TYPES OF FLOORING &ROOF
Tiles in building construction are thin plates or elements used to cover
surfaces like roofs, floors, and walls. Types of tiles and their applications are
Tiles in present scenario are a primary element in bringing building interior as
well as exterior finishing and beauty. They are mainly made up of clay
material or any form of inorganic raw material.
Type of Tiles based on Materials and Manufacture
Based on material and manufacture, following are the types of tiles used in
Ceramic tiles or non-porcelain tiles &
Ceramic tiles are used for the interior floors, swimming pools, exterior floors,
walls and for special installation both in interior and exterior cases.
Most types of tiles come under the category of ceramic tiles. They are made
from a mixture of clay and other materials. They are fired in a kiln.
Following are the various types of unglazed and glazed forms of
Earthenware tiles (or) Stoneware tiles
Terracotta and faience
Fully vitrified tiles
Earthenware tiles (or) Stoneware tiles are made of clay and have a large
quantity of silica that is present in the form of sand, crushed stoneware
etc. Silica in the stoneware tiles are added to prevent the shrinkage when
the fixing process is carried out.
Terracotta tiles are manufactured by the use of high-grade fired clay.
Faience tile when we fire the terracotta again after glazing, it finally gives
faience.The faience is available in large variety of color change. This
would help for improving the terracotta works.
Glazed and Vitrified Ceramic Tiles
Glazed and vitrified tiles ceramic are developed presently. The glazed tiles were only
used for walls, at initial stages. Glazed ceramic tiles are mainly manufactured by two
Step 1: With the help of special white clay that is fired at a temperature of 1200
degree Celsius, the body of the tiles are made. These final elements are called
Step 2: The biscuits are accompanied by glazing and decorations if any, and are fired
in the oven.
The glazes in ceramic tiles can be of two types:
The colored enamels are also of different types:
Bright or glossy surface
Eggshell, vellum finishes
For different types of floor and different abrasion due to traffic, the
glazing techniques can be improved.
Vitrified ceramic tiles are tiles that are made from clay materials plus
other finely ground materials. These are subjected to a higher
temperature firing. Fully vitrified tiles are those tiles whose whole
thickness are also vitrified.
Vitrified ceramic tiles have higher abrasion resistance and can be
employed in the areas of heavy traffic. These tiles are said to hard as
granite. These are polished with the help of carbide or diamond
When compared to vitrified tiles, the glazed tiles are not long lasting.
Vitrified ceramic tile
The manufacture, absorbing capacity and the breaking strength of porcelain
tiles differ from the ceramic tiles. The porcelain tiles are also made from clay.
But compared with the ceramic tiles, they make use of heavy or denser clay.
Porcelain tiles during manufacture are subjected to heavy temperature for a
longer time. This baking is carried out until all the water present in the
element is evaporated. This unique method of manufacture makes these tiles
harder and denser compared to ceramic tiles.
This is the reason why porcelain tile is regarded as a superior product when
factors of durability, design, color and value factors are considered.
Porcelain tiles are highly impervious to water. It has a water absorption rate
lesser than 0.5%.
The cost of porcelain tiles is higher when compared to the ceramic tiles. The
porcelain tiles gain more application in surface areas that have high traffic.
The porcelain tiles demand special cement for their installation. These tiles are
harder and denser compared to ceramic tiles. So, when these tiles are used for
wall surfaces, the cement that has high adhesive property are used.
The porcelain tiles that are polished are also available in the market. After firing
of the tiles, they can be polished. This would bring a shine in the tile, without
TYPES OF FLOORING TILES
Flooring Tiles in India have over the years gained popularity over the cemented
and concrete flooring Tiles are available in different patterns, designs and utility
options. Usually they are costlier than the cement concrete flooring and its cost
depends upon the type of tile being used.
Various types of flooring tiles used in India include the
A wide variety of tiles are currently available in the market and the home owner
has make a choice depending upon the finishing to be provided in the house, the
location, local availability as well as the budget for putting up the floor.
• A resin, curing agent, filler, and pigment are poured into a mold. Stone chips are then
poured into the mold to settle with the majority at the bottom of the mold.
• Thereafter, curing occurs to result in rough tiles which are ground and then polished
with the upper surface being the resulting tile surface at which the majority of the
• The tiles are assembled onto a floor with grout lines resulting from spacing of the tiles,
one from another. Grout is then poured in and skived, and the floor polished to result in
a sealed monolithic surface.
1. TERRAZZO TILES
Terrazzo tiles are available in the market with sizes varying from
20 cm x 20 cm to 30 cm x 30 cm and thickness varying between 2
cm to 3 cm. This is a type of procelain tile
The tiles are laid on the base concrete or RCC slab usually by
providing a cement sand mortar of average 3 cm thickness.
Before putting the tile on this mortar bed, they should be
thoroughly cleaned and ultimately laid in the desired slope.
The tiles are laid on the base concrete or RCC slab usually by providing a cement
sand mortar of average 3 cm thickness. Before putting the tile on this mortar
bed, they should be thoroughly cleaned and ultimately laid in the desired slope.
APPLICATION : it can be used outside or indoors as a flooring material & it is
great for high traffic areas such as lobbies, hallways & tiled outdoor areas just for
this reason. It is also a good water resistant tile so it is used in kitchen & bathroom
2. CHEQUERED TILES
The chequered tiles are similar to the terrazzo tiles except that they have groves of
about 2.5 cm in both directions. The method of laying such tiles
• Glazed tiles are available in the market having either a glossy finish or
a mat finish.
They are usually available in sizes of 10 cm x 10 cm, 15 cm x 15 cm or
10 cm x 20 cm in white or different colours. They are laid in the same
manner as any other type of tile. The joints between the tiles are flush
pointed to give an even surface. Such tiles do not require grinding
APPLICATION OF GLAZED TILE
They are used commonly in walls both internal as well as
external walls since they do not absorb heat.
They are used in kitchen counters since the glaze
generally makes them water and stain resistant.
They are used in patios since they are available in
different patterns and colours.
They are used in walkways as paths through gardens &
is similar to that of laying other tiles. Care has to be taken to finish the
grooves in a proper manner.
Chequered tiles can also be provided on the walls to give a different look.
Usually they are costlier than the plain terrazzo tiles.
APPLICATION: they are used for footpaths, entrance & staircases of public
buildings, passages of auditorium & storage godowns, etc.
4. Vitrified tile
• It is made by hydraulic pressing a mixture of clay, quartz, feldspar and silica,
which make vitreous surface.
• Thus creating a single mass making them hard with low porosity. Different
clay bodies reach vitrification at different temperatures.
Vitrified tiles are increasingly being adopted for construction of floors in
residential buildings. They are quite sturdy and can be provided with equal ease
both on a new surface and on existing flooring.
Although they give a good look and can be cleaned easily, they are quite costly
as compared to the other type of tile flooring. Vitrified tiles are available in
glossy or mat finish having different design and patterns.
Sizes upto 60 cm x 60 cm are also available and accordingly each tile covers a
large area. The flooring is provided in the same manner as that of other types of
APPLICATION OF VITRIFIED TILES
Since vitrified tiles can withstand pressure they can be used both
indoors & outdoors, on rooftops, in the garden & as our kitchens
backsplash. Vitrified tiles can also be used as a bathroom floor. An
added advantage is that they come in a variety of design, colour &
They are also used as an anti skid since they are having a coating
they have a high coefficient of friction.
5. PVC TILES
PVC tiles are being used for flooring in residential as well as non
residential buildings. They can be provided for decorating the floors. These
tiles are costly and acoustically they have a superior performance although
they are combustible. They are however easy to clean and maintain.
PVC tiles are usually square in shape having sides of 30 cm, 60 cm or 90
cm. Sheets and rolls of PVC are also available for providing larger floors
These tiles are fixed to the floor tops with the help of adhesives, especially
recommended for the purpose.
APPLICATION OF PVC TILES
Flexible pvc flooring is suitable for comparatively higher traffic,
either for rigid floors such as concrete and stone flooring or for
flexible floors such as timbre flooring.
Since it is a chemical resistance tile it is used in industries it
prevents major damage in case of chemical leak.
Since it is a static resistance it is used in industries that uses lot of
electronic as pvc tile is highly antistatic.
It is also a fire resistant material.
• Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally
available materials such as terracotta or slate.
• Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used and some clay tiles have a
• Slate roof tiles were traditional in some areas near sources of supply, and gave thin and light
tiles when the slate was split into its natural layers.
• It is no longer a cheap material, however, and is now less common.
Types of roof tile profile
• Flat tiles – the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. An example of this
is the clay-made "beaver-tail" tile (German Biberschwanz), common in Southern Germany.
• Flat roof tiles are usually made of clay but also may be made of stone, wood, plastic,
concrete, or solar cells.
“Beaver-tail” flat tile Solar roof tile
• Plain Clay tiles - The size of the plain clay tile 10.5"x6.5" or 265mm x 165mm was
originally defined by statute in 1477 during the reign of Edward IV.
• These are double lap tiles made originally from clay but more recently in concrete.
• They are specified generally for their aesthetic properties.
• The colour were generated through the control of the kiln atmosphere to generate either red,
brown or blue tiles depending on the degree of reduction in the kiln.
• Imbrex and tegula – an ancient Roman pattern of curved and flat tiles that make rain
channels on a roof.
Roman tiles – flat in the middle, with a concave curve at one end and a convex curve at the
other, to allow interlocking.
• Pan tiles – with an S-shaped profile, allowing adjacent tiles to interlock.
• These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field.
• An example of this is the "double Roman" tile, dating from the late 19th century in England
• Interlocking roof tiles – similar to pan tiles with side and top locking to improve protection
from water and wind.
• Monk and Nun tiles, also called mission or barrel tiles – semi-cylindrical tiles laid in
alternating columns of convex and concave tiles.
• Originally they were made by forming clay around a curved surface, often a log or the
• Today barrel tiles are mass-produced from clay, metal, concrete or plastic.
• Antefixes – vertical blocks which terminate the covering tiles of a tiled roof.
Slip Resistance of Ceramic and Porcelain Tiles
What is Slip Resistance?
Of all the characteristics of ceramic tiles, the one that causes the most
confusion by far is that of slip resistance. There are a number of reasons for
• Consumers, and indeed many builders and architects, do not realise that
ceramic tiles which have had their slip resistance tested are awarded a
grade, score or rating. In the absence of this knowledge, it is therefore
presumed by many people that a floor tile is simply either anti-slip or not,
when in reality this is not a binary situation. Different tiles have different
degrees of resistance, and this will be reflected in their rating.
• There are other variables that interact with each other to determine whether a
surface is “safe” or not. The speed of an individual walking or running; whether
footwear is likely to be involved; the material from which the sole of any footwear
might be made; whether a person is likely to be applying lateral pressure whilst
The Tests for Slip Resistant Floor Tiles
• The Ramp test
• The Pendulum test
The Ramp test
o The method itself involves a subject walking across the tiles under scrutiny,
which are in turn fixed to an adjustable ramp. The subject wears specified safety
footwear, and the surface of the tiles are covered in an oil. The angle of the ramp
is increased until the subject can no longer maintain balance, and at this point
the angle of the ramp is recorded.
The steeper the angle, the higher the slip resistance, and the higher the score.
The tile is awarded an “R – rating” between 9 and 13 inclusive, with the higher
rating indicative of higher resistance. There is a table at the bottom of this
article showing possible suggested applications for tiles in each rating. Note
that the lowest score possible is 9.
One of the disadvantages of this procedure over any other is that it needs to be
carried out in a laboratory. Often situations arise, perhaps where there's been
an accident or a claim, where measurements need to be taken after installation.
Clearly this ramp test is of no benefit in these circumstances.
The Pendulum test
The test itself involves a pivoted arm being released in such a way that it
comes into contact with the surface being tested at the bottom of its arc. The
end of the arm which makes contact has been designed to simulate a shod
heel, with a specified rubber pad used as the interface. Based on the extent
to which the arm is slowed by friction as it passes the surface, a rating is
awarded, known as the Pendulum Test Value, or PTV.
It does not work particularly well on surfaces that have a very pronounced
profile. It does not detail a thorough list of suggested practical applications
for which a tile would be suited.
The more the arm slows down, the greater the slip resistance, and the higher
the score. This test can be performed for dry surfaces or those contaminated by
water. The results from this test correlate almost exactly with the coefficient of
friction for the surface under inspection, and is thus deemed reliable. See the
end of this article for result categories.
The HSE Guidelines
Both tests outlined above are recognised in the UK, but most relevant in the UK
is what the HSE recommends. Employers, builders, architects, and others have a
duty to ensure that people are as safe as possible in any given environment. The
HSE has deemed that for assessing slip resistance, the pendulum test score is
accurate, robust, and valid. The tests are also performed in the locations where
slipping is likely to happen.