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51662 chapter 7_

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51662 chapter 7_

  1. 1. Qualitative Data Analysis : An Introduction Carol Grbich Chapter. 7 Phenomenology
  2. 2. Phenomenology Phenomenology involves exploring, in depth, experiences or texts to clarify their essences There are several different forms of Phenomenology: Classical/realistic/transcendental; Existential Hermeneutic Heuristic
  3. 3. Classical Phenomenology – Edmund Husserl Seeks the structures of the world and how people act and react to them, eg. the structure of consciousness, intentionality and essences in an external world how objects are constituted in pure consciousness and how these constitutions can be identified through processes of phenomenological reduction.
  4. 4. Phenomenological reduction (bracketing) identify the phenomena or object identify a recent experience of your own of this phenomena in terms of how it appeared to you take certain features of this experience and develop variations on aspects of this bracketed experience and then delete these from the object continue this process until you arrive at the essence or essential features of the object
  5. 5. Bracketing detail (1) Ask more specific questions about your knowledge of and attitudes (What do I think of this? What do I think this experience would be like?) Move back, remove all theoretical perspectives, symbols and constructs and your preconceived ideas, experiences and feelings re the topic under research Prepare to confront the phenomenon with a blank sheet, rather like taking the position of an alien from a distant planet Focus on the phenomenon and become open and passive Set reasoning aside Listen carefully and allow yourself to be drawn in, in a sustained and receptive manner
  6. 6. Bracketing detail (2)  Document answers to the question: what does the experience appear to be now?  Examine this description, : Does it arise from my own experiences or from past knowledge or my reading? All aspects which can be seen to have come from other sources must be abandoned.  Locate the experiences’ essence and identify and critique the essences’ elements. Ask yourself the question: Would the phenomenon still stand without any of these?  Negotiate the essences’ elements with those observed/interviewed. (Adapted from Crotty, 1996:158-159
  7. 7. Data collection Interview with open ended questions seeking experiences. Return several times to seek clarification of issues or to explore potential aspects which are becoming illuminated Observe (bathe in the experience as it occurs – observing the human experiences both of yourself and of others) Include documentation e.g. literature, poetry, biography, material culture etc. (seek perspectives of others regarding these texts, meanwhile recording your own understandings and experiences) Identify and deconstruct discourses
  8. 8. Data analysis Bracket out your own experiences Enter a dialogue with individual participants (or engage with an existing text) Reflect on what you have gained through reading and journaling your thoughts Identify the major themes from the narratives/texts using processes of preliminary data analysis and/or thematic analysis
  9. 9. Data analysis detail (1) Stage 1: ideographic mode (the gathering of closely connected ideas, words or concepts) construct a ‘research key’ of categories from each transcript and subcategories related to the research question. This key will be expanded as more transcripts are perused. isolate ‘natural meaning units’ – phrases with a single meaning and number these according to categories in the research key select themes which are central to the experiences of participants - write a phenomenological comment on each central theme write a succinct sub narrative of the individual’s experience of the phenomenon and relate it to the interpretive themes selected.
  10. 10. Data analysis detail (2) Stage 2; nomothetic mode (the search for abstract principles) collate sub -narratives and interpretive themes and use concept maps to to indicate interconnections around the phenomenon being researched rank interpretive themes in order of importance (frequency x intensity) and group meta themes and subthemes identify explicative themes (those which appear to have a primary referential character) using bracketing of your own thoughts and biases followed by creative writing through ‘free variation’ to multiply possibilities creatively write using your own embodied experience of the phenomena together with information from the literature to enhance phenomenological description of interpretive themes key to the phenomena. (adapted from Devinish, 2002: 5-6)
  11. 11. Existential Phenomenology; Sartre, Heidegger, Merleau Ponty. Consciousness is a separate entity People are immersed in their life worlds Phenomenological reduction is not desired Movement from abstract to the real – the meanings for being must be uncovered first Husserl’s movement in classical phenomenology is from the real to the abstract.
  12. 12. Hermeneutic Phenomenology : Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur & Van Manen Investigates the interpretive structures of experiences of individuals or texts  The interpretive focus is from the outside - from the perspective of the ‘objective’ researcher, or from the inside - with a focus on interaction between the interpreter and text  The integration of part and whole in terms of overall interpretation is essential. ‘being’ (existence) is the overarching hidden aspect which becomes evident via the activities of ‘beings’ (individuals).  Bracketing does not occur but a reflective journal is kept  Co-construction of the data between researcher and respondent occurs and that the outcome involves a continuous conversation.
  13. 13. Heuristic Phenomenology : Moutsakas 1. 1. Become one with the research question through self awareness and self knowledge involving; self dialogue ( ones own experiences), tacit knowing (that which lies beneath intuition), intuition (that which is between explicit and tacit knowledge), indwelling (going inwards for a deeper understanding), focusing (on the central meaning of the experience ) and examination of the internal reference frames (created from knowledge and experience).
  14. 14. Heuristic Phenomenology : Moutsakas 2. 2. Immersion: the researcher becomes totally involved in the world of data 3. Incubation: intense concentration on knowledge expansion through increased awareness, intuitive or tacit insights and understanding 4. Illumination: active knowing to expand understanding of the experience through a breakthrough 5. Explication: reflective actions and comprehensive depiction of core themes 6. Creative synthesis: bring together and display data creatively to show patterns and relationships

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