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"Green Wall" Project by Sergiy Smetana (Ukraine)

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Zheltokamenka quarry, with an active mining area of 82 hectares, has about 40 hectares of slope surfaces remaining after the extraction of limestone. Actual problem is the lack of suitable technologies for increasing biodiversity in such areas. Our project aims at formation of mobile biodiversity-enriched plant communities that are integrated into appropriate niches on the steep slopes of limestone quarries. Our approach is based on the technology of vertical farming, widely used in architecture. We propose to use microcommunities including rare plant species adapted to the harsh conditions of rocky walls without further support from people. "Green Wall" will consist of communities, planted on the shelves of quarry steep slopes.

This technology will trigger local villagers to perceive ""green walls"" of the quarry as an oasis in the mining lands, and not as destructed space for garbage dumping.

The project won the 1st Prize in National Quarry Life Award in 2014 in Ukraine.

Read more: http://www.quarrylifeaward.com/project/green-wall-project-proekt-zelenaya-stena

Publié dans : Environnement
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"Green Wall" Project by Sergiy Smetana (Ukraine)

  1. 1. “Green Wall” A biodiversity enhancement system in quarries during and after extraction Final Report Team leader: Olexiy Smetana Research group: Julia Jaroshuk, Sergiy Smetana, Alexander Dolina, Eugenia Golovenko, Denis Korzhov, Denis Rudjuk, Jaroslav Smetana, Olga Smetana Kryvyi Rih – 2014
  2. 2. Abstract. Authors performed an assessment of biodiversity restoration potential, based on own differentiation system of the quarry ecotopes. After selection of the ecotopes with critically low biodiversity restoration potential an innovative restoration technology was tested. It allows ecosystem creation on the walls with use of mountain climbing equipment, turf-sod lawn like carpets of steppe species and plant communities installation with accounting of lithogechemical flows. Then we performed an analysis of two traditional and “Green Wall” technology with Life Cycle Analysis in order to estimate their environmental performance. We estimated that combination of “Green Wall” technology with “mobile centers of biodiversity” formation is beneficial in terms of low impact on the environment and human health. SWOT approach identified sustainability advantages of proposed technology. Introduction. Constant movement of mining operations front creating specific problems for the preservation and development of existing biodiversity in quarries. Therefore, the suitable area for the restoration and increase of biodiversity lands is small, comparing to mined and agriculturally restored areas. Vertical walls of quarries, left after mining activities (temporarily and final), are one of the examples of such areas. Concept of mobile biodiversity centers application (previous version of competition) for the vertical ecotopes was the main idea of our project. The project tested a novel approach to mining areas enrichment with biodiversity in steep slopes and vertical walls. A new approach to biodiversity assessment in the scope of sustainable development was performed with the use of Life Cycle Analysis of mining lands restoration technologies. Industrial application of "Green Walls" would unite the unique habitat quarries with ecocorridors of river network. Use of this technology would provide the perception of quarries "Green Walls" as oases in disturbed lands, and not as solid waste dumping sites. Objectives. The main objective of the project "Green Wall": development and testing of technologies to increase biodiversity in quarries by creating sozologic valuable plant communities in the ecotopes of vertical walls and steep slopes of limestone quarries. Environmental objective: the transfer of threatened species and plant microcommunities, from areas planned for destruction by mining on the territory of Krivoy Rog region. The social goal was to create an aesthetically attractive spot in the quarry to increase its value as an element of industrial tourism. Educational objective: to familiarize the public with challenges of biodiversity destruction in mining areas and ways to solve them. During the project, following tasks were solved: 1. Analysis of habitat differentiation of quarry territory; a. Assessment of spontaneous recovery potential of biological diversity in different ecotopes; b. Determination of ecotopes with critically low biodiversity restoration potential; 2. Development and pilot testing of technologies to build plants communities in ecotopes with critically low potential for restoration; a. Evaluation of the results of “mobile centers of biodiversity restoration technology”; 3. Comparative analyses of life cycle and sustainable development of traditional and innovative technologies of mining lands restoration. Background information. Zheltokamenka quarry (Ukraine) with an active area of 82 hectares of mining operations has about 40 hectares of slope surfaces (Appendix. Quarry schemes). The surface area of quarries slopes ranges between 30-40% for unconsolidated sediments, and 40-50% for the rocky areas. Large areas in the form of slopes remain after the extraction of limestone. It is a problem that mining company faces due to lack of appropriate technology to increase biodiversity on steep slopes. Created the "Green Wall" (70 m in length, 7.10 m height, coordinates 47.793024, 33.826174) reveals the possibilities for the biodiversity restoration in such areas.
  3. 3. During the project the „Green Wall“ was visited by students, geologists, mountain climbers from sports club "Everest" and the Federation of Mountain Climbing "Krivbassalp", cyclists from public organization "Velokrivbass", amateur cycling and social active residents of Krivoy Rog. Methods. In order to solve the tasks of the project we use an extensive amount of scientific and practical methods (Fig. 1.). Fig. 1. Grouping of project methods At the stage of preliminary studies we used a simplified approach for the analysis of habitats differentiation. Based on the results we performed habitat differentiation analysis in the quarry; assessment of spontaneous recovery potential of biodiversity; and estimation of ecotopes with critically low potential. On the basis of the obtained data we created a 3-D map of Zheltokamenka quarry and allocation schemes with biodiversity restoration potential of different ecotopes. 3-D map was created using a geographic information system K-MINE, courtesy of PE "KRIVBASSAKADEMINVEST." Seeding and planting field work was performed from April to August, 2014. We considered following characteristics for the selection of plant communities and individual species: the degree of drought resistance, humidity and soil salinity. Plant communities with lichen and moss components were excavated and transported with substrate to the installation area. Additionally seeds of cereal steppe species were used for additional seeding practices. "Green Wall" consists of plant communities located in different positions of the relief (Appendix. Fig.1): 1. "steppe plateau" with plant communities belonging to the class of current and rocky steppes (Steppa genuina); 2. "rocky edge" with vegetation of stony limestone steppes (Steppa petrosa); 3. "shelves and ledges" with petrophytic and calcium-petrophytic communities (Petrophyton); 4. "alluvial parts" with mega-trophic vegetation (Prata salina). "Green Wall" is designed to vitalize areas in working quarries. One of the solutions to make it possible was the use of turf-lawns technology with reinforcing mesh. This way we were able to install the sods with braided turf grasses and shrubs. Such approach allows parcels transfer to another place without damaging formed community. This way it is possible to start a new process
  4. 4. of biodiversity revival through seed dispersal, vegetative reproduction, etc. It is an innovative technology, which wasn’t previously used. Therefore, it needs additional testing in field before application on industrial scale. We tried to use all conditions of the slope to create a fully self-sustaining system. That’s why we set a plants “bank” – a productive steppe ecosystem above the wall. Our previous experience indicated that such ecosystems are the best adapted to the harsh dry condition and serve as the source of seed material. The seeds from this area are distributed with water and air flows along the slope and talus. We filled the cracks in the rocks with fertile soil. Thus the flows of water would carry mineral and organic substances to the plants on the slope and below it. Green walls were created with the use of plant micro-communities, composed of xerophyte species, on the shelves and ledges of the steep slope (Appendix. Table 1). We installed initial micro-ecosystems (steppe turf sods) on the shelves of the slopes. In order to complete this task we used mountain climbing equipment following all the safety rules, prescribed in such situations. At the diluvia part and rocky edge of the slope we planted seedlings of wild grapes (Parthenocíssus quinquefolia Michx) and hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which would ensure rapid growth of green biomass and creation of favorable climate for the growth of other species. Team members monitored and evaluated life condition of the plants with classical botanical methods over the spring and summer 2014. The rating included plant height, number of leaves, number of vegetative and generative shoots and inflorescences. We used 3-point scale: 1 point – plants with the lowest indicators of these parameters, 2 points – medium developed species, 3 points – well-developed plants (Османова, 2005; 2009). Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) of restoration technologies. Comparative sustainability assessment of restoration technologies is based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) approach. It is a multidisciplinary integration framework that aims to evaluate all environmental, social and economic impacts and benefits in the context of decision making processes on selection and evaluation of a more sustainable product or technology (Finkbeiner, Schau, Lehmann, & Traverso, 2010; Guinée et al., 2011; Kloepffer, 2008; Zamagni, Pesonen, & Swarr, 2013). It combines the use and results of environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA), life cycle costing (LCC) and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA). By combining different assessment methods, it is possible to analyze also interconnections between the three pillars of sustainability, and the impacts related to different levels of action (product, technology, society). E-LCA is a well-established and standardized method for evaluating the environmental impacts of products as well as LCC research is going on for years. The methods of LCSA and S- LCA are rather new, and still in the development phase (Finnveden et al., 2009; Guinée et al., 2011; Jørgensen, Bocq, Nazarkina, & Hauschild, 2008; Jørgensen, 2012; Karina, Ramirez, Petti, & Sciences, 2011; Lehmann, Zschieschang, Traverso, Finkbeiner, & Schebek, 2013). The E-LCA in the present project followed main guidelines of the ILCD Handbook and the ISO standards 14040-14044 (without a critical review as the results are not intended for specific product environmental profile public revealing). According to the ISO 14040, the four stages of an LCA are: (1) Goal and Scope Definition, (2) LCI (Life Cycle Inventory), (3) Life Cycle Inventory Analysis, and (4) Interpretation (Environmental management e life cycle assessment. European Standard EN ISO 14040 and 14044, 2006). Economic assessment in this project is evaluated from the position of relative economic comparison of restoration technologies in order to provide related data for the sustainability matrix. Social impact assessment based on UNEP/SETAC guidelines provided data about the socially best performing restoration strategy (Jørgensen, 2012; UNEP-SETAC, 2009). Since the S- LCA methodology is still in the development phase, qualitative analysis and methods applied in the field of social impact assessment will be used as complementary methods (if needed). Impact of mining restoration technologies analyzed with a the use of E-LCA approach performed according to the guidelines of UNEP-SETAC (Koellner et al., 2013), which refers to
  5. 5. the biodiversity as a function of land use impacts (Lavorel et al., 2007; Souza et al., 2013). The results of comparative sustainability assessment of mining restoration technologies applicable for limestone quarries were analyzed in sustainability matrix (Finkbeiner et al., 2010). Team members are represented by the activists of NGO DOGO "Alliance of sustainable development" and volunteers from: Krivoy Rog National University, National University of Bioresources and Environmental Sciences, Krivoy Rog Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine, PE "KRIVBASSAKADEMINVEST", Krivoy Rog branch of the Ukrainian Soil Science Society. We also received moral and technical support from public organizations – GO "Velokrivbass", Mountain Climbing Federation "Krivbassalp," sports club "Everest". Seafety and financial support of quarry works was provided by Heidelbergcement. Results. The main result of our project is the establishment of a major center of biodiversity in Zheltokamenka quarry. It is created with the use of proposed by us technology "Green Wall" and composed of steppe sozologic valuable species. Species diversity of quarry vegetation, therefore, increased by more than 30 species. New elements of habitat diversity are: "Steppe plateau" with plant communities belonging to the class of real and rocky steppes (Steppa genuina); "Rocky edge" with vegetation of stony limestone steppes (Steppa petrosa); "Shelves and ledges" with communities and petrophytes calcium-petrophytes (Petrophyton); "Talus part" with megatrophic vegetation (Prata salina). The results of short-term observations of the plants and degree of their adaptation to the new conditions are given in Table 1. Analysis of ecotopes differentiation is a prerequisite for the development of biodiversity enhancement technology in quarries. We analyzed ecotopes of quarry active area, where we differentiated ecotopes according to: - the forms of relief (flat areas; slope areas); - lithochemical characteristic of substrates (with brown clay; with loess substrates; with limestone rocks; calc-argillaceous rocks; filled with chernozem; with loess loam); - the extent and nature of vegetation (disjunctive unformed pioneer vegetation; secondary pioneer vegetation; advanced mosaic mesophyte vegetation; mosaic xerophyte demutational vegetation; secondary demutational steppe vegetation; spontaneous growth of forest vegetation; without higher plants). According to the selected characteristics and with the use of the results obtained from Zheltokamenka quarry we identified 13 main types of ecotopes: (1) of flat areas within the active part of quarry; (2) of slope areas within the active part of quarry; (3) of flat areas with brown clay and disjunctive unformed pioneer vegetation; (4) of slope areas with brown clay and disjunctive unformed pioneer vegetation; (5) of flat areas with loess substrates and secondary pioneer vegetation; (6) of slope areas with loess substrates and secondary pioneer vegetation; (7) with limestone and clays substrates and developed mosaic mesophyte vegetation; (8) with limestones and critically low level of biodiversity restoration; (9) with limestone and clay and mosaic demutational xerophyte vegetation; (10) of transferred chernozem and secondary demutational steppe vegetation; (11) of flat areas with loam without vegetation; (12) of slope areas with loam without vegetation; (13) with limestone and clay and spontaneous growth of forest vegetation. The slection of ecotopes became the basis for the creation of Zheltokamenka quarry habitat differentiation map (Fig. 2). It is created with a three-dimensional model of the quarry. The map is a basis for the development of strategies to enhance biodiversity in the quarry. Ecotopes of flat areas in active (or temporarily unactive) quarry part occupy the largest areas. In the post active (excavated) part of quarry the prevailing ecotopes are ones with limestone and clay with spontaneous forest growths and flat areas with loam without vegetation. Limestone walls and steep slopes ecotopes with critically low potential of biological diversity development occupy a significant part of the area. These areas were given the biggest attention from our side. In order to fight the harsh conditions and increase biodiversity in these areas we implemented a “Green Wall” technology.
  6. 6. Table 1. Results of short-term observations for the condition of plants and their adaptation to the conditions of steep slopes # Species Survival rate, % Seasonal development rhythms correspondence Adaptation points 1 Astragalus odessanus Besser. 90 + 2 2 Astragalus ucrainicus M.Popov & Klokov 80 + 2 3 Astragálus dasyánthus Pall. 55 + 2 4 Vinca herbacea Waldst. & Kit. 95 + 3 5 Parthenocíssus quinquefolia Michx 90 + 2 6 Genīsta scȳthica Pacz 65 + 2 7 Téucrium pólium L. 80 + 2 8 Téucrium chamaédrys L. 80 + 2 9 Rubus caesius var. turkestanicus Regel 50 – 1 10 Iris pumila L. 75 + 3 11 Caragána scýthica (Kom.) Pojark. 75 + 1 12 Stipa lessingiana Trin. & Rupr. 90 + 3 13 Stípa capilláta L. 90 + 3 14 Holósteum umbellátum L. 85 + 3 15 Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad. 90 + 3 16 Crinitaria villosa L. 85 + 3 17 Potentilla arenaria Borkh. 75 + 2 18 Sempervivum ruthenicum 75 + 2 19 Amygdalus nana L. 85 + 3 20 Sempervivum ruthenicum Schnittsp. & C.B.Lehm. 80 + 3 21 Poa compressa L. 85 + 2 22 Póa angustifólia L. 75 + 2 23 Festuca valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin 60 + 2 24 Festuca rubra L. 55 + 2 25 Festuca ovina L. 65 + 2 26 Carex melanostachya Bieb. ex Willd. 90 + 2 27 Sédum ácre L. 90 + 2 28 Sedum album L. 85 + 2 29 Artemisia austriaca Less. 60 + 2 30 Agrostis stolonifera L. 60 + 2 31 Galium volhynicum Pobed 45 – 1 32 Chamaecytisus graniticus (Rehmann) Rothm. 75 + 2 33 Humulus lupulus L. 30 – 1 34 Ephedra distachya L. 40 + 1 In the assessment of biodiversity restoration potential in ecotopes of Zheltokamenka quarry we were based on the intensity of limiting factors of the environment, types of energy and matter exchanges and "pressure of life" – the ability of plants and animals from adjacent territories to occupy the area. Analysis of the habitat differentiation map (Fig. 2) and the application of evaluation criteria of ectopic potential revealed that the high potential of biodiversity spontaneous recovery in ecotopes of flat areas with loess substrates with formed pioneer vegetation; ecotopes of depressions with calcareous and argillaceous substrates with mosaic mesophytic vegetation, and ecotopes of chernozem hills with secondary demutational steppe vegetation.
  7. 7. Legend: Color Relief and lithochemistry Vegetation Biodiversity restoration potential Flat areas of active part of quarry absent low Slope areas of active part of quarry absent low Flat areas with brown clays disjunctive unformed pioneer low Slope areas with brown clays disjunctive unformed pioneer low Flat areas with loess substrates secondary pioneer high Slope areas with loess substrates secondary pioneer medium Depressions with limestones and clays developed mosaic mesophyte high Walls and steep slopes made of salted limestones absent critically low Flat areas with limestones and clays mosaic demutational xerophyte medium Hills with transferred chernozem secondary demutational steppe high Flat areas with loams absent low Slope areas with loams absent low Flat areas with chipped limestones and clays spontaneous forest growth medium Fig. 2. Map of ecotope differentiation of Zheltokamenka quarry (exploited part)
  8. 8. Medium biodiversity restoration potential was found in ecotopes of slope areas with loess substrates with pioneer zonal vegetation. We indicated the same level of potential for ecotopes of flat areass with limestones and clay with mosaic xerophyte demutational vegetation and of flat areas with clastic limestone and clay with spontaneous forest vegetation. Ecotopes with a low potential of biodiversity restoration occupy the biggest part of the quarry. Those are of flat and slope areas of active quarry without vegetation, and slope areas with brown clay with formed pioneer disjunctive vegetation, as well as flat and slope areas with loams without vegetation. In the scheme we separately indicated areas with critically low level and potential of biodiversity restoration. Those are ecotopes of walls and steep slopes, consisting of saline limestone, without vegetation. Fig. 3. LCA results of technologies comparison (3 year period) Environmental impact of restoration technologies we compared with the use of LCA techniques. We reviewed three most common in for the conditions scenarios of restoration: (1) agricultural, (2) forest creation and (3) biodiversity enhancement (one implemented by our team). The technologies were analyzed in two cases: (1) installation for 3 years, when area preparation is performed (transportation of fertile soil, surface flattening, ploughing, fertilization, etc.) and ecosystem is formed; (2) installation and following 17 years of maintenance of the territory. This way we reviewed potential future impact caused by one or another technology. In each case we analyzed 1 ha area, but in case of (3) biodiversity enhancement also was included the steep (up to 90°) slope („Green Wall“). It is assumed that in traditional scenarios (1) and (2) this feature remained without treatment. Results indicate that traditional restoration technologies (1) and (2) have higher environmental impact during the installation (Fig. 3) due to the need to transport almost three times more fertile soil and is further flattering with bulldozer. In scenario (3) fertile soil is transported and distributed in piles with a mining truck. While in most cases traditional scenarios (1) and (2) have twice and three times higher impacts (Fig. 3), scenario (2) is characterized as equal to scenario (3) for ecosystem quality impact. It is explained with higher use of lands (Fig.4) and irrigation used for plants growing and seeds harvesting in scenario (3). 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 1_agri_installation 2_forest_installation 3_biod_installation Pt Comparing 1 ha 3 year installation restoration techniques; Method: IMPACT 2002+ V2.11 / IMPACT 2002+ / Single score Mineral extraction Non-renewable energy Global warming Land occupation Terrestrial acid/nutri Terrestrial ecotoxicity Aquatic ecotoxicity Respiratory organics Ozone layer depletion Ionizing radiation Respiratory inorganics Non-carcinogens Carcinogens
  9. 9. Fig. 4. Categories analysis of restoration technologies LCA (3 year period) Maintenance of the area for 17 years didn’t change the distribution of results (Fig. 5). It increased the impact of traditional agricultural restoration (1) dramatically to 11 Pt (1 kPt equal to annual environmental impact of one European) due to the intensive application of agricultural practices (ploughing, planting, fertilization, harvesting). Discussion. In order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of proposed and tested “Green Wall” technology we performed a SWOT analysis (Table 2). The strengths of our technology is the ability to be applicable for the areas, where other technologies are not effective (steep slopes and walls). Moreover, the benefits of the method, analyzed with LCA approach, are in incensement of biodiversity potential, while having limited environmental impact and medium level of economic and social benefits, comparing to the traditional approaches. Among the weaknesses of the method are the limitations for the application only with steep slopes. However, in previous version of Quarry Life Award our team successfully tested idea of transportable biodiversity centers application. There is a need to select specific types of species, which can sustain harsh growing conditions. Therefore, the application of proposed technology requires united efforts from mining engineers and ecology professionals. 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 Human health Ecosystem quality Climate change Resources Pt Comparing 1 ha 3 year installation restoration techniques; Method: IMPACT 2002+ V2.11 / Weighting 1_agri_installation 2_forest_installation 3_biod_installation 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 Pt Comparing 1 ha 3 year installation restoration techniques; Method: IMPACT 2002+ V2.11 / IMPACT 2002+ / Weighting 1_agri_installation 2_forest_installation
  10. 10. Proposed technology is applicable in practice and could be applied to the range of steep slope quarries (open mining technologies) both in active quarries and post-mining conditions. There is a range of limestone, granite and metal ores quarries, where the application of such technology is possible. Fig. 5. LCA results of technologies comparison (20 year period) Table 2. SWOT-analysis of Green Wall technology efficiency SWOT Analysis Positive influence Negative influence Internal The project aims not only to study but also to increase the biological diversity of the quarry; The ability to transfer created biodiversity centers in case mining continue on the area of “Green Wall” installation; Rare plants protection by replanting them from areas designated for mining; Biodiversity enhancement in localities with the lowest restoration potential, where the process of spontaneous restoration is complicated with environmental factors and significantly extended in time. Inability to perform work without adequate training of staff, as well as specialized climbing equipment; Distance transportation of planting material from the excavation site to the planting area. External Universal technology for all fields with an open mining of mineral formation and hard rock substrates. Inability to provide timely and adequate moisture for planted vegetation due to the lack of appropriate technical solutions; Risk of low plants survival under the influence of natural factors: climate, relief, substrate, etc. Our project is a subject to the threads from external regional and global economic, social and environmental processes. Obviously the effectiveness of the technology depends on such factors 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1_agri_maintenance 2_forest_maintenance 3_biod_maintenance Pt Comparing 1 ha 20 years installlation and maintenance; Method: IMPACT 2002+ V2.11 / IMPACT 2002+ / Single score Resources Climate change Ecosystem quality Human health
  11. 11. as environmental vision of local communities, which can practically destroy the wall with waste dumping. Climate change, extreme weather conditions may also effect the development of the ecosystem dramatically. Results of E-LCA allowed us to estimate the environmental impact of the restoration scenarios and determine that “Transportable biodiversity centers” and “Green Wall” technologies have a better performance comparing to other technologies. Biodiversity scenario (3) also has lower financial costs for the restoration than technologies (1) and (2). At the same time, tested by us technology is not oriented on brining direct economic benefit; however the creation of unique recreation area is possible. Based on literature data and own observations the other technologies of restoration (1) and (2) are also not beneficial in terms of biodiversity enrichment. Agricultural restoration technologies having the worst environmental impact are usually the most economically beneficial and costly. At the same time the advantages of their utilization for local communities are vague due to the environmental influence. Forest restoration technology (2) is characterized with medium level impacts and benefits in all the domains of sustainability (Table 3). It has lower costs of maintenance, lower environmental impacts, but higher biodiversity enrichment potential than agricultural restoration (1). It also has a potential to bring positive effect for the community through the ecosystem services as park area. Direct economic effect may be acquired through the park area charges and wood realization. Table 3. Sustainability matrix analysis of mining restoration technologies Restoration scenarios Sustainability domains Economy Society (local communities) Environment Biodiversity Agricultural Forest creation Biodiversity enhancement Conclusions. The analysis of habitat differentiation within Zheltokamenka quarry highlighted 13 major types of ecotopes. The analysis of biodiversity potential distribution showed that ecotopes with critically low potential are vertical walls and steep slopes, formed with saline limestone. Testing the technology of ecosystems formation (“Green Wall”) showed positive results and high adaptive capacity of petrophyte plant species. Installation of microcommunities rather than individual plants allowed to "smooth transplant crisis" for most species. Analysis of life cycle (LCA) performed for comparative evaluation of traditional versus proposed by us biodiversity restoration technologies revealed the advantage "Green Wall", and "Mobile biodiversity centers" approaches. They are especially beneficial in terms of impacts on the environment and human health. SWOT-analysis showed that the advantage of the proposed technology compared with the traditional approach is the limited impact on the environment, medium level of economic and social benefits. The weak points of the method are the limitations of the "Green Wall" application technology on steep slopes only, as well as the need to choose specific types of plants and plant communities that can withstand the harsh conditions of the habitat. Thus, the use of the proposed technology requires the combined efforts of mining engineers and environmental specialists.
  12. 12. Appendix. Table 1. Plant species used for „Green Wall“ creation # Species Steppe plateau Rocky edge Shelves and ledges Diluvia 1 Astragalus odessanus Besser. + 2 Astragalus ucrainicus M.Popov & Klokov + 3 Astragálus dasyánthus Pall. + 4 Vinca herbacea Waldst. & Kit. + + + 5 Parthenocíssus quinquefolia Michx + + + + 6 Genīsta scȳthica Pacz + + 7 Téucrium pólium L. + + + 8 Téucrium chamaédrys L. + + + 9 Rubus caesius var. turkestanicus Regel + 10 Iris pumila L. + + 11 Caragána scýthica (Kom.) Pojark. + 12 Stipa lessingiana Trin. & Rupr. + + 13 Stípa capilláta L. + 14 Holósteum umbellátum L. + + 15 Kochia prostrata (L.) Schrad. + + 16 Crinitaria villosa L. + + 17 Potentilla arenaria Borkh. + + + 18 Sempervivum ruthenicum + + + 19 Amygdalus nana L. + 20 Sempervivum ruthenicum Schnittsp. & C.B.Lehm. + + + 21 Poa compressa L. + + 22 Póa angustifólia L. + + 23 Festuca valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin + + + 24 Festuca rubra L. + 25 Festuca ovina L. + 26 Carex melanostachya Bieb. ex Willd. + 27 Sédum ácre L. + + 28 Sedum album L. + + 29 Artemisia austriaca Less. + + + 30 Agrostis stolonifera L. + 31 Galium volhynicum Pobed + 32 Chamaecytisus graniticus (Rehmann) Rothm. + + 33 Humulus lupulus L. + 34 Ephedra distachya L. + + 35 Marrubium praecox Janka +
  13. 13. Quarry Schemes. Main scheme of the quarry – basis for ecotopes differentiation model. Elements of the quarry are marked with different colors. Experimental site three-dimensional scheme. Elements of relief are marked with different colors.
  14. 14. Fig. 1 – 1. Plateau, 2. Rocky edge, 3. Shelves and ledges, 4. Dilluvia. Fig. 2, 3 – Planting material and its preparation for the installation on the wall (April, 2014) 1 2 3 4
  15. 15. Fig. 3,4 – Site preparation and installation (April, 2014) Fig. 5,6 – Steppe site installation (April, 2014) Fig. 7-10 – Additional seedlings installation and seeding of steppe herbs and bushes (May, June 2014)
  16. 16. Fig. 11,12 – Irrigation (May, 2014) Fig. 13,14 – Slope and steppe plateau (May, 2014)
  17. 17. Fig. 15-18 – Steppe plateau and slope (May, June 2014)
  18. 18. Fig. 19-20 – Hops and grapes in the alluvial part (May, 2014) Фото 19-20 – Hops and grapes in the alluvial part (June, 2014) Fig. 21, 22 – Steppe area (August, September 2014)
  19. 19. Bicycle Tour to the Quarry
  20. 20. References. Environmental management e life cycle assessment. European Standard EN ISO 14040 and 14044. (2006). Geneva. Finkbeiner, M., Schau, E. M., Lehmann, A., & Traverso, M. (2010). Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment. Sustainability, 2(10), 3309–3322. doi:10.3390/su2103309 Finnveden, G., Hauschild, M. Z., Ekvall, T., Guinée, J., Heijungs, R., Hellweg, S., … Suh, S. (2009). Recent developments in Life Cycle Assessment. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(1), 1–21. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.06.018 Guinée, J. B., Heijungs, R., Huppes, G., Zamagni, A., Masoni, P., Buonamici, R., … Rydberg, T. (2011). Life cycle assessment: past, present, and future. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(1), 90–6. doi:10.1021/es101316v Jørgensen, A. (2012). Social LCA – a way ahead. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18, 296–299. Jørgensen, A., Bocq, A. Le, Nazarkina, L., & Hauschild, M. (2008). Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment, 13(2), 96–103. Karina, P., Ramirez, S., Petti, L., & Sciences, E. (2011). Social life cycle assessment: methodological and implementation issues, 11(1), 11–17. Kloepffer, W. (2008). Life cycle sustainability assessment of products. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 13(2), 89–95. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1065/lca2008.02.376 Koellner, T., Baan, L., Beck, T., Brandão, M., Civit, B., Margni, M., … Müller-Wenk, R. (2013). UNEP-SETAC guideline on global land use impact assessment on biodiversity and ecosystem services in LCA. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(6), 1188–1202. doi:10.1007/s11367-013-0579-z Lavorel, S., Grigulis, K., McIntyre, S., Williams, N. S. G., Garden, D., Dorrough, J., … Bonis, A. (2007). Assessing functional diversity in the field – methodology matters! Functional Ecology, 071124124908001–??? doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2007.01339.x Lehmann, A., Zschieschang, E., Traverso, M., Finkbeiner, M., & Schebek, L. (2013). Social aspects for sustainability assessment of technologies—challenges for social life cycle assessment (SLCA). The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. doi:10.1007/s11367-013-0594-0 Souza, D. M., Flynn, D. F. B., DeClerck, F., Rosenbaum, R. K., Melo Lisboa, H., & Koellner, T. (2013). Land use impacts on biodiversity in LCA: proposal of characterization factors based on functional diversity. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(6), 1231– 1242. doi:10.1007/s11367-013-0578-0 Swarr, T. E. (2009). Societal life cycle assessment—could you repeat the question? The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 14(4), 285–289. doi:10.1007/s11367-009- 0088-2
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