor which is away from cold and
damp ground has the living rooms ,cooking area. In
order to benefit from the heat generated by it, low
timber ceiling provide insulation and conserve the
warmth. Windows face the sun.
The moderate climate has mild to warm summers
and cool winters.
It is a relatively comfortable climate, especially
near the coast, where summers are cooler and
winters warmer than further inland.
31. This is a climate example which is neither too hot, nor
too cold . All you need to do is be shaded and
insulated from direct sun, let in a little breeze when
you feel stuffy or warm: and shut the window if it is
chilly or wear some light woolens.
In Banglore, the ideal comfortable house is built of
heavy walls with high ceiling rooms, with windows
that you can shut and open, surrounded by a shade
High ceilings reduce the effect of heat that would
radiate down from the roof which would get hot
under the sun. This will also allow the warm air to rise
and escape through ventilators, high up in the walls.