o Authority can be defined as the power and right of a person,
a. to use and allocate the resources efficiently,
b. to take decisions
c. to give orders while achieving the organizational
o All people who have the authority should know what is the
scope of their authority is and they shouldn’t mis-utilize it.
o Authority is the right to give commands, orders and get the
o The top level management has greatest authority. Authority
always flows from top to bottom. Authority can be
o Authority should be accompanied with an equal amount of
o It is the duty of the person to complete the task assigned to him.
o A person who is given the responsibility should ensure that he completes
the tasks assigned to him.
o If the tasks for which he was held responsible are not completed, then he
should not give explanations or excuses.
o Responsibility without adequate authority leads dissatisfaction among
o Responsibility flows from bottom to top. Responsibility can not be
o The middle level and lower level management holds more responsibility.
o The person held responsible for a job is answerable for it. If he performs
the tasks assigned as expected, he is bound for praises. While if he doesn’t
accomplish tasks assigned as expected, then also he is answerable for that.
It means giving explanations for any variance in the actual performance
from the expectations set.
Accountability means being answerable for the end result.
Accountability can’t be escaped. It arises from responsibility.
Accountability can not be delegated.
For example, if ‘X’ is given a task with sufficient authority, and ‘X’
delegates this task to ‘Y’ and asks him to ensure that task is done well,
responsibility rest with ‘Y’, but accountability still rest with ‘X’.
The top level management is most accountable.
Wide span of control (Flat Organization) - It is one in which a person can
supervise and control effectively a large group of persons at one time. According to
this span, one person can effectively and efficiently handle a large number of
subordinates at one time.
The features of wide span are,
It leads to less overhead cost of supervision
We can get prompt response from employees
Better communication can be happened in group while
Better supervision is possible
Better co-ordination is possible
Narrow span of control (Tall Organization) – In narrow span of control, the
work and the authority is divided amongst many subordinates. A supervisor
doesn't supervises and control a very big group of people under him. The
person supervises only the selected number of employees at one time.
The features of narrow span are,
It is useful where the work requires tight control and supervision, for ex.,
handicrafts, ivory work, etc. which requires craftsmanship, there narrow span
is more helpful.
Co-ordination is difficult to be achieved.
Communication gaps can come during work.
Messages can be in distorted form.
Specialization work can be achieved.
Matching Human need with job Needs
The supervisor must firstly identify description of job to be done for
the particular activity. The written statement which include all
detailing about work to be performed by worker is called as job
description. The detailing could be in the form of nature of work,
procedure or method to carry the work, type of technology, time
required to complete work, safety precautions etc.
After identifying job supervisor must find right people to perform
description. Supervisor must be clear about sort of person he is
looking for. For this he must be clear about all requirements of the
Job description and finding people for performing this job both
are different activities as both require different skill set.
The major role of supervisor is to match right people for
right job description. It is also called as matching people to
job needs. It is very complex and time-consuming activity.
Success of organization will only follow after careful
matching of people to job.
If matching process is not done properly then we may not
get right person, even by offering high salaries, by various
manpower sources, by carrying expensive recruitment
drives will not give right person.