Learning is the acquisition of knowledge or
skills through study, experience, or being
Learning is a process within the organism which
results in the capacity for changed performance
which can be related to experience rather than
maturation. – Ribeaux and Poppleton
3. 1. To understand and predict behavior of the people at work
Different roles and skills of managers are acquired through
learning. Without learning experience, it is difficult to manage
people in the organization.
2. To manage and work in diversity
People are learning to work as a unified force to achieve
organizational goals and manage diversity.
3. To adapt to the changing technology
To work with the new technology, we need to learn new skills.
4. Total quality management (TQM)
The objectives of TQM can only be achieved by using behavioral
dimensions such as leadership behavior, group dynamics,
empowerment which are required to be learned by the
5. To facilitate organizational change and development
Some external forces like globalization, technology and
demographics forces managers and workers to learn to
reconfigure organization to adapt to such situations.
4. 1. Distribution of knowledge and information
Senior managers had more access to knowledge and information
about the organization and its resources than their subordinate
employees. In such cases attitude of senior managers largely
determines individual learning.
2. Reward for learning
Learning should be rewarded giving opportunity to work in challenging
jobs, by promoting in upward position and personality development.
3. Support for learning
It refers to the organizational climate and conflict to learn through the
transfer of knowledge and skills.
4. Motivational and prior experience
Individual motivation to engage in the process of learning is also
determined by available of information and supportive learning
environment and opportunities fro practicing.
5. Opportunities to practice
To achieve a higher level of skill, there is a need for workers to acquire
knowledge and have opportunities to practice.
5. Reinforcement Theory
This theory was developed by American
Psychologist Burrhus Frederic Skinner.
This theory states that behavior is largely
determined by its consequences i.e.
Positive actions that have positive
consequences tend to be repetitive more in
future whereas actions with negative
consequences are less likely to be repeated
In context of OR, the focus of this theory is
upon modifying the behavior of people on
6. What is reinforcement?
• Reinforcement simply means to repeat an
• It is an occurrence of a stimulus or event that
helps in regular appearance of desired
• It increases the probability of responses
• Food or water following the desired behavior
is reinforcement in operant conditioning.
7. Experiment of
This experiment was
conducted on a rat where a
hungry rat was kept in a box
which was sound proof.
were made in order to
measure the behavior of it.
Initial stimulus is unknown
which may be sight of food,
smell of food, etc ; response
is pressing of bar to get
reward ; food which it gets
as reward is reinforced
8. It results when a pleasant event occurs, such
as praise, pay, etc following some behavior.
the pleasant event is positive reinforce if the
same behavior is repeated in the future.
Factors for positive reinforcement in context
1. Positive communication
3. Timing : People like to be appreciated
immediately for all the good things they
have done or achieved.
4. Consistency : The must be consistency in
positive reinforcement because what
comes from heart in with ‘positive’
intentions in any shape or form, can
change others in a positive way.
5. Rewards : They must be given rewards for
their best performance.
6. Freedom of choice : Employees must be
given freedom of choice in case of ways or
duties he performs.
9. It occurs when a response is
followed by the removal of
unpleasant stimulus following some
Factors for negative reinforcement in
context of OR:
1. Demotions following poor
2. Salary cut off following poor
3. Punishment following poor
5. Drug test
6. Dealing with mistakes
10. • This theory was developed by Russian
psychologist Ivan P. Pavlov.
• Classical conditioning also known as
Pavlovian or respondent conditioning is a
learning process in which an innate
response to a potent stimulus comes to be
elicited in response to a previously neutral
stimulus; this is achieved by repeated
pairings of the neutral stimulus with the
• This experiment was conducted on a dog.
• This theory was developed by Edward Tolman,
who did experiments on rats and found relations
between cognitive environmental cues and goals.
• He noticed that the rat learned to expect that
certain cognitive cues associated with the choice
point might eventually lead to food.
• He concluded that if the rat finds food, the
association between cue and expectancy was
strengthened, and the learning occurred.
• The cognitive theory is different from classical
conditioning and operant conditioning theories
in the sense that learning is the result of relation
between cues and the expectancy (S-S).
• In organizations, training programs are designed
and implemented to strengthen relation between
cognitive cues in order to achieve individuals
14. Social Learning Theory
This theory explains the effects of the combinations of cognitive
behavioral and environmental forces on learning. This theory states that
people learn by watching others and develop pictures of their behaviors
and the results. Thus, according to this theory, much learning occurs by
observing others and then modelling the behavior that leads to a favorable
consequence. Different ways of social learning are:
• Behavioral modelling
It is also known as a vicarious learning model. It occurs when an individual
learns b observing others’ behaviors and modelling them.
• Learning behavioral
This is a approach to learning by observing consequences of our or others’
With this approach of learning, people learn without any external
• Learning through feedback
People also learn through social and non-social sources of feedback.
15. Behavioral Modification
It is the application of reinforcement theory to people in
organizational setting. According to reinforcement theory, we can
increase the frequency of desirable behavior by linking those
behavior with positive consequences and decrease undesirable
behaviors by linking them with negative consequences.
The steps of behavioral modification is presented below:
16. 1. Identify
4c. Measure: Chart the
frequency of responses after
3. Identify existing
through functional analysis
2. Measure Baseline
the frequency of
4e. Evaluate for
17. Methods of Minimizing Non-sampling Errors
• Checking the sampling process
• Preparation of questionnaire
• Pilot survey
• Fix procedures
• Use of competent manpower
• Provide information
• Provide training
• Use of experts
• Checking data processing and analysis