The Need for conservation and Effective Promotion of Mountain Railways In
Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation Ltd
Dr. Pratima K Dash
Asst. Professor(HOD) Dept of Tourism
Tagore Arts College
Introduction to Rail Tourism
Tourism is defined as activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside the usual environment for not more than one consecutive
year, for leisure, business and other purposes. Tourism is essentially an expression of natural human instinct for experience, adventure,
education and entertainment.
The desired mode of travel for budgeted & sophisticated drivellers.
Indian Railways has made significant role in tourism activity & Considered to be the most convenient mode of travel to visit nook &
Corners of the country
Facilitates accessibility function Tourism
Facilitates accessibility function Tourism Component – Lifeline of the Nation
Contributes to growth & development of the tourism Sector
Objective of the Study
The Need for conservation & effective promotion of Mountain Railways in India
To study the significance & contribution made by Indian Railways for Tourism promotion – An Overview
To Study and analyse the Various mountain trains of India and tourism importance
To study the role of various stakeholders for the conservation of monument
To suggest the various conservational measures for monument & environmental protection – Sustainable approach
• The study was conducted through descriptive and empirical approach
from the data collected from the secondary data.
• The population is confined to five mountain railways only and does
not include the regular trains moving to the mountain and terrain
Rail tours in india
• One of the best ways to see India is through the railways it covers most parts of India through a train
window. It makes the tourists feel the culture of India and not only that it gives a clear picture of the state.
• Indian Railways make collaboration with the State Tourism Development Corporations has introduced a
number of rail tours for the domestic as well as international tourists.
Fairy Queen: This is the oldest working Steam locomo- tive in the world. It was built in 1855. It was
overhauled in 1996 and resumed operations in 1997. It was certified by the Guinness Book of World Records
as the world’s oldest working locomotive.
Palace on Wheels: This was operated by the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation, along with the
Indian Railways. It started its operation in 1982 as a special heritage tourist train for providing a unique and
memorable experience to the tourists visiting India. Earlier the Palace on Wheels was restricted to foreign
tourists, but it was later opened to Indians too. It provides a journey reminiscent to the royal kings. It
takes the tourists to enjoy the splendor of the Rajputs. Cultural shows are organised at every halt of the
Royal Orient: This train takes the tourists to the fascinat- ing state of Gujarat. It travels to palaces and
forts. It is equipped with all modern facilities. There are multi cuisine restaurants and also a library
Tourist Trains of India Cont.....
Deccan Odyssey: The Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) and Central Railway have
promoted jointly a replica of palace on wheels in the name of, the Deccan Odyssey. The train has two
presidential suites 48 deluxe suites, two lounge and conference cars, a specialty restaurant and bar, television
and cable connections, fax machines, cell phones on demand, foreign exchange facili- ties, laundry services, 24
hour room services and a valet. It gives an aristocratic travel experience. It travels throughout the destinations
Maha Parinirvan Express: It is a luxury train started in 2007 which covers the Buddhist destinations. This
train takes the passengers to a pilgrimage tour to Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Golden Chariot: This is operated by the Karnataka Tourism Development Corporation and the Southern
Railways. It is the brain child of the Karnataka Tourism Development Corporation. It has restaurants, bar, a
compartment with spa and gym. It is a fully air conditioned luxury train with eleven residential coaches. To
travel in this train the tourist have an opportunity to start their journey from Bangalore or Goa.
Mountain Railways of India
• Built during the nineteenth and early twentieth century of the British colonial rule.
• An outstanding examples of a technological ensemble, representing different phases of the development in
high mountain areas.
• Evolution- delayed interest of Sir John Lawrence in the year 1844 to have control over Himalayans and
mountain ranges in the colonial India and to create linkages between the mainland to the highlands.
• Motivation to access the summer capital of colonies, Shimla – The summer capital of British India, Darjeeling
– Hill Station for scenic beauty and tea in the eastern Himalayas. Ootakamund in the Nilgiri Mountain ranges
and Matheran Hill station in the Western Ghats.
Nilgiri Mountain Railway (NMR)
Railway operations commenced in the year 1908
.Coonor was initially the final hill station on the line in June
1899 but this was extended up to Fernhill in September 1908
and up to Uthagamandalam by October 15, 1908.
The trains that run on this line cover a distance of 46
kilometers (29 mi), travel through 208 curves, 16 tunnels, and
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway was inscribed as World Heritage
Site by UNESCO in July 2005.
Darjeeling Himalayan Railway(DHR)
the "Toy Train", is a 610 mm (2 ft) narrow–gauge railway that
runs for 88 kilometers (55 mi) from Newjalpaiguri to Darjeeling.
. Built by British east India company between 1879 to 1881
DHR was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1999.
Kalka Shimla Railway(KSR)
• Inaugurated by the British viceroy, Lord Curzon in 1903
,covering the distance of 96 km connects Kalka to Shimla.
•The Toy train passes through 103 tunnels, 969 bridges,
919 curves and 20 railway stations in its entire journey.
Matheran Hill Railway,
• Built between 1901 and 1907 by Abdul Hussein
Adamjee Peerbhoy and was financed by his father,
• The railway line, a 610mm (2 ft) gauge line, covers a
distance of 20 kilometers (12 mi), over large swathes
of forest territory.
•Runs between Neral to Matheran in Western Ghats.
Kangra Valley Railway
The Kangra Valley Railway lies in the sub-Himalayan region and covers a distance of 163
kilometers between Pathankot and Joginder Nagar , a valley known for its natural beauty and
ancient Hindu Shrines.
The line, is part of the Northern Railway and is made with a 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) gauge, was
planned in May 1926 and commissioned in 1929.
The train journey on this line provides beautiful views of peaks of the Dhauladhar mountain
range, particularly in the stretch between Kangra and Mangwal and also the ruins of the Kangra
Surviving Heritage value .
Socio Economic development.
Primary transportation- local
Local Community Support
Limitations of carrying Capacity
Extension of network –
Identification & resembling of nature
Increase in Inbound Tourism
Developmental plans for further tourism
Emergence of Quality tourism Products
Creating Awareness for conservation –
The Number of inhabitants within
Property, Buffer Zone.
Damage to the properties by tourists.
The developmental activities near the
ecological destinations such as
encroachment, mining, agriculture and
The environmental issues like pollution
and climate change may affect the
biodiversity of the flora and Fauna around
the mountain ranges may lead to
Role of Stake Holders – Suggestions
The tourists should be Flexible to accept the procedures and practices followed to preserve the heritage of
the train and the destination.
The tourists be responsible for non polluting environment.
The tourists can support for local enterprise which can improve the economic development for the local
The Tourists are required to be respectful and observant for the local laws, culture and traditions.
The government including the Railways and Tourism need to make the combined effort to boost tourism
activities by framing various policies and procedures in favour of establishing new tourist models in the
Formulating government policies based on the cost saving, to appeal the consumers and make products
more attractive, to promote the sustainability which has no commercial advantage.
Role of Stake Holders Cont.....
Maintaining Close cooperation between public & private sector.
Voluntary action on the degree of regulation in code of conduct, property use, waste management.
The controlled expansion of infrastructure is critical to the achievement of sustainable tourism.
Programmes can be arranged to encourage the local tribes and host communities to participate actively for
the protection of bio diversity and destination value.
Implementation/ Amendment of stringent rules for the environmental protection and its supporting
Making programmes and training about heritage trains and its importance for students in the lean season
as a part of educational initiative.
Service Providers (Hotels & Transporters)
• Raising environmental awareness by the hotel industry by promoting good practice.
• Developing specific guidance to implement environmental programs.
• The Transport vehicles should adopt emission free standard in the ecologically sensitive areas.
• The transport operators is recommended for the use of renewable sources of energy for fuel, like battery
operated cards in the town areas of destination.
• Environmental oriented practices by the local community people being the initial step in conservation of
• Community participation in every aspect of promotion and restoration activities and calamity situation may
sustain the heritage value for the long period of time.
• Maintaining the cultural value along with customs and traditions being practiced.
the impact of innovative transportation system on the social and economic development of a multicultural region, which
was to serve as a model for similar developments in many parts of the country.
The mountain railways of India are outstanding examples of the interchange of values on developments in technology.
The living mountain railway plays an intense role in the attracting the various tourists however there is an intense threat for
environmental degradation and pollution due to tourism.
Responsible oriented tourism practices and preservation measures is the only way to conserve the Mountain trains.