3. AGGRESSION Definition of Aggression :
Physical and verbal behavior
Intended to hurt someone .
It includes slap , insult , kicks
and even gossips .
It excludes unintentional harm
such as auto accidents .
It also excludes actions that
may involve pain such as
surgery, dental treatment .
Example : A terrorist who kills
the civilians to gain political
4. • it springs from anger and it’s goal is to injure .
• It is impulsive and emotional out brust
• Hostile Aggression is “hot”.
• Example : Most instances of road rage fall into the
category of hostile aggression
5. • Its aim to injure also but in some other way .
• Instrumental aggression is more aligned with bullying
behaviors where the threats, mocking and violence are
used by the bully to instil a sense of fear or embarrassment
in their victim .
• It is learned behavior.
• It is cold
• Example : Someone Sticks a gun in your face and demand
your wallet. They are using aggression as a tool to get
what they want
6. • Instinct theory of aggression
• Aggression is a natural response to the
• Aggression is a learned behavior
7. It was proposed by Sigmund Frued in 1927 .
Frued said that there are two instincts exist in human
beings . i.e Erose that is life instincts and thenatose
that is death or destructive instinct .
Human behavior including aggression Orginates from
Interaction of these two forces .
According to this theory aggression orignates
primarily from redirection of self destructive instinct
away from self while directed towards other.
8. Thenatose is unrestrained and indulge in self
destruction through the displacement the energy of
thenatose is directed towards other in the form of
Instinct theory said that the aggression is inherited
and biological in nature that can’t be completely
eliminated from human behavior but can be reduced
by indulging advanture sports like karate and
9. Konard Lorenz view:
Lorenz was an animal behavior expert,
Lorenz considered the aggression as a “adaptive
rather than self destructive” , in the humans as well
as in animals.
In the opinion of Konard Lorenz aggression, which
causes physical harm to others starts from fighting
instincts that the human beings share with others .
10. Frustration Aggression theory deals that frustration
triggers a readiness to aggress .
Frustration always leads to some form of aggression
(John Dollar and his colleagues.
Frustration is any thing that blocks our attaining.
Frustration grows when our motivation to achieve a
goal is very strong and when expect statisfection
when blocking is complete.
11. • Frustration creates motivation to aggress.
• Fear of punishment or disapproval for aggression
against the source of frustration may cause the
aggressive derive to be displaced against some other
target or even redirected against oneself (Dollar and
others 1939and Miller 1941)
12. Leonard Berkowitz revised the Frustration
aggression theory (Leonard Berkowitz1978-1989)
Berkowitz theorized that Frustration produces anger
, an emotional readiness to aggress.
In this revised formulation people learn through
experience to respond to Frustration with aggressive
or non aggressive responses.
13. Social learning theory :
We learn social behavior by observing and imitating
and by being rewarded and punished.
The Rewards of Aggression:
By experience and by observing others we learn that
aggression often pays .
Children can be thought to behave aggressively
through rewarding aggressive behavior (Patterson
and others 1991).
14. In addition , child leran to discriminate between
situations where the aggression has desirable
consequences or not .
15. Albert Bandura (1997) proposed that social
behaviors, including aggression, could be learned
through observing and imitating others.
In his classic experiment , children observed a film
of an actor hitting a “Bobo Doll” in several ways .
Children later imitated that behavior by hitting the
Bobo Doll in same way .
16. Bandura hypothesized that the way the people
mentally construct their experience is crucial .
People may see one person hit another , but will also
decide how competent they feel to do the same and
will make assumptions about what constitutes a
normal way to behave when someone provokes you .
In this way , making inferences about observed
aggression not only increases likelihood of imitating it
, but also range of situations to which that responses
might be generalized it . (Bandura 1986)
17. People sometimes imitate aggressive models,
especially aggressive behavior is rewarded by or
carried out by a person who is heroic admired of
high status and attractive.
18. Some influences of aggression are
The group context
“ Aversive are unpleasant stimuli that induce
changes in behavior via negative reinforcement or
There are some type of aversive experiences:
Researcher Nathan Azrin (1967) was
doing experiment with laboratory rats in
a cage wired to deliver electric shock to
animals feet. He wanted to know that if
switching off the shocks would
reinforce two rats positive interaction
with each other. He planned to turn on
shock and then once the rat approached
each other , cut off the pain.
• To his great surprise the experiment
21. People have theorized for centuries about the effect
of climate on human action.
Climate remains relatively steady while cultural
traits behavior change over the time.
Temporary climate variation can affect behavior.
Offensive odours,cigraette smoke, air pollution
linked with aggressive behaviors'.
22. William Griffitt(1970) found that compared two
students who answered their question paper in
normal temperature ,those who did so in an
uncomfortable hot room over (90?F).
Reported feeling more tired and aggressive and
expressed more hostility toward a stranger.
So William experiment proved that uncomfortable
heat increases aggression.
23. Being attacked or insulted by another is especially
conducive to aggression.
In (1985) Toshihiro kambara confirm, that
intentional attacks breed retaliatory attacks.
One person competes with another in reaction time
Winner also chooses how much shock given to
looser that he left the game.
the amount of space available is less than desired,
and purely physical indices of physical space such
Crowding illustrates how the physical environment
can affect human behavior.
The most common reaction to crowding is stress,
anxiety and frustration about restricted behavioral
Our choices of what, where, and when we do things
25. For example:
In the United States it have found
that children and adolescents who live in more
crowded homes, independent of socioeconomic
status, are less likely to persist on challenging
puzzles, giving up sooner than those living under
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of
being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a
point of perception.
Arousal means wired for an action.
presence of gun can automatically
activates aggression related thoughts and increase
High arousal impairs the cognitive control of
aggression ,as does alcohol.
A lie detector test measures various arousal such as
heart rate, breathing rate, and perspiration.
This test is used to estimate that (which is an
inconsistency between what is true and what is
reported to be true) produces arousal that can be
detected by the machine
a person may be aroused because they are
lying, or they may experience arousal because they
are worried that they are accused of committing a
28. Media produces long-term effects via several types
of learning processes leading to
the aggressive scripts, aggression-supporting
beliefs about social behavior, and by reducing
individuals' normal negative emotional responses .
fMRI(functional Magnetic Resonance Center) have
shown that watching violent programs on media
can control your part of brain and increases the level
30. The phrase “pornography of violence, "first time used
It referred to visual or written matter
designed or intended to cause sexual arousal.
A correlation studies evidence suggest that
pornography is a men's actual aggression toward
In (1985)John Court noted that pornography(rapes)
rate sharply increases during 1960s and 1970s.
31. Extensive viewing of television violence by
children causes greater aggressiveness.
Sometimes, watching a single violent program can
increase aggression level.
To identify that how television increases the
aggression an experiment was conducted by
Huesmann and his colleagues in 1977.
The result of that experiment was that, while
aggressive children may choose to watch more violent
TV programming, that the aggression level because
they start to follow this violent character.
32. Gender differences were also observed in the
expression of aggression.
This experiments shows that specifically, men were
more likely to engage in serious physical aggression
and criminality, whereas women were more likely to
engage in forms of indirect aggression.
Men and women reported similar frequencies of
engaging in verbal aggression, general aggression,
and aggression toward spouses.
33. Playing violent video games like Doom, Wolfenstein
3D or PUBG can increase a person's aggressive
thoughts, feelings and behavior in actual life.
A experiment was conducted by the American
Psychological Association's (APA) it found that:
One study reveals that young men who are habitually
aggressive may be especially vulnerable to the
aggression-enhancing effects of repeated exposure to
"The other study reveals that even a brief exposure to
violent video games can temporarily increase
aggressive behavior in all types of participants."
35. Mcch aggression is committed by group.
Circumstances that provoke individuals may also
provoke groups. (Jacquelyn Gaebelein and Anthony
Diffusing Responsibility (Brian Mullen, 1986)
Social Contagion (Lagerspetz & others, 1982)
36. Male Actors
Presence of weapon
37. Aristotle: purge by experiencing
Release of aggressive feelings through expression in
non harmful ways. For example, hitting pillow etc.
Erotica provide for sexual impulses
Hostility breed more hostility (Ebbe Ebbeson, 1975)
38. Does not change aggression provoking
Does not prevent aggressive urges from arising
Overtime, it actually intensifies rather than
Effect can be temporary and don’t tackle underlying
causes of aggression. (Somer M)
43. Research on human aggression has progressed to a
point at which a unifying framework is needed.
Major domain-limited theories of aggression
cognitive neoassociation, social learning, social
interaction, script, and excitation trans-fer theories.
Using the general aggression model (GAM), this
review posits cognition, affect, and arousal to
mediate the effects of situational and personological
variables on aggression. The review also organizes
recent theories of the development and per-sistence
of aggressive personality.
44. Personality is conceptualized as a set of stable
knowledge structures that individuals use to
interpret events in their social world and to guide
their behavior. In addition to organizing what is
already known about human aggression,
this review, using the GAM framework, also serves
the heuristic function of suggesting what research is
needed to fill in theoretical gaps and can be used to
create and test interventions for reducing
45. In its most extreme forms, aggression is human
tragedy unsurpassed. Hopes that the horrors of
World War II and the Holocaust would produce a
worldwide revul-sion against killing have been
dashed. Since World War II, homicide rates have
actually increased rather than decreased in a number
of industrialized countries, most notably the United
States. Thus, in recent years there has been renewed
interest in learning why humans sometimes behave
47. The purpose of this study was to examine which
theories are utilized explicitly in the studies on
Human aggression. Bushman & Anderson 2001 give
Five main theories of aggression guide most current
research. The theories them-selves overlap
considerably, which is what instigated early
attempts to integrate them into a broader framework.
(Anderson et al. 1995, 1996a).
49. In cognitive neoassociation theory,
aggressive thoughts, emotions, and
behav-ioral tendencies are linked
together in memory (Collins &
50. According to social learning
theories, people acquire
aggressive responses the
same way they acquire other
complex forms of social
behavior—either by direct
experience or by observing
(Bandura 1983, 2001;
Mischel 1973, 1999;
Mischel & Shoda 1995)
51. Huesmann proposed that when children observe
violence in the mass media, they learn aggressive
scripts. Scripts define situations and guide behavior:
The person first selects a script to represent the
situation and then assumes a role in the script.
Huesmann (1986, 1998)
52. It notes that physiological arousal dissipates slowly.
If two arousing events are separated by a short
amount of time,
arousal from the first event may be misattributed to
the second event. If the second event is related to
anger, then the additional arousal should make the
53. Social interaction theory interprets aggressive
behavior (or coercive actions) as social influence
behavior, i.e., an actor uses coercive actions to
produce some change in the target’s behavior.
Coercive actions can be used by an actor to obtain
something of value (e.g., information, money,
goods, sex, services, safety)
54. This research presents the most recent version of
our integrative framework, called the general
aggression model (GAM).
This general model has at least four advantages over
smaller domain theories.
It is more parsimonious than the set of existing
It better explains aggressive acts that are based on
multiple motives, e.g., both instrumental and affect-
based aggression (Bushman & Anderson 2001).
55. It will aid in the development of more comprehensive
interventions designed to treat individuals who are
chronically aggressive; many current treatment
attempts fail because they focus on only one specific
type of aggression. (Tate et al. 1995)
It provides broader insights about child rearing and
development issues, thus enabling parents, teachers,
and public policy makers to make better decisions
about child-rearing practices.
(Zigler et al. 1992).
56. We believe that GAM provides a useful integrative
framework for domainspecific theories of aggression,
transforming a heap of stones into a house.
develop out of experience;
influence perception at multiple levels, from basic
visual patterns to complex behavioral sequences;
can become automatized with use; (d) can contain (or
are linked to) affective states, behavioral programs,
and beliefs; and € are used to guide people’s
interpretations and behavioral responses to their social
(and physical) environment.
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