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FINAL REPORT ON PROJECT “QUARRY RIBNICA IN FUNCTION OF CONSERVATION OF RARE AND THREATENED FLORISTIC GENPOOL IN BOSNIA ...
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In Bosnia and Herzegovina there are a number of centres of endemism that include river gorges, canyons and mountain pea...
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In the investigated area climax vegetation are mesophyllous broadleaved-deciduous woods with ass. Querco-Carpinetum bet...
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The Ellenberg indicator values for plants were used in order to make an ecogram (Ellenberg, 1979) for plant community i...
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Figure 3 – Collection of plants in the field Figure 4 – Natural habitat of Edraianthus graminifolius 
After collection,...
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This activity was mainly realized as a part of practical work for the diploma thesis of final year student of ecology, ...
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3. RESULTS 
The phytocoenologcal analysis has shown that in pilot plot was developed community of the alliance Epilobio...
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In the botanical garden were introduced 41 plant species which were selected from literature for the project. The perce...
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5. REFERENCES 
AUSTIN, M.P. & T. M. SMITH., 1989: A new model for the continuum concept. Vegetatio 83, 35-47. 
BGCI, 20...
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APPENDIX I 
Tabel 1 – Overview of sampling localities and plants introduced in the botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” 
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Sedum acre L. 
* 
* 
* 
* 
Sedum montanum E. P. Perrier et Songeon 
* 
* 
* 
* 
Sedum boloniense Loisel. 
* 
* 
* 
* 
...
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APPENDIX II – Pictures of plants introduced in the botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” 
Dianthus integer Visiani 
Dianth...
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Thymus bracteosus Vis. ex Benth. 
Teucrium chamaedrys L. 
Saxifraga coryophylla Griseb. 
Onosma stellulata Waldst. et ...
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Iris bosniaca G. Beck 
Iris illyrica Tomm. 
Edraianthus tenuifolius (Waldst. et Kit.) A. DC. 
Edraianthus graminifoliu...
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Sedum acre L. 
Sedum boloniense Loisel. 
Corydalis leiosperma P. Conrath 
Sempervivum tectorum L. 
Sempervivum heuffel...
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Sempervivum schlehanii Schott. 
Artemisia alba Turra 
Veronica austriaca L. subsp. orbiculata (A. Kern) K. Maly 
Geran...
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Campanula balcanica (Adamović) Hruby pro parte 
Sesleria ujhelyii Strgar 
Galium purpureum L. 
Epilobium rosmarinifoli...
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Quarry Ribnica in function of conservation of rare and threatened floristic genpool in Bosnia and Hercegovina by Sabina Trakic

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This project refers to restoration and rehabilitation of quarry Ribnica by establishment of botanical garden of rare, threatened or endemic flora contained within vegetation of rock crevices and screes. Project will be performed in several phases:

- precise determination of ecological demands for endemic plants living amid rocks based on georeferenced phytoecological data of vegetation in rock crevices and screes;
- defining area of quarry Ribnica in terms of ecological conditions and by means of predictive vegetation modelling, in order to recognize microlocations within quarry which match ecological niche of designated plants;
- activities regarding establishment of botanical garden (collection of herbal material in natural habitats, transfer into previously defined locations of quarry Ribnica, inventory and monitoring of flora in the quarry in order to achieve garden's sustainability).

Aims of project:

- restoration of open rocky ground in the quarry Ribnica
- preservation and improvement of rare, threatened or endemic flora by means of ex situ conservation
- creation of space for scientific research and education
- raising of ecological awareness in local community

The project won the 1st Prize in National Quarry Life Award in 2014 in Bosnia and Hercegovina.

Read more: http://www.quarrylifeaward.com/project/quarry-ribnica-function-conservation-rare-and-threatened-floristic-genpool-bh-kamenolom

Publié dans : Environnement
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Quarry Ribnica in function of conservation of rare and threatened floristic genpool in Bosnia and Hercegovina by Sabina Trakic

  1. 1. 1 FINAL REPORT ON PROJECT “QUARRY RIBNICA IN FUNCTION OF CONSERVATION OF RARE AND THREATENED FLORISTIC GENPOOL IN BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA” SUBMITTED TO THE INTERNATIONAL JURY OF THE“QUARRY LIFE AWARD” CONTEST prepared by: mr. sci Sabina Trakid (team leader) Project team: PhD Samir Đug, PhD Nusret Dreškovid, Velida Durmid MA, Amra Husika September, 2014. Abstract As a part of the contest “Quarry Life Award” that was organized by the company HeidelbergCement Kakanj, in the quarry Ribnica at Kakanj city, the project of establishment of botanical garden with rare and threatened flora from Bosnia and Herzegovina was completed. The basic idea of the project is to provide a solution for the restoration of the quarry area, after extraction in the quarry terminates, in a way that should be environmentally efficient, long term sustainable, and to represent a special contribution to the conservation of biodiversity at all levels. The project was implemented through extensive field research and practical work, and based on a detailed analysis of the literature records on vegetation that inhabits rock crevices and screes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as a natural equivalent to the habitat types in the quarries. The project resulted in establishment of a botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” with a surface of cca. 100 m2 and 41 introduced plant species. Introduced species are of special conservation interest for Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the recent expert assessment, the number and distribution area of their populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina decreases due to habitat loss. The botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” at Kakanj city is a unique example of ex situ conservation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1.0. INTRODUCTION Removal of vegetation and continuous extraction of parent material at the quarries, results in creation of open habitats, where the pronounced slopes prevent pedogenetic processes to unfold. The area of active quarries is subject to gravitational movement of rocks from the upper to the lower parts of the slopes. This is equivalent to the processes that take place outside the zone of anthropogenous activities, in the vegetation belt from 1200 m a.s.l. upwards, resulting in creation of large screes (Trakid, 2010). The erosion caused by steep slopes retains soil permanently on the initial stages. Since the soil is a buffering system that reduces the effects of oscillation in hydro-thermal regime at habitats, quarries, screes and bare rocks are, from vegetation point of view, considered to be extreme habitat types. Due to increased selection pressure of habitat, the process of endemogenesis is being accelerated under extreme habitat conditions, which means acceleration of phylogenesis within spatially isolated populations and the occurrence of species with limited geographical distribution (endemic). In Dinaric Alps the highest share of endemic plant species characterizes vegetation of rock crevices and screes, which takes therefore first place in the system of progressive evolution (Lakušid, 1968). The main factors that determine such a high percentage of endemism are: -age of vegetation in rock crevices which is reflected through a large number of paleoendemic species within floristic composition of the communities; -high degree of isolation which leads to emphasized infraspecific differentiation and evolution of a large number of subspecies and varieties within a species; -high variability of habitats, ie. basic microclimate and pedogenetic conditions which cause competitive exclusion of less adaptable species. The level of endemism in the canyons of Drina river tributaries reaches up to 50% for the vegetation in rock crevices, whereas for the vegetation of screes it varies between 20-30% (Lakušid et al., 1989).
  2. 2. 2 In Bosnia and Herzegovina there are a number of centres of endemism that include river gorges, canyons and mountain peaks (Redžid et al. (ed.), 2008). Unfortunately, nowdays the centres of endemism in Bosnia and Herzegovina are under tremendous anthropogenous pressure. Habitats of vegetation in rock crevices and screes, as a depot of endemic genpool, are being lost through the infrastructure construction and urbanization in the remote areas. In addition to habitat loss, flora of rock crevices and screes is endangered due to over-exploitation and spread of invasive plant species. According to the current scientific assessment, the trend of biodiversity loss and the conversion and/or habitat loss will be continued until 2020. (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). In order to prevent the loss of biodiversity contained in a specific and/or endangered genpool, it is necessary to apply conservation approaches that are defined in Art. 2 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCED, 1992). The first approach is dynamic and is reffered to as in situ conservation, and it includes a selection, management and monitoring of endangered species in their natural habitats. The second approach is static and is reffered to as ex situ conservation, and it includes a collection, transfer and storage of given species outside their natural habitats. For endangered plant species ex situ conservation encompasses: storage of seeds and/or pollen, in vitro storage, storage of DNA, establishment of gen banks and the establishment of botanical gardens. Today, in botanical gardens are being applied integrated techniques of in situ and ex situ conservation (Heywood, 1989). Their conservation role is regulated through several international documents (Council of Europe, 1979; ECNC, 1996; CBD, 2002, 2012; BGCI, 2012). In Bosnia and Herzegovina officially exist four botanical gardens, of which only one corresponds with the Plantsearch Database where it has delivered data for 23 plant species from the garden (Sharrock & Jones, 2009). Considering the current situation in the field of biodiversity conservation at national level, in Bosnia and Herzegovina is necessary to inform the public about the importance of botanical gardens and their main mission. 1.1. Objectives of the study The main objective of the project is to provide a solution for efficient and conservation-oriented restoration of bare rocky ground, after extraction in the quarry Ribnica terminates. The objective is divided in two thematic groups:  The promotion and conservation of rare and threatened plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina through the establishment of botanical garden, the unique example of ex situ conservation on degraded areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina;  The creation of a laboratory in the open, where it will be possible to conduct scientific research and education programs at all educational levels, as well as to raise ecological awareness in the local community and beyond. 2. METHODOLOGY 2. 2. Description of the study area Quarry Ribnica is situatued on the southern slopes of Mt. Ravan, 6km northwest of the Kakanj city. The exploitation area in the quarry covers 23,2 ha. Its geographical position is determined by coordinates 44° 9'32.98"N; 18° 4'19.19"E. Altitude in the quarry area ranges from 405 to 685 m a.s.l. In the wider area of Ribnica, relief is extremely dynamic, with steep cliffs in the East and gently sloping hills in the North. In geological terms, this area is characterized by sediments of Jurrasic-Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene age (Map 1). The relief is mountainous with numerous valleys and elevations (Map 2). According to the climatic atlas of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Dreškovid, 2011), the investigated area is characterized by a duration of sunshine which is below the average in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1580,6 h/year). In the Ribnica area occurs continental pluviometric regime with stable and uniform precipitation over a year. The average annual precipitation amounts 785 mm, while average sum of precipitation in a month is 64,5 mm. The average annual temperature in the investigated area is +9,70C.
  3. 3. 3 In the investigated area climax vegetation are mesophyllous broadleaved-deciduous woods with ass. Querco-Carpinetum betuli (Ht 1938) em. Bleč. 1958 and mesophyllous shrubs and meadows as its degradation stages (Lakušid, 1981). In southern and steeper slopes occur thermophyllous broadleaved- deciduous woods with ass. Aceri obtusati-Fagetum moesiacae Fuk. et col. (1963) Fuk. 1967 and its degradation stages – thermophyllous meadows in mountain belt of continental Dinaric Alps with ass. Bromo-Plantaginetum mediae Ht (1931) 1949. Map 1 - Geology of investigated area Map 2 - Morphology and morphometry of investigated area 2.3. Research approach 2.3.1. Literature research In the preliminary investigation, conducted was literature research resulting in the establishment of a data base with georeferenced records on vegetation in rock crevices and screes in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bjelčid et al., 1969; Bjelčid & Šilid, 1971; Fukarek 1957; Lakušid 1965, 1969, 1970, 1975, 1981; Lakušid et al., 1982; Lakušid & Redžid 1989, 1991; Redžid et al., 1984, 1999, 2003, 2009; Šilid, 1967; Trakid 2010). Into account were taken only those floristic-vegetational records that were obtained by methodology of phytocoenological reléve (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). 2.3.2 Selection of the pilot plot The entire area of Ribnica quarry is being actively exploited, which was recognized in the initial phase of project development as a limiting factor. In the project proposal was planned to select the area for the establishment of botanical garden by means of predictive vegetation modeling. The method of predictive vegetation modeling derives from the theory of ecological niche and analysis of environmental gradients which are, in function of space variable, complexes of ecological factors (Austin & Smith, 1989). This is actually modeling of spatial distribution of communities and/or species based on given environmental variables and defined ecological framework for each of the communities and/or species (Franklin, 1995). This type of geospatial analysis requires software package ArcView 10. The pilot plot was ultimately selected in consultation with the representative of the company HeidelbergCement Kakanj in the field. It was designated cca.100 m2 of an area which is to be found left of the entrance to the administrative buildings of the quarry. 2.3.3. Phytocoenological analysis of current vegetation with microclimate habitat characterization In order to determine main microclimate features, current vegetation in the pilot plot was analised by methodology of the Zürich-Monteplier’s School (Braun-Blanquet, 1946) (Fig. 1). In the laboratory, at the Biology Department of the Faculty of Science in Sarajevo, analysis of floristic elements and life form spectra for the investigated plant communities was carried out (Oberdorfer, 1973). Ribnica
  4. 4. 4 The Ellenberg indicator values for plants were used in order to make an ecogram (Ellenberg, 1979) for plant community in the pilot plot. In the same way was analised plant community adjacent to the pilot plot, in order to determine ecological variables in the surrounding area. The syntaxonomy of investigated plant communities is given according to the Prodromus biljnih zajednica Bosne i Hercegovine (Lakušid et al., 1978), whereby the nomenclature in phytocoenological reléves is given after the Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1985). Figure 1- Phytocoenological analysis Figure 2 –Removal of current vegetation 2.3.4. Removal of current vegetation The preliminary ecological analysis resulted in selection of plants whose idioecology is consistent with the microclimate characterization of conditions in the pilot plot. Thereafter, the current vegetation in the plot was removed and microlocalities for plants introduction were prepared (Fig. 2). The list of considered plants included species that inhabit rock crevices (chasmophytes) and screes, with special reference to their current conservation status in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conservation status is given after the Crvena lista ugroženih divljih vrsta i podvrsta biljaka, životinja i gljiva u Federaciji BiH (“Sl. Novine Federacije BiH” br.7/14). The endemism of considered plant species is defined after the Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964-1985). 2.3.5. Field activities In the period from May to August 2014, through a one-day field outings, collected were plants that were chosen in the preliminary phytoecological analysis. For the greatest variability of alleles, in order to prevent the extinction of species due to random genetic drift in artificially created populations of the botanical garden, it was necessary to collect a certain number of randomly selected individuals from different natural habitats (Fig. 4). Number of collected individuals was determined in accordance with a given population size (Fig. 3). In this way, the sustainability of sampled populations under in situ conditions was ensured. All field activities, as well as the project implementation itself, were approved and supported by the Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism of Bosnia and Herzegovina (no. 04- 23-1126/14).
  5. 5. 5 Figure 3 – Collection of plants in the field Figure 4 – Natural habitat of Edraianthus graminifolius After collection, properly prepared plant specimens were transferred on the same day into the Ribnica quarry and planted in previously designated microlocalities. The area of Bosnia and Herzegovina covered with field activities was approximately 2700km2, and it was sampled at nine localities (Fig. 5). Some of the localities were sampled at a number of different microlocalities (eg. Trebevid Mt.). In total, for the purposes of field activities, it was traveled approximately 2100 km, including visits to the sampling sites and transport of collected plants to the Ribnica quarry. Figure 5 – Localities of field activities The localities were selected after the results of the literature survey on the vegetation in rock crevices and screes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and identified environmental determinants in the pilot plot of the Ribnica quarry according to the methodology described in section 2.3.3. All sampling localities were georeferenced by GPS, and all collected specimens were properly labeled. 2.3.6. Monitoring of weeds In order to provide long term maintenance of plants which were introduced in the botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica”, it was necessary to ensure exclusion of competition with other plant species, especially weeds. Therefore, it was continuously (from May to September) monitored the emergence of weeds and their mechanical removal from the botanical garden. Simultaneously with this activity, it was monitored and documented the progress and success of the adaptation of introduced plants in the garden. The comprehensive photographic documentation was made by camera type Sony DSC-WX7.
  6. 6. 6 This activity was mainly realized as a part of practical work for the diploma thesis of final year student of ecology, at the Biology Department of the Faculty of Science in Sarajevo. 2.3.7. Promotional activities As a part of the project promotional activities, in August was designed and installed the information board in the botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” (Fig. 6). The carrying surface of the board measures 75x69cm. It is made of wood and contains information that elaborates the project background, project description and list of plants in the botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” with their current conservation status in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Figure 6 – Information board in the botanical garden Figure 7 – Look of the brochures In order to promote the image of environmentally responsible HeidelbergCement company, in September was designed and printed brochure entitled “Botanical garden - Quarry Ribnica in function of conservation of rare and threatened floristic genpool in Bosnia and Herzegovina”. Ten copies of the brochure were delivered to the representative of the company in charge (Fig. 7). In order to inform the public about the project, as well as the contest “Quarry Life Award”, a number of copies was distributed among stakeholders in the wider area of Sarajevo city. The scientific community will be informed about the project results through scientific paper that will be published in referent scientific journal in the field of conservation ecology. 2.3.8. Contribution to the development of research capacities In the part of project activities included was a final year student at the Biology Department of the Faculty of science in Sarajevo. Through this project student has completed a practical work of her diploma thesis entitled “Rehabilitation of the Ribnica quarry”. 2.3.9. Seed harvest According to the phenological stages of plant species, in the course of project it has been continuously collected seed from the plants in the botanical garden. The seed was properly labeled and left in a dessicator type Dry Keeper cabinet H42056-0001 with silica. The seed was stored in the dessicator until the weighing showed that the moisture content fell to 7%. After that, seed was stored in a dark and cold place of the laboratory at the Biology department of the Faculty of science in Sarajevo.
  7. 7. 7 3. RESULTS The phytocoenologcal analysis has shown that in pilot plot was developed community of the alliance Epilobion angustifolii (Rübel 1933) Soó 1933, whereas forest stand above the plot is degraded oak- hornbeam community Querco-Carpinetum betuli (Ht 1938) em. Bleč. 1958. Ecological conditions in the pilot plot and in the forest stand were defined by the ecogram analysis of investigated plant communities (Graph 1). In red is shown ecogram for the plant community that occurred in the pilot plot before the botanical garden was established. In blue is shown ecogram for the plant community that occurs in the adjacent area. Graph 1 – Comparative view of ecograms of the investigated communities The greatest differences in ecological conditions relates to the intensity of sunshine which is after the ellenberg indicator values higher in the forest stand, due to its southern exposure and specific geomorphology around the botanical garden. In the botanical garden, after the ellenberg indicator values, due to open vegetation assembly habitat conditions are drier and warmer. The floristic composition of the compared plant communites indicates soil of neutral and slightly acid reaction. The soil is poor in nutrients. The comparative view of the spectra of floristic elements for the pilot plot and adjacent forest stand (Graph 2), as well as the comparative view of the spectra of life forms in these communities (Graph 3), were used in order to characterize habitat conditions in terms of microclimate. The results of these analysis were used to select plant species and the localities where it was sampled during field activities. Graph 2 – Comparative view of floristic elem. spectra Graph 3 – Comparative view of life forms spectra
  8. 8. 8 In the botanical garden were introduced 41 plant species which were selected from literature for the project. The percentage of the introduction success for plants in the botanical garden is 88%. In the Annex I (Tab. 1) are shown sampling sites with basic environmental data and plant species from the botanical garden which were collected at each site. In the last two columns of the table is given conservation status and/or endemism for each species, whereby in red are given species whose introduction in the botanical garden has failed. These are plants that were in flower at the time of sampling or plant species characterized by a strong axial root which penetrates deep into the rock. The implementation of the project activities has achieved a high level of efficiency, despite extremely bad weather conditions and precipitation that was above average for the time of a year. This large quantity of rainfall per square meter, at the Ribnica quarry, has caused intensive leaching of soil that has affected plants in the botanical garden. The final project analysis has shown better adaptation of plants that were introduced in the upper part of the garden. These plants have passed through all the phenological stages by the end of vegetation season. In the lower part of the garden got accumulated large quantity of soil which has partially covered plants and had a negative impact on them. The recommendation for project’s future is to introduce chamaephytes (low, ericoid shrubs) in the upper and middle section of the garden. In this way, the intensity of soil erosion from the forest stand above the garden would decrease significantly. Due to the fact that the main objective of the project is to contribute to the conservation of rare and threatened plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina, below are shown final results in this respect (Graph 4). In the botanical garden highest proportion have species with conservation status “nearly threatened” (NT), afterwards “least concern” (LC), “vulnerable” (VU) and “endangered” (EN). In terms of endemism, dominant are endemics of S and SE Europe, then of Dinaric Alps, Balkan Peninsula and former Yugoslavia. Graph 4 – Proportion of plants by conservation status and/or endemism 4. DISCUSSION The establishment of the botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” represents a significant contribution to the preservation of endemic genpool and the unique example of ex situ conservation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Through promotional activities, the project has brought public attention to the issues of biodiversity losss at national, regional and global level. It has stressed a possible way to preserve the floristic richness in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the Ribnica quarry, the project has created a space of high landscape value and of educational-recreation character, with potential to expand and develop. Further, the project’s results have high value in terms of science and research and represent useful experience for the research team, when it comes to future activities in the field of conservation ecology. Within the project realized was the diploma thesis that was presented in front of the commission, on September 24th 2014, at the Biology department of the Faculty of science in Sarajevo. Hence, the project has contributed to the researcher capacity building in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  9. 9. 9 5. REFERENCES AUSTIN, M.P. & T. M. SMITH., 1989: A new model for the continuum concept. Vegetatio 83, 35-47. BGCI, 2012: International Agenda for Botanic Gardens in Conservation: 2nd Edition. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, UK. BJELČID, Ž. & Č. ŠILID., 1971: Karakteristične cvjetnice za hercegovački endemni centar pl. Prenj, Čvrsnica i Čabulja. Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja Bosne i Hercegovine, (NS) (PN), 10: 39-57. Sarajevo. BJELČID, Ž., ŠILID, Č., LAKUŠID, R., KUTLEŠA, L., MIŠID, Lj. & P. GRGID., 1969: Neke rijetke i interesantne vrste biljaka sa područja planina Maglida, Volujaka i Zelengore. ANUBiH, Posebna izdanja, Knjiga XI, Odjeljenje prirodnih i matematičkih nauka, Knjiga 3: 91- 106, Osnovne prirodne karakteristike, flora i vegetacija Nacionalnog parka Sutjeska, Sarajevo. BRAUN-BLANQUET, J., 1964: Pflanzensoziologie. Springer Verlag, Wien-New York. Convention on Biological Diversity 2002: Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. (www.biodiv.org/decisions/default.asp?m=cop- 06&d=09&print=1). Convention on Biological Diversity, 2012: Global Strategy for Plant Conservation 2011-2020. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, UK. Council of Europe, 1979: Convention on the Conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats. European Treaty Series/104 Bern. DREŠKOVID, N., 2011: Klimatski tipovi u BiH. Doktorska disertacija, Prirodno-matematički fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu, Sarajevo. ECNC, 1996: Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy - Annex IA: Existing Agreements and Initiiatives on Conservation of Biological and Landscape Diversity in Europe. ELLENBERG, H., 1979: Zeigerwerte von Gefässpflanzen Mitteleuropas. Scripta Geobotanica 9, 1-122. FRANKLIN, J., 1995: Predictive vegetation mapping: geographic modelling of biospatial patterns in relation to environmental gradients. Progress in Physical Geography 19, 4 474-499. FUKAREK, P., 1957: Fitocenološka raspodjela bosanskog i hercegovačkog krša. Zbornik „Krš BiH“, Split, br. 3: 139-143. HEYWOOD, V.H., (ed.), 1989: The Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy. IUCN Botanic Gardens Conservation Secretariat, Kew, Richmond, UK. LAKUŠID, R. & S. REDŽID., 1989: Flora i vegetacija vaskularnih biljaka u refugijalno-reliktnim ekosistemima kanjona rijeke Drine i njenih pritoka. Glasnik odjeljenja prirodnih nauka, CANU, 7: 107- 206, Titograd. LAKUŠID, R. & S. REDŽID., 1991: Vegetacija refugijalno-reliktnih ekosistema sliva rijeke Une. / The Vegetation of Refugeal-relict Ecosystems of Una River Basin/ Bilten Društv. ekol. BiH, B, 6: 25- 73. LAKUŠID, R., 1965: Ekologija nekih biljnih tercijernih relikata. God. Biol. Inst. u Sarajevu, Vol. XVIII: 163-197. LAKUŠID, R., 1968: Planinska vegetacija jugoistočnih Dinarida (Die Vegetation der Südöstlichen Dinariden). Glasn. Republ. Zavoda zašt. Prirode – Prirodnjačkog muzeja, 1: 1-75, Titograd. 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MILLENIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT, 2005: Ecosystems and human well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. OBERDORFER, E., 1973: Pflanzensoziologische excursions flora. Eugen Ulmer Verlag. Stuttgart. REDŽID et al. (eds.), 2008: Bosna i Hercegovina – zemlja raznolikosti. Federalno ministarstvo okoliša i turizma, Sarajevo. REDŽID, S., BARUDANOVID, S., ĐUG, S. & S. VELID., 1999: Valorizacija prirodnih vrijednosti biološke i ekološke raznolikosti planina Igman i Bjelašnica. Institut za zaštitu kulturnog, istorijskog i prirodnog naslijeđa, Sarajevo. REDŽID, S., BARUDANOVID, S., ĐUG, S. & T. KAPETANOVID., 2003: Obrasci ekološkog diverziteta na planini Vranici u Bosni. Prirodno- matematički fakultet Univerziteta u Sarajevu i Ministartsvo obrazovanja i nauke Federacije BiH, 145 pp. REDŽID, S., BARUDANOVID, S., TRAKID, S. & D. KULIJER., 2009: Karst as an indicator for biodiversity richness and enedemo- relictness (Prenj-Čvrsnica-Čabulja Mts. in Herzegovina, W. 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  10. 10. 10 APPENDIX I Tabel 1 – Overview of sampling localities and plants introduced in the botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” Canyon Mountain Locality Neretva Rakitnica Miljacka Zeljeznica Trstionica Bjelašnica Visočica Trebevid Romanija Coordinates 43.519548 N 43.651406 N 43.859607 N 43.646973 N 44.196732 N 43.655287 N 43.599240 N 43.804060 N 43.936692 N 18.085340 E 18.234524 E 18.448009 E 18.420761 E 18.190901 E 18.221821 E 18.259619 E 18.475920 E 18.618936 E Altitude (m) 369 1130 571 910 807 1425 1365 1281 1073 Inclination (˚) 75 40 35 45 30 70 15 30 60 Aspect NE SE S SE E E E/SE NE NE Geological foundation dolomite limestone limestone limestone limestone limestone limestone limestone limestone CONSERVATION STATUS/ Introduction Latin name ENDEMISM success Dianthus integer Visiani * *** Dianthus kitaibelii Janka * * LC Minuartia graminifolia (Ard.) Jav. * * * VU * Minuartia bosniaca (Beck) K. Maly * * * * VU Satureja montana L. * * * Micromeria thymifolia (Scop.) Fritsch * * * * *** Thymus bracteosus Vis. ex Benth. * NT **** Teucrium chamaedrys L. * * * * Micromeria croatica (Pers.) Schott. * * ** Onosma stellulata Waldst. et Kit. * * * LC ** Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. * * NT** Iris illyrica Tomm. * **** Iris bosniaca G. Beck * * LC Edraianthus tenuifolius (Waldst. et Kit.) A. DC. * * LC ** Edraianthus graminifolius (L.) A. DC. * * * NT *** Saxifraga coryophylla Griseb. * * * * NT Potentilla tommasiniana F. W. Schultz * * * * * Sedum ochroleucum Chaix. * * * *
  11. 11. 11 Sedum acre L. * * * * Sedum montanum E. P. Perrier et Songeon * * * * Sedum boloniense Loisel. * * * * Sempervivum schlehanii Schott. * * * * Sempervivum tectorum L. * * * Sempervivum heuffelii Schott. * * NT Corydalis leiosperma P. Conrath * * * EN Artemisia alba Turra * * * * Veronica austriaca L. subsp. orbiculata (A. Kern) K. Maly * * Geranium macrorrhizum L. * * Erysimum linearifolium auct. non Moench * * * * Arabis caucasica Willd. subsp. flavescens Griseb. * * * Scabiosa leucophylla Borbas * * * * * LC Campanula balcanica (Adamović) Hruby pro parte * * * Galium purpureum L. * * * * * Galium lucidum All. subsp. corrudifolium (Vill.) Hayek * * * * * Epilobium rosmarinifolium Haenke * * Avenastrum blavii (Asch. et Janka) Beck * * * NT Sesleria interrupta Vis. * * * Sesleria ujhelyii Strgar * **** Festuca glauca Lam. non Vill. * Stipa calamagrostis (L.) Wahlenb. * Oreoherzogia fallax(Boiss.) W.Vent * * Endemism: *S or SE Europe endemic; ** Dinaric Alps endemic; ***Balkan endemic;**** former Yugoslavia endemic
  12. 12. 12 APPENDIX II – Pictures of plants introduced in the botanical garden “Quarry Ribnica” Dianthus integer Visiani Dianthus kitaibelii Janka Minuartia bosniaca (Beck) K. Maly Satureja montana L. Minuartia graminifolia (Ard.) Jav. Micromeria thymifolia (Scop.) Fritsch
  13. 13. 13 Thymus bracteosus Vis. ex Benth. Teucrium chamaedrys L. Saxifraga coryophylla Griseb. Onosma stellulata Waldst. et Kit. Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. Micromeria croatica (Pers.) Schott.
  14. 14. 14 Iris bosniaca G. Beck Iris illyrica Tomm. Edraianthus tenuifolius (Waldst. et Kit.) A. DC. Edraianthus graminifolius (L.) A. DC. Potentilla tommasiniana F. W. Schultz Sedum ochroleucum Chaix
  15. 15. 15 Sedum acre L. Sedum boloniense Loisel. Corydalis leiosperma P. Conrath Sempervivum tectorum L. Sempervivum heuffelii Schott. Erysimum linearifolium auct. non Moench
  16. 16. 16 Sempervivum schlehanii Schott. Artemisia alba Turra Veronica austriaca L. subsp. orbiculata (A. Kern) K. Maly Geranium macrorrhizum L. Arabis caucasica Willd. subsp. flavescens Griseb Scabiosa leucophylla Borbas
  17. 17. 17 Campanula balcanica (Adamović) Hruby pro parte Sesleria ujhelyii Strgar Galium purpureum L. Epilobium rosmarinifolium Haenke Sesleria interrupta Vis. Stipa calamagrostis (L.) Wahlenb

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