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SOURCES
 The Concept of Development Administration by
George F. Gant
 Managing Development in the Third World by Coralie...
 The Concept of Development Administration by
George F. Gant
 Development Administration by R K Sapru
 Challenges in Pu...
The Meaning of Development
 Development implies increase in living standards, improved
health and well-being for all and ...
The Meaning of Development
Objectives of Development
1. Eradication of Poverty
2. Capacity Building
3. Equity
4. Empowerme...
Capitalism & Development
 Capitalism can be characterized as a system of
production of goods and services for market exch...
Socialism & Development
 Socialism is a system in which production and
distribution of goods are controlled by government...
Rostow’s Five Stages of
Development
1. Traditional Society
2. Preconditions for Take off
3. Take Off
4. Drive to Maturity
...
The Role of People in Development
 People are target of development process, their well being is the
purpose
 People are...
The Role of Institutions
 Institutions are the forms in which people organize their affairs in
relationship with each oth...
Components of an Institution
1. A clear definition of purpose, policy, program,
activity and method
2. Financial resources...
Relationship of Institutions
 Institutions, agencies and systems have an essential and a
complementary relationship with ...
Development administration emerged in the
beginning of the 1960’s
The emerging problem is how to combine skills
which exis...
Gant in 1966 saw development
administration as:
 “… that aspect of public administration in which the
focus of attention ...
Meaning of Development
Administration
 The primary objective of development administration
is to strengthen the administr...
Elements of Development
Administration
 Planned And Coordinated Efforts
Development administration refers to organized
ef...
Elements of Development
Administration (cont.)
 Progressivism
in political systems, it would mean greater participation
o...
Elements of Development
Administration (cont.)
 Responsiveness and Accountability
Development administration system requi...
Problems in Development
Administration
Lack of experienced administrators as well as highly
developed technocrats in speci...
 The present nature of development differs greatly from
that seen early in 19th century or in the 1980’s.
 In the 19th c...
The features of development before World War I were:
 Technological revolution
 Capitalism under a system of free enterp...
After 1914 and before World War II significant events took
place like:
 World war I (1914-1919)
 The Russian revolution ...
 After World War II the independence of former
colonies has been one of the most important events to
mark.
 Most develop...
Development goals in the later part of the 1970s (1976-
1980) and the policies to be pursued to achieve those
goals have b...
 The current crisis of development and administration
is precisely a consequence of the inability of the West
to incorpor...
Development administration
Development administration
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Development administration

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Development administration

  1. 1. SOURCES  The Concept of Development Administration by George F. Gant  Managing Development in the Third World by Coralie Bryant and Louise G. White  Meaning and views of Development by Alan Thomas  The Path to Human Development: Capitalism or Socialism? by Prof. Michael A. Lebowitz
  2. 2.  The Concept of Development Administration by George F. Gant  Development Administration by R K Sapru  Challenges in Public Administration from Developing Nations by O. P. Dwivedi
  3. 3. The Meaning of Development  Development implies increase in living standards, improved health and well-being for all and the achievement of whatever is regarded as general good for society at large.  Development is used in three main senses a vision or measure of a desirable society, a historical process of social change and deliberate effort for improvement by development agencies.  In Public Administration development is primarily concerned with the structures of public organizations, fundamental rights of the citizen, human resource development, service delivery, and the collective interest of the people.
  4. 4. The Meaning of Development Objectives of Development 1. Eradication of Poverty 2. Capacity Building 3. Equity 4. Empowerment 5. Sustainability
  5. 5. Capitalism & Development  Capitalism can be characterized as a system of production of goods and services for market exchange in order to make profit.  Development was viewed through industrialization which is the process by which production in the industrial sector become increasingly important compared with agricultural production.  Development in capitalism in immanent means it is intrinsically dynamic, tends to build its own momentum and develops from within.
  6. 6. Socialism & Development  Socialism is a system in which production and distribution of goods are controlled by government rather than private enterprise.  It views development as increase in human potential and capabilities.  Focus is on human potential rather than upon the production of things.
  7. 7. Rostow’s Five Stages of Development 1. Traditional Society 2. Preconditions for Take off 3. Take Off 4. Drive to Maturity 5. High Mass Consumption  Limitations of the model
  8. 8. The Role of People in Development  People are target of development process, their well being is the purpose  People are not only target of development but also instrument of it  Development must be attractive, powerfully attractive to the participants and desired by them  In almost all countries the target of development is people by assuring a level of sustenance acceptable to them and to increase the choices they have for living their own lives up to their optimum expression
  9. 9. The Role of Institutions  Institutions are the forms in which people organize their affairs in relationship with each other  An institution can be called as a system of action that comprehend the structures and mechanisms which provide the capacity and support for action in the form of agencies or organizations, for example, bureaus or departments are institutions of this kind, as are schools, prisons, hospitals, banks  Accepted patterns of economic and social behavior are also embraced by the term institution  The availability and full utilization of highly trained and motivated staff is the crucial factor of success in a new institution  Institutionalization is the process by which systems of action acquire capability and competence, public acceptance, operating resources and the stability of a standard way of doing things  Reform movements are an important and continuing influence in institution building and institutionalization process
  10. 10. Components of an Institution 1. A clear definition of purpose, policy, program, activity and method 2. Financial resources for continuing operations 3. Agency administration in terms of division of labor, work structure, system of decision making etc
  11. 11. Relationship of Institutions  Institutions, agencies and systems have an essential and a complementary relationship with other institutions in a larger system which embraces them all  An institution is invariably responsible for providing a product or a service upon which other institutions are dependent  Complete institutional success depends up on an environment of well coordinated and thus effective relationship among sister institutions, complementing each other to their mutual advantage as they progress towards a common program purpose
  12. 12. Development administration emerged in the beginning of the 1960’s The emerging problem is how to combine skills which exist in developing countries. The need for development administration has been well recognized as a mean of implementing policies and plans directed towards nation- building and socio-economic progress.
  13. 13. Gant in 1966 saw development administration as:  “… that aspect of public administration in which the focus of attention is on organizing and administering public agencies in such a way as to stimulate and facilitate defined programs of social and economic progress…it has the purpose of making change attractive and possible…to the population generally”
  14. 14. Meaning of Development Administration  The primary objective of development administration is to strengthen the administrative machinery which would bring about socio-politico-economic development. Thus: “Development administration is the process of carrying out development programs and projects in the direction of nation-building and socio-economic progress through a developed administrative organization.”
  15. 15. Elements of Development Administration  Planned And Coordinated Efforts Development administration refers to organized efforts to carry out activities  Goal-oriented Administration It is goal-oriented administration with emphasis on achieving social and economic goals.  Management Capacities Creating and enhancing management capacities as a means for achieving development goals.
  16. 16. Elements of Development Administration (cont.)  Progressivism in political systems, it would mean greater participation of the people in the development process  Participation Participation in the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programs and projects  Creativity and Innovativeness Development administration lays stress upon the adoption of new structure, procedure, policies, plans and programs
  17. 17. Elements of Development Administration (cont.)  Responsiveness and Accountability Development administration system requires highly motivated personnel at all levels  People-centered administration It is essentially a people-centred administration  Keeping in Touch with Social Realities  Development administration is requires to keep in touch with the realities, including grassroots situation, local problems etc.
  18. 18. Problems in Development Administration Lack of experienced administrators as well as highly developed technocrats in specialized fields, lack of modern management techniques ,poor methods adopted in policy making, planning and budgeting, procedural delays, lack of sufficient discipline and commitment to plans and program implementation
  19. 19.  The present nature of development differs greatly from that seen early in 19th century or in the 1980’s.  In the 19th century and up to World War I, national development meant Economic Development  This period is also marked by the philosophy of individualism and Laissez-faire became the guiding principle of industries.  Economic activities were mainly performed by individuals in a system of free competition and role of state was restricted to the bare minimum.
  20. 20. The features of development before World War I were:  Technological revolution  Capitalism under a system of free enterprise  Political democracy under a system of representative government  Bureaucratic form of organization  Nationalism  Materialistic and mechanistic culture with strong individualistic, universalistic and mechanistic orientation. The emphasis on nationalism, economic development, and capitalism resulted in mass scale poverty, economic instability and unemployment.
  21. 21. After 1914 and before World War II significant events took place like:  World war I (1914-1919)  The Russian revolution (1917)  The high rates of inflation (1919-1921)  The stock market crash of October 1929  The Great Depression 1930s  The increase in monopolistic tendencies  And the rise of USSR. These and other social and cultural changes combined shook the foundation of 19the century individualism because of the minimalistic role of government the economic system failed to regulate itself.
  22. 22.  After World War II the independence of former colonies has been one of the most important events to mark.  Most developing countries in Asia, the Middle East and Africa came out of the colonial period, with a strong belief in state dominated economic development.  By the 1960’s, states had become involved in virtually every aspect of the economy.
  23. 23. Development goals in the later part of the 1970s (1976- 1980) and the policies to be pursued to achieve those goals have been reflected in the national development plans of developing countries. In their plans, the focus of policy was on such basis:  the expansion and diversification of the production of goods and services,  an increase in employment  improvement in income distribution  elimination of extreme poverty  increase in self reliance in carrying out development tasks  the mobilization of natural, human and financial resources in the common cause of national building.
  24. 24.  The current crisis of development and administration is precisely a consequence of the inability of the West to incorporate the substance of other non-Western developmental experiences into the prevailing conceptual mould.  In place of requiring developing nations to implement blueprints any time when a new paradigm gets manufactured, the time has come to focus and concentrate on results instead of creating grand visions.

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