• a strong feeling derived from one's circumstances,
mood, or relationships with others.
• Physiological changes and conscious feeling of
pleasantness or unpleasantness , aroused by external
and internal stimuli that lead to behavioural reactions.
• Any conscious experience characterized by intense
mental activity and a high degree
of pleasure or displeasure.
• Derived from the Latin word ‘emovere’ meaning to
move, stir up , agitate or excite
3. • An emotion is a complex psychological state that
involves three distinct components: a subjective
experience, a physiological response, and a
behavioral or expressive response.
• In 1972, psychologist Paul Eckman suggested that
there are six basic emotions that are universal
throughout human cultures: fear, disgust, anger,
surprise, happiness, and sadness.
4. • In 1999, he expanded this list to include a
number of other basic emotions, including
embarrassment, excitement, contempt, shame,
pride, satisfaction, and amusement.
• ‘Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at
someone or something.’-Fridja
• ‘Acute disturbance of the organism as a whole,
psychological in origin involving behavior,
conscious experience and visceral functioning.’-P.
5. • All the definitions point out emotion as an
aroused state that has physical, cognitive
(perception,thinking) and behavioral
component.For example an emotion of fear arise
different physiological changes such as blood
pressure, respiration, glandular response etc.,
cognitive changes such as sensing danger,
helplessness etc, and behavioral changes such as
verbal and non-verbal expression as trembling,
paling of skin etc.
6. • Emotions vs. Moods
• In everyday language, people often use the terms
"emotions" and "moods" interchangeably, but
psychologists actually make distinctions between the two.
How do they differ? An emotion is normally quite short-
lived, but intense. Emotions are also likely to have a
definite and identifiable cause. For example, after
disagreeing with a friend over politics, you might feel angry
for a short period of time. A mood, on the other hand, is
usually much milder than an emotion, but longer-lasting. In
many cases, it can be difficult to identify the specific cause
of a mood. For example, you might find yourself feeling
gloomy for several days without any
clear, identifiable reason.
7. • EMOTIONS- INTENSE FEELINGS,CREATORS OF
MOOD,RESPONSE TO A SPECIFIC
SITUATION/STIMULUS, NOT THE TRAITS OF AN
• MOODS- LESS INTENSE,AFTER EFFECTS OF
EMOTION,SUBJECTIVE FEELING, LATER
BECOME INDIVIDUAL TRAITS
8. CHARACTERISTICS OF EMOTION
• Emotion has motivational properties.
• Emotional states are normally regarded as acute
(short/ quick). They are accompanied by
relatively short-lived levels of arousal and desire
• Emotions are regarded as intensely (extreme in
degree) experienced states. It ranges from quite,
calm, and peaceful situation to a jumping state of
joy, violent fury or violent aggressive act and a
9. • Emotional states are often behaviorally
• The instigating stimuli in emotion may be
exogenous(events in the world) or
endogenous (thoughts, images)
• Emotion is accompanied by physiological
• Emotion has cognitive appraisal.
11. EMOTIONAL DIMENSION
Emotions are classified in several respects. Anger, fear,
sadness, happiness, disgust and surprise are basic
emotions. All other emotions are derived from them.
Sometimes the universal emotions happiness and
surprise are mistaken for each other, while happiness
and disgust are rarely confused. The second way to
classify emotions is between positive affects (pleasant
emotions) and and negative affects (unpleasant
emotions). For example, anger, contempt,
disappointment, hate, sadness etc are classified
asunpleasant while happiness, joy, love etc are
classified as pleasant.
12. • INTENSITY:
Intensity is the level of arousal or the strength of
emotion.Emotions vary in intensity from high,
such as excitement, to low , such as displeasure.
An extreme lack of emotion may make it difficult
to hold a job or function normally in other ways.
Too much arousal also causes problems.It makes
difficult to concentrate, work efficiently and
coordinate his or her thoughts and actions.
13. • FREQUENCY:
• Emotions vary in frequency, which is the
number of times the emotion is displayed by
an individual.Some people can even show fake
emotions for a long time, while others keep
the emotion for a few seconds.
14. • DURATION
• Some people display emotion rapidly, others
show it for a brief period of time, while others
express the same emotion for a long period of
15. FUNCTIONS OF EMOTION
• LEARN LESSON:
Emotions help us to learn lessons from our previous
• EMOTIONS DIRECT OUR BEHAVIOUR:
Emotions are mirrors of one’s self.
• EMOTIONS WARN OUR BEHAVIOUR:
Emotions warn us and provide signal about the environmental
factors to run in certain way, to be prepared for actions in
• EMOTIONS PROVIDE ENERGY:It prepares to respond to an
emergency situations giving usextra energy to deal with
that situation by releasing sugar in our blood level.
16. THREE THEORIES OF EMOTION
• The James-Lange theory of emotion was proposed by
psychologists William James and Carl Lange. According to
this theory, as we experience different events, our nervous
system develops physical reactions to these events.
Examples of these reactions include increased heart rate,
trembling, upset stomach, etc. These physical reactions in
turn create emotional reactions such as anger, fear and
• For example, imagine sitting in a dark room all by yourself.
Suddenly you hear breathing sound behind you. Your heart
rate increases and you may even begin to tremble. You
interpret these physical responses as you are scared and so
you experience fear.
17. • According to this theory, people don’t cry
because they feel sad. Rather, people feel sad
because they cry, and, likewise, they feel happy
because they smile. This theory suggests that
different physiological states correspond to
different experiences of emotion.
REACTIONS- EXCITEMENT OF MUSCLES AND
18. • Key Points
• The James–Lange theory of emotion asserts that emotions arise as
a result of physiological arousal —i.e., that the self-perception of
changes in the body produces an emotional experience.
• According to the James–Lange theory, we experience emotions
(such as fear, sadness, and happiness) only afterphysiological
arousal (such as the fight-or-flight response) has occurred.
• One limitation of the James–Lange theory is that it is not known
exactly what causes the changes in the body, so it is unclear
whether they should be considered part of the emotion itself.
• Critics of the James–Lange theory doubt that there is sufficient
variation in physiological arousal to lead to the wide variety of
emotions that we experience.
19. Cannon-Bard Theory
• The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion was developed by
physiologists Walter Cannon and Philip Bard. According
to this theory, we feel the emotions and experience the
physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling and
muscle tension simultaneously.
• For example, you are in a dark room all by yourself and
suddenly you hear breathing sound nearby. According
to the Cannon-Bard theory, your heart rate increases
and you begin to tremble. While you are experiencing
these physical reactions, you also experience the
emotion of fear.
20. • Key Points
• The Cannon–Bard theory of emotion was developed in
response to the James-Lange theory, which proposes
that emotions arise from physical arousal.
• In contrast, the Cannon–Bard theory argues that
physiological arousal and emotional experience occur
simultaneously, yet independently.
• According to the Cannon–Bard theory, when you see a
venomous snake, you feel fear at exactly the same time
that your autonomic nervous system responds.
• According to this theory, emotional expression results
from activation of the subcortical centers of the brain.
21. • Schachter-Singer Theory
• The Schachter-Singer theory of emotion was developed by Stanley Schachter and
Jerome E. Singer. According to this theory, the element of reasoning plays an
important role in how we experience emotions.
• Emotion is the result of cognitive interpretation of the information by the
individual received fro outside and inside sources (environmental source and
source of automatic nervous system or physiological arousal.
• The Schachter-Singer theory suggests that when an event causes physiological
arousal, we try to find a reason for this arousal. Then we experience and label the
• For example, you are sitting in a dark room all by yourself and all of a sudden you
hear breathing sound behind you. Your heart rate increases and you begin to
tremble. Upon noticing these physical reactions, you realize that they come from
the fact that you are all alone in a dark room. You think that you may be in danger,
and you feel the emotion of fear.
22. Schachter-Singer’s Two-Factor Theory
• This theory focuses on the role of physiological arousal as a
primary factor in emotions. However, it also suggests that
physical arousals alone cannot be responsible for all the
emotional responses. Therefore, it takes into account the
cognitive aspect of the emotional reaction.
• For example, you are sitting in a dark room all by yourself
and all of a sudden you hear breathing sound behind you.
Your heart rate increases and you begin to tremble. You
notice the increased heart rate and realize that it is caused
by fear. Therefore, you feel frightened.
• The whole process begins with an external stimulus
(breathing sound in a dark room), followed by the
physiological arousal (increased heart rate and trembling).
The cognitive labels come into action when we associate the
physiological arousals to fear, which is immediately followed
by the conscious experience of the emotion of fear.
23. • Key Points
• According to the Schachter–Singer theory of emotion (also
known as two-factor theory), emotions are the result of the
interaction between two factors: physiological arousal and
• According to the Schacter–Singer theory, physiological
arousal is cognitively interpreted based on environmental
context; this process culminates in emotional experience.
• For example, if you were to see a venomous snake in your
backyard, the Schachter–Singer theory argues that the
snake would elicit a physiological response that would be
cognitively labeled as fear based on the context.
24. THREE COMPONENTS
• Organic (Physiological) Changes During Emotion
• The experience of emotion is associated with a
variety of bodily changes, both overt and covert.
Overt bodily manifestations of emotions are
obvious and observable. But the covert organic
changes are detected only by special procedures,
and modern recording devices including
computers. Following overt and covert changes
occur in the body at the time of emotion:
• Face becomes red with excitement or anger;
• Eyes are protruded;
• The pupils of the eyes are dilated.
25. • Respiration becomes more rapid;
• The electrical resistance of the skin decreases;
• The blood clots more quickly at the time of injury;
• Blood sugar level increases to make the organism
• Gastrointestinal activities decrease or even stop
• Blood is canalized from stomach and intestine to
the motor organs and brain;
• The hairs stand on their roots.
26. Cognitive component
The cognitive component
is how we interpret certain situations or stimulations.
This determines which
emotion our body will feel. For example; if you are a
lone, sitting in the dark, watching a scary movie, and
you hear a loud noise, you may become scared... fear
ing that there is an immediate threat
or that you are in danger. This emotional response to
this imaginary threat is just as powerful as
it would be to a real threat.
Our perception to the imaginary threat is
what makes it feel real to
us and causes the emotion in our body.
27. BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT
• Emotions can be expressed in different facial
expressions, vocal languages or nonverbal
behaviour. Facial expressions are natural and
spontaneous conveyors of emotions. Smiles,
frown, furrowed brows, bowed brows, laugh
etc. are the examples.
• Ekman (1980) estimated that human facial
muscles can create 7000 different expression.
28. • EYES
• BODY LANGUAGE
• FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
30. EMOTION AND HEALTH
• Key Difference – Psychology vs Common Sense
• Psychology and common sense refer to two different things
between which a key difference can be identified. First, let
us define the two words. Psychology refers to the scientific
study of the mental processes and behavior of the human
being. On the other hand, common sense refers to good
sense in practical matters. As you can see the key
difference between psychology and common sense, stem
from its source of knowledge. Psychology relies on
science, theoretical understanding, and research,
but common sense relies on experience and reasoning
31. • APPLICATIONS OF EMOTIONS AND MOODS TO OB
• Decision Making
• Interpersonal Conflict
• Customer Service
• Job Attitudes
32. EXTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON EMOTIONS
There are no single
emotional “set” that all
The climate in well managed
organizations is one that
strives to be emotion free.
33. Cultural Influences
Does the degree to which
emotions vary across
emotions vary across