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Did you know that English is the mostwidespread language in the worldand is more widely spoken andwritten than any other language? Did you know that over 400 million people use the English vocabulary as a mother tongue, only surpassed in numbers, but not in distribution by speakers of the many varieties of Chinese?Did you know???
Did you know that over 700 million people,speak English, as a foreign language?Did you know that three-quarters of theworlds mail, telexes, cables, and technicaland scientific journals are in English?Did you know that the main language usedthroughout the world on the internet isEnglish?Did you know that English is thelanguage of navigation, aviation andof Christianity?Did you know???
The earliest The Romans colonized Latin becameinhabitants of the the prestige British Isles are England under Julius Caesar language of the Britons who administration, migrated from and kept it as a colony until the education andEurope sometime social life inin the second half middle of 5th century AD. Only England. of the first millennium B.C. Wales and NorthThese Britons are West Scotland Celtic speakers. remained largely unconquered.
The language spoken by the Britons hasThe Celtic developed into: Welsh- Wales Element Gaelic- Scotland Erse- Ireland Breton- Brittany, France • The influence of Celtic upon Old English was slight. In fact, very few Celtic words have lived on in the English language. • The following words are survivals of the British words and they have been imported into English at a later date: Brock= badger Bannock= a loaf of bread Bin= manger Welsh: druid, flannel, gull, bard Gaelic: cairn, clan, plaid, whisky Irish: brogue, shamrock, galore
The Celtic ElementThe Anglo- Saxon Element Around 430AD, the Celtic warlord Vertigern invited the Jutish brothers Hengest and Horsa (from Jutland) to settle in Britain to form a bulwark against sea raids.
Thr ee G m c Tr i bes: er aniA es- Schl esw g ngl iSaxons- H st ei n olJut es- Jut l and
The Coming of Christianity and LiteracySt. Augustine and his40 missionaries from Rome brought Christianity to thepagan Anglo-Saxonsof the rest of England in 597 AD.
Priest Demon Angel Fork Altar Disciple Verse Spade Mass Hymn Baptism School Paradise MonkChorus Rose Church EucharistCleric Circle Bishop PresbyterCreed Pope Paper NunCross Spider
VERBS The Celtic 1. Strong verbs are verbs that signal Element change in tense through the change in the root vowel of the word. (drink, drank, drunk; run, ran; and think, thought) 2. Weak verbs are those that signal the The Anglo- past tense with a suffix ending in -d or -ed. Saxon Their vowel does not change. Element (walk, walked; love, loved; care, cared) 3. Many strong verbs have been changed, over time, into weak verbs. For OE example, the word meaning toCharacteristics grow, wax, was once a strong verb; now it’s just wax, waxed. Some verbs still remain strong (shine, shone), but weak
Nouns The Celtic 1. Moreover, like many other European Element languages, OE had full grammatical gender: nouns were masculine, feminine, or neuter. Concept nouns (ending in “ness”) were feminine. Hand- Feminine Fot (=foot)- Masculine The Anglo- Heafod (=head)- Neuter Saxon Wif (=wife)- Neuter Element Wifman (=woman)- Masculine Dag (=day)- Masculine Niht (=night)- Feminine 2. OE often signaled the plural of nouns with OE a final -s, as we still do today. But there wereCharacteristics groups of nouns whose root vowel changed between singular and plural. Thus, man, men; foot, feet; mouse, mice, goose, geese.
The Celtic Consonant Clusters Element The consonant cluster “sk” changed into “sh” The Anglo- so that skield became Saxon Element shield. OE disk became dishCharacteristics skip became ship
Old English Modern English Oure fadir þat art in heuenes Our father which art in halwid be þi name; heauen, hallowed be thy þi reume or kyngdom come to name.be. Be þi wille don in herþe as it Thy kingdom come. Thy will be is dounin heuene. done in earth as it is in yeue to us today oure eche heauen. dayes bred. And foryeue to us oure dettis Giue us this day our daily þat is oure synnys as we bread.foryeuen to oure dettouris þat is And forgiue us our debts as we to men þat han synned in us. forgiue our debters.And lede us not into temptacion And lead us not into but delyuere us from euyl. temptation, but deliuer us from euill. Amen.
The Danish The Danish/ Viking Element Element • Towards the close of the 8th century, the Northmen or Danes appeared, first as raiders, then as conquerors and settlers. For a time, they were held at bay by Alfred and the country as divided into two: Northern half or Danelaw- Danes Southern half- Alfred • But in 1016, after Alfred’s death, a Danish King, Canute, became King of all England as well as of Denmark and Norway.
The Danish ElementThe Danish Element • Adjectives: flat, happy, low, ugly, weak, wron g • Verb: want, call, cut, die, take • Nouns: leg, skin, skull, knife, sky, Thursday • The Danish “are” replaced the AS “sindon,” and “same” replaced “thilke,” and it is because of the Danes that today we say “eggs” instead of “eyren,” and “window” instead of “eye-thril.”
The Danish Element The Danish Element ENGLISH DANISH Shirt Skirt No Nay Drop Drip Sit Seat Rear Raise From Fro Blossom Bloom
D i d t h e N o r ma n s r e a l l y c onque r Engl i s h? For about 300 1362- Edward IIIIn 1066 William the years, two opened the 1415- Henry V Conqueror, the parliament inDuke of Normandy, languages are could not being spoken English invaded England. Statute of Pleading speak French.The new conquerors side by side in brought with them England. The enacted that Accordingly, “It proceedings or law is easy for me French, which official language courts should be in became the was French and English because to conquer the language of the English was “French has become kingdom as toRoyal Court, and the spoken by the much unknown in ruling and business this realm.” speak so much common people. classes. more French.” T h e N o r ma n E l e me n t
ME Characteristics The Danish Element Sound Change • OE began to lose some of the characteristic consonant clusters that gave it its distinctive sound. • Certain OE words underwent a special The Norman Element sound change called metathesis (eg.“aks” for “ask”) During the late OE and early ME period, certain words permanently metathesized their sounds: brid > bird; axian > ask; thurgh > through; beorht > bright. MECharacteristics
VOCABULARY The Danish Political terms: prince, sovereign, throne, Element crown, royal, state, country, people, nation, parliament, court, chancellor, minister, council. Chivalry and Refinement: honour, glory, courteous, duty, polite, conscience, noble, The Norman pity, cruel Element Building and Architecture: arch, pillar, palace, castle, tower Warfare: war, peace, battle, armour, officer, soldier, navy, captain, enemy, danger, march Law: justice, judge, jury, court, crime, traitor, ME assize, prison, tax, money, rent, property,Characteristics injury Religion: religion, service, saviour, prophet, saint, sacrifice, miracle, preach, pray
VOCABULARY The Danish Element NORMAN ENGLISH Castle, city Town, hamlet, house, home Relations, ancestors, descendants Father, mother, sister, brother, son, daughter Pleasure, comfort, ease, delight Happiness, gladness, work NORMAN ENGLISH The Norman Fruit, flowers Sun, moon, wind, stars, evening Element Beauty, design, ornament Grass, wheat, oats Lowly English workers was a Men who came into contact shoemaker, fisherman, with rulers are called tailors, shepherd, miller, smith, baker barbers, painters, carpenters ME Normans used chairs, tables, Englishmen had only theCharacteristics furniture humble stool
VOCABULARY Normans eat dinner, feast, Englishmen had the simple The Danish Element supper at which food will breakfast be boiled, fried, roasted ENGLISH NORMAN Ox, cow, calf, sheep, swine, Beef, veal, mutton, pork, deer bacon, venison Saxon Origin French Origin The Norman Element Foe Enemy Friendship Amity Freedom Liberty Unlikely Improbable Homely Domesticated Happiness Felicity ME Fatherly PaternalCharacteristics Motherhood Maternity Bold Courageous Love Charity
The Great Vowel ShiftF r o m Mi d d l e E n g l i s h t o Mo d e r n E n g l i s h
What is the Great VowelShift?• The GVS was a systemic shift: that is, it was a change in a system of pronunciation, not a change in individual sounds.• The GVS can be described in terms of articulatory phonetics: Front vowels were raised and fronted. Back vowels were raised and retraced. High vowels were made intodiphthongs.
What happened?1. The high front vowels represented by the letters i andu in ME became diphthongs: that is, they becamepronounced differently, each as a cluster of two sounds.In early Modern English of the sixteenth century, wordslike mice and mouse (in ME, pronounced “mees” and“moose”) would have been pronounced “moice” and“mohuse.” By the end of the seventeenth century, theywere pronounced “mah-ees” and “mah-oose” —veryclose to our own pronunciations, which are diphthongs.2. The mid vowels, in ME written as e and o, wereraised. Thus ME feet, pronounced “fate,” came to bepronounced as Mod English “feet.” ME do, pronounced“dough,” came to be pronounced as Mod English “do.”
What happened?3. The low back vowel written in ME as a rose to fill the placeleft by the older ME e. Thus, a word like name, pronounced inME as “nahme,” became pronounced “naim.”4. Finally, the long, open o (pronounced like “aw”) was raisedto the long o. Thus, the ME word so, pronounced like “saw,”came to be pronounced “so.” Middle English Sounds like Moderny,i "myne, sight" "meet"e, ee "me, meet, mete" "beg"(close e)e "begge, rede" (open e) "bag"a, aa "mate, maat" "father"u, ou "hus, hous" "boot"o, oo "bote, boot" (close o) "boat"o "lof" /o (open o) "bought"
Why did it happened? 1. Migrations from the north and the Midlands into London brought speakers into contact. 2. This mix of dialects created social pressures to develop or select a set of pronunciations that would have new social status or prestige.
What has been the effect of GVS?• In educated and official writing, spelling was old-fashioned: it was, in effect, etymological. It did not reflect the newer sounds of speech in the GVS.• An added effect of this growing separation was a change in how punctuation was used. In the Middle Ages, punctuation was, in essence, ear punctuation: It signals breaks in reading aloud. By Caxton’s time, punctuation was moving toward eye- punctuation, which signals syntactic or clausal units of a sentence.
Early Modern EnglishEarly Modern William Caxton establishes the first English 1476 English printing press. 1564 Shakespeare is born. Table Alphabetical, the first English 1604 dictionary, is published. The first permanent English settlement 1607 in the New World (Jamestown) isLate Modern established. English 1616 Shakespeare dies. Early Modern 1623 Shakespeares First Folio is published English The first daily English-language 1702 newspaper, The Daily Courant, is published in London. Samuel Johnson publishes his English 1755 dictionary. English Thomas Jefferson writes the American Today 1776 Declaration of Independence. Britain abandons its American 1782 colonies.
Early Modern EnglishEarly Modern By the time of Shakespeare (1592-1616), English the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. It was during the English Renaissance that most of the words from Greek and Latin entered English. This period in English cultural history is sometimes referred to as "the age of Shakespeare" or "the Elizabethan era", taking the name of the English Renaissances most famous author and most important monarch, respectively. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I there was an explosion of culture in the form of support of the arts, popularization of the printing press, and massive amounts of sea travel.
Early Modern EnglishEarly Modern English During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I there was an explosion of culture in the form of support of the arts, popularization of the printing press, and massive amounts of sea travel.
Early Modern EnglishEarly Modern Best foot forward Addiction English Brave new world Bedazzled Break the ice Cold-blooded Come what may Courtship For goodness’ sake Design Full Circle Engagement Forever and a day Eyeball Lie low Fashionable Melted into thin air Gossip Naked truth Shooting Star Own flesh and blood Tardiness
Late Modern EnglishEarly Modern English • The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary.Late Modern English English Today
Early Modern EnglishEarly Modern There were three big developments in the English world at the beginning of Modern English period: the Industrial Revolution, and the British Colonialism.Late Modern English
Early Modern Late Modern English • The industrial and scientific revolutions English created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries. For this, English relied heavily on Latin and Greek. Words like oxygen, protein, nuclear, and vaccine did not exist in the classicalLate Modern languages, but they were created from Latin English and Greek roots. • Such neologisms were not exclusively created from classical roots though, English roots were used for such terms as horsepower, airplane, and typewriter. This burst of neologisms continues today, perhaps most visible in the field of electronics and computers. Byte, cyber-, bios, hard-drive, and microchip are good examples.
Early Modern Late Modern English English Webster publishes his 1828 American English dictionary. Late The British Broadcasting Modern 1922Late Modern Corporation is founded. English English The Oxford English 1928 Dictionary is published.
English TodayEarly Modern • Languages that have contributed words to English English include Latin, Greek, French, German, Arabic, Hindi (from India), Italian, Malay, Dutch, Farsi (from Iran and Afghanistan), Nahuatl (the Aztec language), Sanskrit (from ancient India), Portuguese, Spanish, Tupi (from South America) and Ewe (from Africa).Late Modern English • From around 1600, the English colonization of North America resulted in the creation of a distinct American variety of English. Some English pronunciations and words "froze" when they reached America. English • English has without a doubt become the Today global language.
Early Modern EnglishLate Modern English English Today English has without a doubt become the global language.
Presented by:BALDOVINO, Rubyrose C. MA- Applied Linguistics