Successfully reported this slideshow.
Soil arthropod diversity and quarry rehabilitation 
Results of the preliminary investigations Abstract. The main goal of t...
matter in most terrestrial ecosystems (Behan-Pelletier and Eamer, 2007; Maraun et al., 2007; Norton and Behan-Pelletier, 2...
Table 2. Kavtiskhevi limestone quarry (Fig. 2) 
Abbreviation 
Site description 
GPS coordinates 
K1 
Oldest quarry of 1923...
Phyllozetes tauricus was found on 15 years old quarry and Simkinia schachthachtinskoi – on oldest limestone quarry in Kavt...
were found during first sampling event and were completely absent from sampling performed in July. 
Simpson’s index of div...
structure making it more favorable for further colonization. That is in accordance with our previous statement (Murvanidze...
Annexes 
Annex 1. List of oribatid mites on Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries 
Species 
G1 
G2 
G3 
G4 
G5 
G6 
G7 
K1 
K...
Punctoribates punctum (C. L. Koch, 1839) 0 
1 0 3 0 0 2 20 8 
Phyllozetes taucicus Gordeeva, 1978 0 
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 
Rhys...
Figure 1. Map of sampling sites in Gardabani 
Figure 2. Map of sampling sites in Kavtiskhevi
Figure 3. Abundance of oribatid mites on Gardabani quarries 
Figure 4. Abundance of oribatid mites on Kavtiskhevi quarries
Figure 5. Cluster of faunal similarities of oribatid mites on Gardabani quarries
Figure 6. Cluster of faunal similarities of oribatid mites on Kavtiskhevi quarries
Figure 7. Cluster of faunal similarities of springtails on Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries
Pic. 1. G1. Active quarry in Gardabani Pic. 2. G2. Nitrogen dump in Gardabani 
Pic. 3. G3. 40 years old quarry in Gardaban...
Pic. 7. K1. 1923 year quarry in Kavtiskhevi Pic. 8. K2. Active quarry in Kavtiskhevi 
Pic. 9. K3. 20 years old quarry in K...
References 
Andrés P., Mateos E. 2006—Soil mesofaunal responses to post-mining restoration treatments— Appl. Soil Ecol., 3...
Lebedeva N.V. 2012 — Oribatid mites transported by birds to polar islands - a review — In: Hempel G., Lochte K., Matishov ...
St. John M.G., Bagatto G., Behan-Pelletier V., Lindquist E.E., Shorthouse J.D., Smith I.M. 2002 — Mite (Acari) colonizatio...
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Soil arthropod diversity and quarry rehabilitation by Maka Murvanidze (Georgia)

779 vues

Publié le

This project investigated soil recovery processes on the reclaimed territories of Kavtiskhevi and Gardabani quarries by means of soil inhabiting invertebrates.

Oribatid mites, in the Acarine suborder Oribatida, are associated with organic matter in most terrestrial ecosystems (Behan-Pelletier and Eamer, 2007; Maraun et al., 2007; Norton and Behan-Pelletier, 2009; Schneider, 2005). Their ability for dispersal is low and those that do disperse as adults (Norton, 1994). As a result, oribatid mites cannot easily escape from stress conditions. Population of oribatid mites decline rapidly when their habitat is damaged, that allows detection of environmental degradation. So, they can be considered as «early warning» indicators of stress.

Springtails (Collembola) are major components of terrestrial ecosystems, constituting a substantial proportion of the soil animal biomass and diversity and are thus frequently and easily found (Coleman et al., 2004). Like oribatids, they play an important role in plant litter decomposition and in soil formation processes. They are known as one of the pioneers of early stages of soil recovery processes and rapid colonizers of reclaimed waste sites (Hutson, 1980).

Project actions:

1. Inventory of soil arthropods ( oribatid mites, springtails);
2. Study biotic complexity of reclaimed and control sites using invertebrate animals as bioindicators;
3. Identify pioneer colonists species and species adapted to the anthropogenic pressure;
4. Reveal the effectiveness of provided reclamation activities;
5. Publish informative booklet and on line placement of the project activities and project results.

The project won the 1st Prize in National Quarry Life Award in 2014 in Georgia.

Read more: http://www.quarrylifeaward.com/project/soil-arthropod-diversity-and-quarry-rehabilitation

Publié dans : Environnement
  • Soyez le premier à commenter

  • Soyez le premier à aimer ceci

Soil arthropod diversity and quarry rehabilitation by Maka Murvanidze (Georgia)

  1. 1. Soil arthropod diversity and quarry rehabilitation Results of the preliminary investigations Abstract. The main goal of the project was to investigate soil recovery processes on the reclaimed territories of Kavtiskhevi and Gardabani quarries by means of soil inhabiting invertebrates. Field investigations were provided on the territories of Kavtiskhevi limestone and Gardabani clay quarries. Soil samples were collected on quarries of different ages and adjacent natural ecosystems that were referred as control sites. Two replicates were taken at each site. Invertebrates were extracted from soil, slide mounted and identified. 22 species of oribatid mites were found in seven locations of Gardabani clay quarry with Phyllozetes tauricus Gordeeva, 1978 new for Caucasian fauna. 24 species are registered for four locations of Kavtiskhevi quarry with Simkinia schachthachtinskoi (Kulijev, 1961) and Laisobelba sp. new for Georgian fauna. Lasiobelba sp. is proposed as possible new species for science. All identified individuals are counted. Three forms of springtails were found on Gardabani with Pseudosinella octopunctata new for Georgian fauna; one form of springtails was found in Kavtiskhevi quarry. In Kavtiskhevi, springtails were found only on control site and were absent from quarries. Springtails are more sensitive to soil disturbance than oribatid mites. Punctoribates punctum (Oribatida) is a pioneer species of disturbed habitats. This species is abundant on quarries of different age in Kavtiskhevi and is less numerous on control sites. As for new for Georgia species, Phyllozetes tauricus was found on 15 years old quarry and Simkinia schachthachtinskoi – on oldest limestone quarry in Kavtiskhevi. Laisobelba sp. was registered on natural meadow. In general, abundance and species richness of soil invertebrates was low on active quarries and increased along the quarry age. Oribatid and springtail fauna on 40 years old quarries in Gardabani was surprisingly poor. Further investigations are needed to receive statistically significant data. Soil fauna on the reclaimed sites of Gardabani quarries shows increase of species richness that indicates on progress of soil formation processes ongoing at these sites. Similarly, diversity and abundance of soil invertebrates on oldest (from 1923) quarry in Kavtiskhevi indicates active soil formation processes supporting formation of soil fauna. However, soil fauna of old and reclaimed sites on both, Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries is still far from those, found on natural sites. In all steps of provided activities actively was involved master student of the Agricultural University Georgia, Nino Todria. Based on provided investigations she is preparing master thesis that will be finished and presented in May 2015 Introduction. The main goal of the project is to investigate soil recovery processes on the reclaimed territories of Kavtiskhevi and Gardabani quarries by means of soil inhabiting invertebrates. Soil zoocenoses, microarthopods in particular, by their complex structure and species composition are widely reported bioindicators of the regeneration degree of the productive soil layer (Bielska, 1996; Hutson, 1980). Oribatid mites, in the Acarine suborder Oribatida, are associated with organic
  2. 2. matter in most terrestrial ecosystems (Behan-Pelletier and Eamer, 2007; Maraun et al., 2007; Norton and Behan-Pelletier, 2009). Their ability for dispersal is low and those that do disperse as adults (Norton, 1994). As a result, oribatid mites cannot easily escape from stress conditions. Population of oribatid mites decline rapidly when their habitat is damaged, that allows detection of environmental degradation. So, they can be considered as «early warning» indicators of stress. Appearance and dominance of oribatid mites in the microarthropod complex indicates the beginning of soil and humus formation (Hutson, 1980; Dunger et al., 2001). Analyses of the structure of their communities help to reveal the degree of soil stability and its formation trend. Springtails (Collembola) are major components of terrestrial ecosystems, constituting a substantial proportion of the soil animal biomass and diversity and are thus frequently and easily found (Coleman et al., 2004). Like oribatids, they play an important role in plant litter decomposition and in soil formation processes. They are known as one of the pioneers of early stages of soil recovery processes and rapid colonizers of reclaimed waste sites (Hutson, 1980). Collembolans are particularly sensitive to mechanical disturbances (Maraun, et al. 2003). In provided investigation we investigated (1) the biodiversity of soil microarthropods (Oribatida, Collembola), (2) the patterns of colonization of disturbed sites by oribatid mites and springtails in the succession process of soil recovery and (3) the influence of soil mocroarthropods on soil formation processes. Objectives The objectives of the provided preliminary investigations were to: 1. Provide the inventory of soil arthropods (oribatid mites, springtails); 2. Study biotic complexity of reclaimed and control sites using invertebrates as bioindicators; 3. Identify pioneer colonists species and species adapted to the anthropogenic pressure; 4. Reveal the effectiveness of provided reclamation activities Background information Field sampling was performed on 13.05.2014 and 10.06.2014. Description of visited sites is as follows (Tables 1-2): Table 1. Gardabani clay quarry (Fig. 1) Abbreviation Site description GPS coordinates G1 Active quarry (pic. 1) 41°30.640 45°05.695 G2 Nitrogen dump (pic. 2) 41°30.533 45°05.607 G3 40 years old quarry (pic. 3) 41°30.430 45°05.516 G4 15 years old quarry (pic. 4) 41°30.438 45°05.709 G5 Two years ago reclaimed site (pic 5) 41°30.135 45°05.866 G6 One year ago reclaimed site G7 Control. Natural meadow (pic. 6) Note: sites G5, G6 and G7 are located close to each other, so, the GPS coordinates are the same.
  3. 3. Table 2. Kavtiskhevi limestone quarry (Fig. 2) Abbreviation Site description GPS coordinates K1 Oldest quarry of 1923 (pic. 7) 41°53.999 44°26.568 K2 Active quarry (pic. 8) 41°53.702 44°26.739 K3 20 years old quarry (pic. 9) 41°53.718 44°26.533 K4 Control. Natural meadow (pic. 10) 41°53.277 44°27.681 Up to date each site was visited twice. At each site soil samples were taken, microarthropods were extracted, slide mounted, identified and counted. Faunal and ecological analyses are performed (detailed description of each activity see in Method and Result sections) Methods. Field researches were performed on 13.05.2014 and 10.06.2014. At each site GPS coordinates were taken. During field sampling at each site six soil samples were taken of 10 cm3 volume for each. Soil samples were appropriately labelled, delivered in the laboratory and invertebrates were extracted from soil using Berlese-Tullgren apparatus (pic. 11). The functioning of this apparatus is based on the negative reaction of soil invertebrates on high temperature, lack of humidity and light. Duration of the extraction was one week and extracted soil arthropods were stored in 70% alcohol with drop of glycerol. In order to perform species identification, for oribatid mites temporary slides were made using cavity slides and drop of lactic acid. Such slides allow to turn the specimen on all sides to observe the characters needed. For springtail identification permanent slides were made using Heuer and Rusek media. Species identification was performed under the compound microscope (pic. 12). For identifications appropriate keys of Weigmann (2006), Ghilarov & Krivolutsky (1975) and Fjellberg (1998, 2007) were used. All identified individuals were counted. For statistical analyses PAST software and Microsoft excel were used. In order to reveal oribatid mites and springtail diversity, Simpson’s index of biodiversity (1-D) was calculated. Sampling completeness was revealed by Chao1 index. Cluster analyses was performed in order to show faunal likeness between the sites. Site mapping was performed using Google earth. Results Oribatid mite diversity In total 52 species of oribatid mites are registered on both investigated quarries. 22 species were found in seven locations of Gardabani clay quarry with Phyllozetes tauricus Gordeeva, 1978 new for Caucasian fauna. 24 species are registered in four locations of Kavtiskhevi limestone quarry with Simkinia schachthachtinskoi (Kulijev, 1961) and Lasiobelba sp. new for Georgian fauna. Lasiobelba sp. is proposed to be a new species for science. Punctoribates punctum (Oribatida) is a pioneer species of disturbed habitats. This species is abundant on quarries of different age in Kavtiskhevi and is less numerous on control sites. As for new for Georgia species,
  4. 4. Phyllozetes tauricus was found on 15 years old quarry and Simkinia schachthachtinskoi – on oldest limestone quarry in Kavtiskhevi. Laisobelba sp. was registered on natural meadow (Annex 1). Number of oribatid mite species in Gardabani was higher on 15 years old quarry, reclaimed sites and natural meadow (10-13) and only one species was found on 40 years old quarry. In Kavtiskhevi, high number of species (12-19) was registered in 80 and 20 years old quarries and natural meadow and eight species were found on active quarry. Calculation of Chao1 index revealed about 80-95% of sampling completeness for Gardabani sites except nitrogen dump (G2), where sampling completeness was 36%. As for Kavtiskhevi sites, sampling completeness was 85- 90% on 20 years old quarry and natural meadow and was 57% and 70% in oldest (K1) and active quarry (K2) respectively. Simpson’s index of diversity was higher in 15 years old and reclaimed sites in Gardabani compared to the natural meadow. As for Kavtiskhevi quarry, the diversity index was higher in oldest (80 years old) quarry and natural meadow compared to active and 20 years old sites (Table 3). Table 3. Diversity indexes of oribatid mite on Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 K1 K2 K3 K4 Taxa_S 8 8 1 12 13 12 10 19 7 15 12 chao1 9.5 22 1 13.2 13.17 14.5 11.5 33 10 17 12.75 abundance 125 ± 59 66,5± 47 8,5± 12 475± 577 658± 560 258± 247 950± 283 950± 307 150± 188 717± 990 458,5± 648 Dominance_D 0.22 0.125 1 0.25 0.18 0.12 0.48 0.12 0.26 0.33 0.2013 Simpson_1-D 0.78 0.87 0 0.75 0.82 0.88 0.51 0.88 0.73 0.67 0.79 Abundance (inds/m2) of oribatid mites in Gardabani was low on active, nitrogen and 40 years old quarries; abundance increased on older quarries and reclaimed sites and was highest on the natural meadow (Table 3. Figure 3.) In Kavtiskhevi, abundance was highest on 80 years old quarry, followed by 20 years old quarry and natural meadow and was lowest on active quarry (Table 3. Figure 4). Provided Cluster analyze shows oribatid mites of reclaimed sites (G5, G6) and 15 years old quarry (G4) grouping together showing maximal faunal similarity. Natural meadow (G7) and nitrogen dump (G2) are grouped next to these sites and active (G1) and 40 years old quarry (G3) are most distinct from others (Figure 5). Cluster analyze for Kavtiskhevi sites shows oribatid mites of the oldest (K1) and 20 years old (K3) quarries clustering together with natural meadow (K4) and active quarry (K2) isolated from all (Figure 6). Springtail (Collembola) diversity Fauna of springtails in both, Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries is especially poor. Only three forms are revealed in Gardabani quarry with Pseudosinella octopunctata new for Georgian fauna. Springtails in Gardabani were found only in old quarries, reclaimed sites and natural meadows and were totally absent from active quarry and nitrogen dump. Two forms are identified to the species level. In Kavtiskhevi one individual of springtail larva was found in oldest limestone quarry. All individuals in both sites are presented as singletons (list see in Annex 2). All springtails
  5. 5. were found during first sampling event and were completely absent from sampling performed in July. Simpson’s index of diversity for springtails are either 1 (where one species is represented by one individual) or 0.5 (where two species are found). Cluster analyze shows Kavtiskhevi springtails isolation from Gardabani fauna. As for Gardabani sites, springtails of 40 years old quarry (G3) and natural meadow (G7) are clustered together, whereas another cluster is formed by springtails inhabiting reclaimed sites (G5-G6) and 15 years old quarry (G4) (Fig. 7). Discussion Colonization of post-industrial dumps by soil invertebrates supports soil formation processes and can be regarded as a part of secondary succession (Andrés and Mateos, 2006; Scheu and Schulz, 1996). Although oribatid mites and springtails are known as having low mobility (Weigmann, 1982) and being slow colonizers (Dunger, 1989), their ability of passive dispersal is quite high (Karasawa et al., 2005; Lebedeva, 2012; Lehmitz et al., 2011). Provided investigation on Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries revealed 52 oribatid and four springtail species with Phyllozetes tauricus Gordeeva, 1978, Simkinia schachthachtinskoi (Kuliev, 1961), Lasiobelba sp. and Pseudosinella octopunctata new species for Georgian fauna that enriches regional faunal diversity. Lasiobelba sp. is probably new species for science supporting by that global faunal diversity. If taking into account only two replicates for each site, more comprehensive and intensive investigations can provide additional faunal data. In our study, the faunal composition differed significantly between post-industrial and natural habitats. In dump soils, Punctoribates puctum dominated, whereas in natural sites and old dumps rare and new for Caucasus/Georgia species were found both, for oribatid mites and springtails (see Results section). P. punctum is considered as cosmopolitan species and good colonizers during early stages of succession (Skubala, 1995; Skubala and Gulvik, 2005). It is often found in high densities in urban, rural and disturbed habitats (Maraun and Scheu, 2000; Maraun et al., 2003; Murvanidze et al., 2011; Scheu and Schulz, 1996; St. John et al., 2002; Weigmann, 1995). Our previous investigation provided on Chiatura manganese quarries (Murvanidze et al., 2013) showed that soil recovery processes take place on postindustrial dumps: the older the dump, the more diverse is the oribatid assemblage. The colonization route of oribatid mites proceeds from forests to dumps, via meadows, in spite of the fact that only a minor number of species are found in both forests and dump sites. The main colonizers of the new habitats were P. punctum, S. laevigatus, S. latipes and Tectocepheus velatus sarekensis. Extremely poor oribatid and springtail fauna on 40 years old quarry (G3) in Gardabani seems to be fact provided by soil disturbance by unidentified natural or anthropogenic factors. Correct age of this site needs also additional investigation. As cluster analyses shows, for both, Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries oribatid and springtail community composition found on quarry sites, seems to be still quite isolated from the natural ones. Even reclaimed sites in Gardabani show no total recovery of soil and soil inhabiting invertebrates with their clustering together with 15 year old dump. It seems that natural succession ongoing on old quarry successively recovers soil structure followed by development of diverse soil fauna and vice versa, quarry colonization by soil forming invertebrates improves soils
  6. 6. structure making it more favorable for further colonization. That is in accordance with our previous statement (Murvanidze et al., 2013) that natural succession processes can support even more diverse fauna than artificial reclamation (Skubala, 2006) and self-sustaining rehabilitation via natural processes is regarded as a good ecological restoration. However, Secondary succession is usually slow and incompatible with the societal requirements for rapid solutions (Ash et al., 1994; Bradshaw, 1997) whereas artificial reclamation procedures fulfill societal needs for fast recovery of damaged surfaces and its reuse. Conclusions In the frame of provided researches can be concluded that natural soil recovery processes are ongoing on both, Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries. These processes are largely supported by activity of soil inhabiting invertebrates and mainly by oribatid mites (no larger “soil engineers” like earthworms were found on quarries). The older the quarry is – the diverse is soil fauna and vice versa. However, soil recovery is not complete on quarries and soil fauna even on older quarries not similar to the natural meadows. Overall, soil fauna of Kavtiskhevi seems to be more impoverished compared to Gardabani. Even on the oldest quarry (K1) being in use in 1930, fauna of soil invertebrates is not similar to the natural site. Provided reclamation measures in Gardabani supports soil recovery. Invertebrate communities established there resemble those, found on old quarries but are still quite far from the communities found on natural meadow. Poor fauna found on 40 years quarry in Gardabani makes gap in provided research. Additional investigations are needed to reveal problems disturbing soil formation processes. For prospects of future development, implementation of additional field and ecological investigations are needed. Two sampling events are not enough to reveal full diversity of oribatid mites and springtails. Sampling covering all four seasons of the year would cover most species emerging in different seasons. Even during provided scarce investigation, one new species for Caucasus, two new species for Georgia and one probably new species for science were found (see result section). Additional sampling can provide additional material for regional biodiversity. Moreover, additional replicates would make quantitative data more suitable and significant for statistical analyses. Hence, the overall conclusion may differ from initial ones. In all steps of provided activities actively was involved master student of the Agricultural University Georgia, Nino Todria. She actively participated in field sampling, laboratory treatment and calculations needed to make ecological analyses. Based on the provided investigations, she is preparing master thesis that will be finished and presented in May 2015.
  7. 7. Annexes Annex 1. List of oribatid mites on Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries Species G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 K1 K2 Aleurodamaeus setosus 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Austrocarabodes foliaceisetus georgiensis Murvanidze & Weigmann, 2007 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Belba dubinini Bulanova-Zachvatkina, 1962 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 Carabodes kintrishiana Murvanidze 2008 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ceratozetes gracilis (Michael, 1884) 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 Ceratozetes minutissmus Willmann, 1951 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cymbaeremaeus cymba (Nicolet, 1855) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Damaolus ornatissimus Csiszár, 1962 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Epilohmannia cylindrica (Berleze,1904) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Eupelops acromios (Hermann, 1804) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Galumna tarsipennata Oudemans, 1914 0 0 0 0 27 4 22 0 0 Galumna Sp. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Graptoppia foveolata (Paoli, 1908) 0 0 0 0 0 0 76 0 0 Haplozetes elegans (Kunst, 1977) 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Hermanniella granulata (Nicolet, 1855) 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hermanniella punctulata Berlese, 1910 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 0 Lasiobelba sp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Liacarus brevilamellatus Mihelčič, 1955 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Liebstadia longior (Berlese, 1908) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Liebstadia similis (Michael, 1888) 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 Microppia minus (Paoli, 1908) 0 0 0 1 8 0 0 0 0 Minunthozetes pseudofusiger (Schweizer, 1922) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Mirozetes auxiliaris Grandjean, 1936 0 1 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 Oppia nitens C.L.Koch 1836 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Oppiella fallax (paoli, 1908) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Oribatula tibialis (Nicolet, 1855) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 Papillacarus sp. 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Parachipteria Georgica Murvanidze & Weigmann, 2003 6 1 0 2 11 0 0 0 0 Passalozetes africanus Grandjean, 1932 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 1 Peloptulus phaenotus (C.L.Koch, 1844) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 Peloribates longipilosus Csiszar & Jeleva, 1962 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pergalumna nervosa (Berlese, 1914) 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 Phthiracarus laevigatus (C.L. Koch, 1844) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Phyllozetes tauricus Gordeeva, 1978 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 Plateremaus mirabilis Csiszár, 1962 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Protoribates capucinus Berlese, 1908 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
  8. 8. Punctoribates punctum (C. L. Koch, 1839) 0 1 0 3 0 0 2 20 8 Phyllozetes taucicus Gordeeva, 1978 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhysotritia ardua (C. L. koch, 1841) 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 Scheloribates laevigatus (Koch, 1835) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 0 Scheloribates longus Kulijev, 1968 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Scutovertex minutus (C. L. Koch, 1835) 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Simkinia schachthachtinokoi Kulijev, 1961 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Simkinia tianschanica Krivolutsky, 1966 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 Sphaerochthonius splendidus (Berlese, 1904) 0 0 0 5 3 6 0 10 0 Tectoribates ornatus (Schuster, 1958) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Tectocepheus velatus sarekensis Tragardh,1910 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 Tectocepheus velatus velatus (Michael,1880) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 1 Thypochthhonius tectorum (Berlese, 1896) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Trichoribates naltschicki Shaldybina, 1971 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 3 0 Xenillus tegeocranus (Hermann, 1804) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Zygoribatula frisiae (Oudemans, 1916) 2 0 0 25 12 3 0 5 3 Annex 2. List of springtails (Collembola) on Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries Localition G-7 G-6 G-5 G-4 G-3 K-1 species Pseudosinella octopunctata Börner, 1901 0 1 1 1 0 0 Pseudosinella sexoculata Schött, 1902 1 1 0 0 1 0 Hypogastruridae sp. larva 0 0 0 1 0 0 Protaphorura sp. Larva 0 0 0 0 0 1
  9. 9. Figure 1. Map of sampling sites in Gardabani Figure 2. Map of sampling sites in Kavtiskhevi
  10. 10. Figure 3. Abundance of oribatid mites on Gardabani quarries Figure 4. Abundance of oribatid mites on Kavtiskhevi quarries
  11. 11. Figure 5. Cluster of faunal similarities of oribatid mites on Gardabani quarries
  12. 12. Figure 6. Cluster of faunal similarities of oribatid mites on Kavtiskhevi quarries
  13. 13. Figure 7. Cluster of faunal similarities of springtails on Gardabani and Kavtiskhevi quarries
  14. 14. Pic. 1. G1. Active quarry in Gardabani Pic. 2. G2. Nitrogen dump in Gardabani Pic. 3. G3. 40 years old quarry in Gardabani Pic. 4. G4. 15 years old quarry in gardabani Pic. 5. G5. Reclaimed site in Gardabani Pic. 6. G7. Control, Natural meadow
  15. 15. Pic. 7. K1. 1923 year quarry in Kavtiskhevi Pic. 8. K2. Active quarry in Kavtiskhevi Pic. 9. K3. 20 years old quarry in Kavtiskhevi Pic. 10. Control. Natural meadow Pic. 11. Extraction of invertebrates from soil Pic. 12. Making microscope slides
  16. 16. References Andrés P., Mateos E. 2006—Soil mesofaunal responses to post-mining restoration treatments— Appl. Soil Ecol., 33: 67-78. Ash H.J., Gemmel R.P., Bradshaw A.D. 1994 — The introduction of native plant species on industrial waste heaps: a test of immigration and other factors affecting primary succession. J. Appl. Ecol., 31: 74-84. Behan-Pelletier V.M., Eamer B. 2007—Aquatic Oribatida: Adaptations, Constraints, Distribution and Ecology - In: Morales-Malacara J.B., Behan-Pelletier V., Ueckermann E., Perez T.M., Estrada-Venegas E.G., Badii M. (Eds). Acarology XI. Proceedings of the International Congress, Mexico, 2007. p. 71-82 Bielska I. 1996 — Oribatida communities of deteriorated coniferous forests of Silesian industrial basin and the Karkonosze National Park — In: Rodger M., Horn D.J., Needham. R., W. Welbourn C. (Eds). Acarology IX, Proceedings Vol. 1, p. 585-588. Bradshaw A. 1997 — Restoration of mine lands using natural processes - Ecol. Eng., 8: 255-269 Coleman D.C., Crossley Jr. D.A., Hendrix P.F. 2004 – Fundamentals of soil ecology. Elsevier. 386p. Dunger W. 1989 — The return of soil fauna to coal mined areas in the German Democratic Republic — In: Majer J.D. (Ed). Animals in Primary Succession: The Role of Fauna in Reclaimed Lands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 307-337 Dunger W., Wanner M., Hauser H., Hohberg K., Schulz H.J., Schwalbe T., Seifert B., Vogel J., Voigtländer K., Zimdars B., Zulka K.P. 2001 — Development of soil fauna at mine sites during 46 years after afforestation - Pedobiologia, 45: 243-271. FJELLBERG, A. (1998) – The Collembola of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Part I: Poduromorpha. - Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 35: 1-184. FJELLBERG, A. (2007) – The Collembola of Fennoscandia and Denmark, Part II: Entomobryomorpha and Symphypleona. - Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 42: 1-264 Ghilarov M.S., Krivolutsky D.A. 1975 — Opredelitel obitayushchikh v pochve kleshchei. Sarcoptiformes [Identification keys of soil inhabiting mites] — Moscow: Nauka pp 491 (in Russian) Hutson B.R. 1980 — The influence on soil development of the invertebrate fauna colonizing industrial reclamation sites — J. Appl. Ecol., 17(2): 277-286. Karasawa Sh., Gotoh K., Sasaki T., Hijii N. 2005 — Windbased dispersal of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) in a subtropical forest in Japan — J. Acarol. Soc. Japan, 14 (2): 117-122
  17. 17. Lebedeva N.V. 2012 — Oribatid mites transported by birds to polar islands - a review — In: Hempel G., Lochte K., Matishov G. (Eds). Arctic Marine Biology. Reports on polar and marine research, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 640: 152-161 Lehmitz R., Russell D., Hohberg K., Christian A., XylanderW. E.R. 2011—Wind dispersal of oribatid mites as a mode of dispersion — Pedobiologia, 54: 201-207 Maraun M., Scheu St. 2000 — The structure of oribatid mite communities (Acari, Oribatida): patterns, mechanisms and implications for future research - Ecography, 23: 374-383 Maraun M., Salamon J.A., Schneider K. 2003 — Oribatid mite and collembolan diversity, density and community structure in a moder beech forest (Fagus silvatica): effects of mechanical perturbances — Soil Biol. Biochem., 35: 1387-1394. Maraun M., Schatz H., Scheu S. 2007 — Awesome or ordinary? Global diversity patterns of oribatid mites — Ecography, 30: 209-216 Murvanidze M., Kvavadze E., Mumladze L., Arabuli T. 2011 — Comparison of earthworms (Lumbricidae) and oribatid mite (Acari, Oribatida) communities in natural and urban ecosystems — Vestnik Zoologii, 45: 233-241. Murvanidze M., Mumladze L., Arabuli T., Kvavadze Er. 2013. Oribatid mite colonization on sand and manganese tailing sites. Acarologia. 53(2): 127-139 Norton R.A. 1994 — Evolutionary aspects of Oribatid mite life histories and consequences for the origin of Astigmata — In: Houk M. (Eds). Ecological and evolutionary analyses of life- history patterns. Chapman and Hall. p. 99-135. Norton R.A., Behan-Pelletier V.M. 2009 - Suborder Oribatida — In: Kranz G.W., Walter D.E. (Eds). A Manual of Acarology, 3rd edition. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. p. 430-564 Scheu St., Schulz E. 1996 — Secondary succession, soil formation and development of a diverse community of oribatids and saprophagous soil macroinvertebrates — Biodivers. Conserv. 5: 235-250. Skubala P. 1995—Moss mites (Acarina: Oribatida) on industrial dumps of different ages — Pedobiologia, 39: 170-184 Skubala P. 2006— Do we really need land reclamation on dumps? (Oribatid fauna case studies) — In: Gabrys G., Ignatovicz S. (Eds). Advances in Polish Acarology, Wydawnictwo SGGW,Warszawa. p. 366-374 Skubala P., Gulvik A. 2005 — Pioneer Oribatid mite communities (Acari, Oribatida) in newly exposed natural (glacier foreland) and anthropogenic (post-industrial dump) habitats — Polish Journal of Ecology, 53 (3): 395-407.
  18. 18. St. John M.G., Bagatto G., Behan-Pelletier V., Lindquist E.E., Shorthouse J.D., Smith I.M. 2002 — Mite (Acari) colonization of vegetated mine tailings near Sundbury, Ontario, Canada — Plant Soil, 245: 295-305 Weigmann G. 1982 — Die Berliner Hornmilbenfauna (Acari, Oribatei). Zur Fage der Artenschutzes von Bodentieren—Landschaftsentwicklung und Umweltforschung, 11: 311-326 Weigmann G. 1995 — Zur Bedeutung von Hemerobie und Habitatstructur für Hornmilben (Acari, Oribatida) in Stadtparks and Ruderalflachen — Schr. R.f. Vegetationskunde. Sukopp- Festschrift, 27: 202-210. Weigmann G. 2006 — Hornmilben (Oribatida) — Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, Teil 76. Keltern: Goecke & Evers. pp. 520.

×