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By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 1
Database Recovery
Techniques
Chapter 11
UNIT V
Data Base Management System
[DBMS]
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 2
Database Recovery
Purpose of Database Recovery:
• To bring the database into the last consistent...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 3
Database Recovery
Types of Failure:
The database may become unavailable for use due to
• Transac...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 4
Database Recovery
Data Update:
• Deferred Update: All modified data items in the cache is
writte...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 5
Recovery Techniques
Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update
(No Undo/Redo).
Recovery Tech...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 6
Recovery Techniques
Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update:
Deferred update techniques is...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 7
Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update
If a transaction fails before reaching its commit ...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 8
Deferred Update in a single-user system
Deferred Update in a single-user system:
There is no con...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 9
Deferred Update in a single-user system
(a) T1 T2
read_item (A) read_item (B)
read_item (D) writ...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 10
Deferred Update with concurrent users
Deferred Update with concurrent users:
This environment ...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 11
Deferred Update with concurrent users
T1
T3
T4
T5
system crash
Time
T2
t1 t2
checkpoint
Recover...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 12
Deferred Update with concurrent users
(a) T1 T2 T3 T4
read_item (A) read_item (B) read_item (A)...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 13
Two tables are required for implementing this protocol:
Active table: All active transactions ...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 14
Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update
Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update:
 ...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 15
Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update
Undo/Redo Algorithm (Single-user environment):
 ...
By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 16
Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update
Undo/Redo Algorithm (Concurrent execution):
 Rec...
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Dbms ii mca-ch11-recovery-2013

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Dbms ii mca-ch11-recovery-2013

  1. 1. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 1 Database Recovery Techniques Chapter 11 UNIT V Data Base Management System [DBMS]
  2. 2. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 2 Database Recovery Purpose of Database Recovery: • To bring the database into the last consistent state, which existed prior to the failure. • To preserve transaction properties (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability). Example: If the system crashes before a fund transfer transaction completes its execution, then either one or both accounts may have incorrect value. Thus, the database must be restored to the state before the transaction modified any of the accounts.
  3. 3. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 3 Database Recovery Types of Failure: The database may become unavailable for use due to • Transaction failure: Transactions may fail because of incorrect input, deadlock, incorrect synchronization. • System failure: System may fail because of addressing error, application error, operating system fault, RAM failure, etc. • Media failure: Disk head crash, power disruption, etc.
  4. 4. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 4 Database Recovery Data Update: • Deferred Update: All modified data items in the cache is written either after a transaction ends its execution or after a fixed number of transactions have completed their execution. • Immediate Update: As soon as a data item is modified in the cache, the disk copy is updated.
  5. 5. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 5 Recovery Techniques Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update (No Undo/Redo). Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update.
  6. 6. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 6 Recovery Techniques Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update: Deferred update techniques is to defer or postpone any actual updates to the database until the transaction completes its execution successfully, and reaches its commit point. A set of transactions records their updates in the log and cache buffers. After the transaction reaches its commit point and the log is force written to disk, the updates are recorded in the database.
  7. 7. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 7 Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update If a transaction fails before reaching its commit point, there is no need to undo any operations, because the transaction has not affected the database on disk. We can state a typical deferred update protocol as follow: A transaction cannot change the database on disk until it reaches its commit point. A transaction does not reach its commit point until all its update operations are recorded in the log and the log is forced written to disk.
  8. 8. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 8 Deferred Update in a single-user system Deferred Update in a single-user system: There is no concurrent data sharing in a single user system. The data update goes as follows:  A set of transactions records their updates in the log.  After the transaction reaches its commit point and the log is force written to disk, the updates are recorded in the database. After reboot from a failure the log is used to redo all the transactions affected by this failure.
  9. 9. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 9 Deferred Update in a single-user system (a) T1 T2 read_item (A) read_item (B) read_item (D) write_item (B) write_item (D) read_item (D) write_item (D) (b) [start_transaction, T1] [write_item, T1, D, 20] [commit T1] [start_transaction, T2] [write_item, T2, B, 10] [write_item, T2, D, 25] ← system crash The [write_item, …] operations of T1 are redone. T2 log entries are ignored by the recovery manager.
  10. 10. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 10 Deferred Update with concurrent users Deferred Update with concurrent users: This environment requires some concurrency control mechanism to guarantee isolation property of transactions. In a system recovery transactions which were recorded in the log after the last checkpoint were redone. The recovery manager may scan some of the transactions recorded before the checkpoint.
  11. 11. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 11 Deferred Update with concurrent users T1 T3 T4 T5 system crash Time T2 t1 t2 checkpoint Recovery in a concurrent users environment. Example: •When the checkpoint was taken at time t1, transaction T1 had committed, where as transactions T3 & T4 had not. • Before the system crash at time t2, T3 & T2 were committed but not T4 & T5. • According to RDU_M method, there is no need to redo the write_item operations of transaction T1. • Write_item operation of T2 & T3 must be redone because both transaction reached their commit point after the last check point. • Recall that the log is force-written before committing a transaction. • Transaction T4 & T5 are ignored. • They are effectively canceled or rolled back because none of their write_item operations were recorded in the database.
  12. 12. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 12 Deferred Update with concurrent users (a) T1 T2 T3 T4 read_item (A) read_item (B) read_item (A) read_item (B) read_item (D) write_item (B) write_item (A) write_item (B) write_item (D) read_item (D) read_item (C) read_item (A) write_item (D) write_item (C) write_item (A) (b) [start_transaction, T1] [write_item, T1, D, 20] [commit, T1] [checkpoint] [start_transaction, T4] [write_item, T4, B, 15] [write_item, T4, A, 20] [commit, T4] [start_transaction T2] [write_item, T2, B, 12] [start_transaction, T3] [write_item, T3, A, 30] [write_item, T2, D, 25] ← system crash T2 and T3 are ignored because they did not reach their commit points. T4 is redone because its commit point is after the last checkpoint.
  13. 13. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 13 Two tables are required for implementing this protocol: Active table: All active transactions are entered in this table. Commit table: Transactions to be committed are entered in this table. During recovery, all transactions of the commit table are redone and all transactions of active tables are ignored since none of them reached the database. It is possible that a commit table transaction may be redone twice but this does not create any inconsistency because of a redone is “idempotent. Deferred Update with concurrent users
  14. 14. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 14 Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update:  This technique, when a transaction issues an update command, the database can be updated “immediately” without any need to wait for the transaction to reach its commit point.  However an update operation must still be recorded in the log before it applied to the database.  Provision must be made for undoing the effect of update operations that have been applied to the database by a failed transaction.  This is accomplished by rolling back the transaction and undoing the effect of the transaction write_item operations.  If the recovery technique ensures that all updates of a transaction are recorded in the database on disk before the transaction commits, there is never a need to REDO any operation of committed transactions.
  15. 15. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 15 Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update Undo/Redo Algorithm (Single-user environment):  Recovery schemes of this category apply undo and also redo for recovery.  In a single-user environment no concurrency control is required but a log is maintained.  Note that at any time there will be one transaction in the system and it will be either in the commit table or in the active table. The recovery manager performs:  Undo of a transaction if it is in the active table.  Redo of a transaction if it is in the commit table.
  16. 16. By C.Aruna Devi(DSCASC) 16 Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update Undo/Redo Algorithm (Concurrent execution):  Recovery schemes of this category applies undo and also redo to recover the database from failure.  In concurrent execution environment a concurrency control is required and log is maintained.  Commit table records transactions to be committed and active table records active transactions.  To minimize the work of the recovery manager check pointing is used. The recovery performs:  Undo of a transaction if it is in the active table.  Redo of a transaction if it is in the commit table.

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