Food biotechnology industry now a days is the greatest industry in
the world and with the help of food biotechnology We improve
taste,consistency,colour, nutrition,safety and preservation of food.
Development in food preservation methods have made many of
seasonal foods to be available rounds the year.
Fruits,vegetables,meats,cereals etc requires some degree of
processing and relatively bulky raw agricultural food materials are
transformed into stable,convenient and palatable foods and
3. Fermented food…
Such as bread, cheese, yogurt, tempeh ,soy sauce etc.
Such as wine, alcohol, whisky, tea, coffee, brandy, cocoa etc.
These all are the results of reaction of microorganisms and enzymes
on a wide range of edible agricultural products with the desirable
Fermented food were developed before history and are usually
nutritious, more digestible, with improve flavor and toxicologically
and microbiologicaly safer..
Almost 90 percent of revenue in biotechnology comes from the
fermentation products.some are the fermented products:
4. Alcoholic beverage:
They are found in different forms in different regions.. for example in
cooler regions of Europe, Poland and Russia production and consumption
of beer from barley is more common ;whereas, in warm countries, like
Spain, Greece, Italy and France, wines derived from grapes are more
The starting material normally contains either:
Sugary materials,like Apple juice (to get cider), grape, pear, Palmyra juices
(to get toddy in India and south Asia), molasses (to get distilled rum,and
gins is obtained from distillation of rum in the presence of juniper
berries), honey, sweet potato, etc or
Starchy materials like barley, rye, rice, sorghum, beet root, potato,
etc..and the starchy materials need to be hydrolyzed to simple sugars by
some saccharifying agents, like grain malt, aspergillus oryzea, rhizopus,
mucor, baccillus, etc..
5. (The process is known as saccharification) before the fermentation process.
When the sugary substrates are included with suitable
microorganisms(generally yeast) after fermentation and acidic,nutrient
poor liquid containing a few percent about 16 ethanol is formed which
does not allow growth of most of the containing microorganisms.
The beverage required a period of storage the leads to improved flavor.
Distillation process increases the concentration of ethanol to about 40 to
50 % e.g, whisky,brandy, vodka, gin, rum.
Most regularly used fermenting organism is the yeast species,
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. Carisbergensis.
Which can be utilize simple sugars, like glucose and fructose to metabolize
them to ethanol..
7. Wine means fermented grape juice and histrorically, it is the Middle
Eastern and European drink. France, Italy and Germany are its major
It is obtained from fruit juices mainly from wine grapes,Vitis vinifera
which contains 15-25% sugar.
8. Some of important types of wines:
Red Wine is formed from the fermentation of crushed whole black
grapes (with skin).
White wine is produced from the black grapes without skin or green
Rose Wine is produced from black grapes with some skin.
Dry Wine is obtained from complete fermentation of sugar.
Sweet Wine retains some sugar.
9. Sparkling Wine is obtained from secondary fermentation
of wine containing 1% fermentable sugar and yeast in
setteled bottles.The CO2 produced due to fermentation of
added sugar by yeast, get dissolved under pressure in the
bottle.After fermentation the water in neck of bottle is
frozen to form an ice plug.Thus the CO2 is not allowed to
escap from bottle.
10. Fortified Wines In which additional alcohol is added after the
fermentation thus raising the alcohol content to about 20% e.g,
Formation of Wine : for the formation of wines first grapes are
crushed and the juice thus obtained called must (containg fructose
and glucose) is sterilized by SO2 to control the natural
fermentation by contaminating yeast .Then it is inoculated with the
desired strain of yeast and is subjected to fermentation of the
simple sugars glucose ,fructose in tanks or bioreactors for a few days
to 14 days (no saccrification is required).After fermentation it is
stored for months or years (aging) for chemical changes to improve
the flavor, aroma and for clarification by settling of impurities.The
Alcoholic contents of wine ranges from 7-15%.Moderate wine
consumption is beneficial for Coronary Heart Diseases. Champagne
and Brandy are obtained from distillation of wine
Beer is the world's most widely consumed and probably the
oldest alcoholic beverage.
Third most popular drink overall.
The production of beer is called brewing, which involves
the fermentation of starches.
Additional carbohydrate sources, called adjuncts.
Dried seed soaked in fresh water.
On Floor for germination.
formation of amylases and proteases.
slow heating up to a temperature of 30°C.
The seeds are dried and powdered. ‘This product is called
Malt is added with warm water (55-70 C)
further hydrolysis of unhydrolsed starch.
The content is called mash, which mostly contains the
fermentable sugars like glucose and galactose, dextrins,
17. Formation of Beer Wort:
The content is filtered and the filtrate is given some
more time for the sacchariﬁcation process.
Extra amylase (from the fungus Aspergillus oryzae or
some bacteria) is also added to the filtrate to enhance
the hydrolysis of starch.
The product is known as beer Wort and mostly
contains fermentable sugars like, glucose, galactose
The beer wort is boiled with hops (female flowers of
Humulus Lupulus) to stop sacchariﬁcation (for development of
flavour, aroma and colour and to impart mild antibacterial activity.)
After cooling, the content is added with commercially
available culture of the yeast, Saccharomyces caribergensis.
The yeast may contain dextrin-utilizing gene from
Saccharomyces diasticus to increase the amount of
Greater amount of alcohol after the fermentation for 5-10 days is
Finally, the growth of yeast is limited by anaerobic condition, ethanol
produced and drop of pH.
The product is known as fermented wort, which predominantly
The fermented wort is chilled to 0°C for a period of two weeks to many
The contents are stored at normal temperature for some time to further
improve the quality and eliminate the off flavours.
Some time Papain is added.
21. The yeast is finally removed and the beer is either pasteurized at 60°C
(20 min) to kill any leftover yeast cells and other microbes.
The final product is known as beer, which contains 3-6% alcohol.
Vodca and whisky are obtained from the distillation of beer.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid
(CH3COOH), water, and other trace chemicals, which may
include flavorings. The acetic acid is produced by the
fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria ,
Vinegar was used as food condiment and cleansing agent
but now for pickling , brewing , preserving and medicine.
24. Vinegar types:
The predominant type of vinegar in the United States is
Cane vinegar is made from fermented sugarcane and
has a very mild,rich-sweet flavor. It is most commonly
used in Philippine cooking.
Cider vinegar is made from apples and is the most
popular vinegar used for cooking in the United States.
25. Production of vinegar:
Vinegar production involves alcoholic fermentation
reaction similar to that of wine.
However , for vinegar production the solution also
undergoes a process called acid fermentation in which
bacteria in the genus acetobacter convert ethanol into
acetic acid using alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme.
Depending on starting material many vinegar varieties
can be produce by fermentation process
27. Commercial vinegar production:
Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation
Slow methods are used with tradition sugars and fermentation
proceed for weeks or months. The longer fermentation period allows
for accumulation of non toxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria.
Fast methods add (bacterial culture) to source liquid before adding air
using turbine to promote oxygenation to obtain fastest fermentation.
This method procedes for 20 hours to three days.
Since thousands of years the apple was used as a symbol
Seduction ,Power, Dominance, Governance and Authority , legends,
myths & fairy tales .
Evidence for existence of apples in New Stone Age (about 5000 years
B.C.), due to fossil apple seeds
First cultivated sorts of apples appeared 4600 B.C. in Greece .
Today there are about 20,000 different sorts of apples
Good cider is made of about 30-40 different sorts of apples
Cider has about 5.5 to 7 percent of alcohol
50kg of apples make about 30 to 35 liter of cider.
Grinding/crushing of apples to must
Must is wrapped to canvas and then piled and pressed
Storage in tanks fermentation starts
Fermentation: yeast converts sugar to alcohol and carbon
After three months cider should be drinkable
Cider is fermented apple juice and the production steps resemble those
of wine.On other hand is a fermentation product which contains more
than 4% acetic acid (w/v).
In the preparation of cider
Apples are crushed to a fine pulp from which juice is extracted.
This is treated with sulphur dioxide to inhibit the growth of Kloeckera
apiculata which would otherwise affect the final flavour of cider.
Fermentation is facilitated using either the natural yeast flora or by
adding yeast starter cultures.As the natural growth of saccharomyces is
slow the large cider manufactures prefer to add pure yeast cultures to
the sulphated apple juice.
A particular characteristic necessary is the production of
polygalacturanose to de- esterified pectin to galacturonic acid.
37. Presentaion of cider
German slang for cider: Ebbelwoi
Corded glass (0.25 to 0.3 liter)
Schoppen (glass of cider)
Jar (1.0 to 1.2 liter = 4 Schoppen)
Bembel (jar of cider)
39. Cider in other countries
Argentina: most favourite drink during Christmas
Belgium: many types of flavoured ciders
Channel Islands: strong cider-making tradition, from 16th century the
ordinary drink of the people
Denmark: little cider production, despite large apple tradition, before
2000 mostly imported(SWE) non-alcoholic
East Asia: cider is soft-drink as Sprite or Fanta
France: until mid-20th century 2nd most-consumed drink, mostly
produced in Normandy and Brittany