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Psychology presentation

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Psychology presentation

  1. 1. Effects of Word Presentation Modality and Word Visualizability on Memory Ann P. Beck, Roberto Araujo, George R. Foss, and Roy G. Biv San Jose State University
  2. 2. Theoretical Background •  Words are usually remembered better when presented visually than aurally (Smith, 1985; Jones, Ragalooshian, and Bosner, 1992) •  Visual imagery is helpful in encoding words into memory (Rork and Wendel, 1972; Rosenkrantz and Guildenstern, 1997) – these studies always used visual presentation of words
  3. 3. high visual imagery word cow
  4. 4. low visual imagery word truth ?
  5. 5. Question •  If words are presented aurally, will visual imagery still be helpful? •  Our hypothesis: No. Visual mode must be active in order to use visual imagery.
  6. 6. Our Hypotheses 1.  high visual imagery words remembered better than low visual imagery words 2.  visually presented words remembered better than aurally presented words 3.  interaction: the effect of visual imagery will be greater for visually presented words than for aurally presented words
  7. 7. Method •  Participants: 40 participants (23 females, 17 males) – SJSU students •  Procedure: participants were presented with 40 words, which they then recalled by writing down the words in any order
  8. 8. Method (continued) •  Design: – IV #1: visualizability of word (high visual imagery, low visual imagery) •  within subjects – IV #2: modality of word presentation (visual, auditory) •  between subjects – DV: number of words correctly recalled
  9. 9. Example of word list cow truth respect book belonging spoon …
  10. 10. Results
  11. 11. Results (continued) •  no main effect of modality –  F(10, 1) = 2.41, p > .05 –  visually presented words recalled slightly better than aurally presented words, but not significantly different •  main effect of visualizability of word –  F(10, 1) = 4.35, p < .05 –  high visual imagery words recalled significantly better than low visual imagery words •  interaction –  F(10, 1) = 6.57, p < .05 –  the effect of visualizability is greater for visually presented words than for aurally presented words
  12. 12. Discussion •  High visual imagery words are remembered better than low visual imagery words •  Visual imagery is a more helpful tool for memory when words are presented visually than when they are presented aurally •  We did not find that words are remembered better when they are presented visually than aurally. This may have been due to difficulties reading the visual words. –  two subjects reported difficulty reading the words, which were in 10-point font
  13. 13. Note! •  I didn’t include the “theoretical impact of the study” in this example