1. Social cognition
• Social cognition is the encoding, storage, retrieval, and processing, of
information about conspecific.
• Social cognition focuses on how people process, store, and apply
information about other people and social situations.
• It focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in our social
• It describes the ways how we think about other people.
• The way we think about others plays a major role in how we think,
feel, and interact with the world around us.
• The process of information occurs in two ways
2. Social cognition
Automatic processing of information
• The information are processed smoothly, easily,
effortlessly and unintentional manner.
• We can do two or more than two things at once.
• We can talk on mobile, listen radio, keep attention
to traffic light.
• A learner of bicycle riding devote a lot of attention
3. Social cognition
effortful processing information
• Cognitive capacities are limited.
• Cognitive process require Concentration,
attention and time
• It is difficult to re call the date, formulae in the
• For this practice and exercise is required.
4. Social cognition
• Processed information is transferred into schemas(
past and social experiences about people)
• They help us to organize and interpret our social
• Schemas effect our attention, encoding and retrieval
• It guide our behaviour.
• It is used in making judgment about other people.
• Information that fit our schemas are ignored.
5. Social cognition
• Impression formation is another factor in
• People try to make first impression to others
as it exert strong impact.
• People use different technique to boost their
• There are generally two ways: self
enhancement and other enhancement
6. Social cognition
• In self enhancement, people try to look good by
exposing good images, styles through dress.
Verbal and non verbal gesture.
• In Other enhancement, impress the target
people in various ways like smile, flattering,
doing small favors, handling and controlling
• Overdoing such expressions sometimes cause
misunderstanding and distrust with one
7. Social behaviour
• Social behaviour is the interactions made between a group
• It looks how people interact and relate with each other in
• Every society has their own norms and values.
• While living and working together they share and share
social norms and values and their influence in behaviour of
• It guides us how to adapt in society and
8. Ways to manipulate the others bahaviour
• Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence.
• It is a form of social influence used in daily life.
• It is also a pressure to convince others to change attitude or
• Persuasion can attempt to influence a
person's beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors.
• This process goes on class room, Religeous affairs, in political field
and in the media.
• People often receive message from radio, TV, newspa.per, parents ,
peers speeches, magazines, ads and public figures.
• It can explained through “who says what to whom by what means.
9. Factors of persuasion
• Credibility of communicators. It has two component:
Expertise and trustworthiness.
• Physical attraction: physically attractive communicators are
more persuasive.( male and females models).
• Fitting the message to the nature of audience:
One sided message to less educated and uninformed.
Two sided message to well educated and well-informed audience.
• The power of emotions:
It works better in less educated and less analytical group.
A low level of fear message are more effective.
High level fear are violent and repelled.
Distraction: more inclined to persuasion when are distracted by
Vocal power: more persuasive
• An attitude is an expression of favor or disfavour toward a person,
place, thing, or event.
• psychologist Gordon Allport described attitudes as"the most
distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social
• It is very complex cognitive process just like personality of an
Positive attitude: positive mental attitude is a psychological term
which describes mental phenomenonin whichthe centarl idea is
thatone can increase achievment throughoptimistic thought
Negative attitude : It is characterized by great disregard for every
thing. Someone who constantly pointed out negative in
• Attitudes are the belief system that direct our
thoughts, feelings, and actions with regard to other
people, situations and ideas
• Attitude can be formed from a person's past and
• It evaluates or provide judgment based on past
information or impression.
• It may be about objects, people and thoughts like
AIDS, religion, abortion, politicians or suicide.
• Attitude vary in intensity.
12. Features of attitude
• Attitude can be characterized in different
Change with time and situation.
Related feeling and belief of people.
Affects one’ behaviour positively or negatively.
Learned through experiences.
May be unconsciously held
13. Attitude component
• attitudes are evaluations of an object that have cognitive,
affective, and behavioural components.
• These components are also known as taxi CAB, that will get you
where you want to go.
refer to the beliefs, thoughts, and attributes that we would
associate with an object.
Many times a person's attitude might be based on the negative
and positive attributes they associate with an object.
Eg, Person who like dogs, love them and express dog is faithful but
who hate say dog’s bite.
Thus, attitude make people to interpret the events, impressions
differently according to their belief system.
14. Attitude component
• Affective component:
It refer to our feelings or emotions linked to an attitude object.
Affective responses influence attitudes in a number of ways.
For example, many people are afraid/scared of spiders.
So this negative affective response is likely to cause you to have
a negative attitude towards spiders.
• Behavioural component:
refer to past behaviours or experiences regarding an attitude
refer to past behaviours or experiences regarding an attitude
For example, the people who have negative attitude towards
street children, will rebuff when they approach near.
On the contrary, who have positive attitude try to hit upon the
cause of their miserable life.
• Daniel Katz classified attitudes into four
different groups based on their functions.
Utilitarian: provides us with general approach or
Knowledge: help people organize and interpret new
Ego-defensive: attitudes can help people protect their
Value-expressive: used to express central values or
17. function of attitude
• The adjustment function: attitude often help
people to adjust their work environment.
• Ego defensive function: it help people to retain
their dignity and shelf image.
• The value of expressive function: Attitude provide
individuals with a basis for expressing their views.
• The knowledge function: Attitude provides
slandered frames of references that allow people to
understand and perceive the world around him.
19. Condition related to attitude change
(Reactions to persuasion)
Attitude change is difficult task.
we become irritated and hatred when some one
enforce to change our attitude and behaviour.
We resist show negative sign and adopt opposite
Social psychologist called it as reaction to persuation.
Under this situation, we often feel that our freedom,
independency and decision making power is reduce
The reaction to persuasion are explained as
20. Reaction to persuasion
It is the early warning given by persuader to change our
existed attitude beforehand knowledge.
But we likely to be less affected by it.
Eg. Political speech, tapped message etc.
It influence our cognitive process in persuasion.
• Selective avoidance:
In this, we shift our attention away from information that
challenges our existing attitude.
It is a kind of ignoring tendency to the persuaders attempt.
For example, we turn of tv, mute commercials etc.
21. Reaction to persuasion
• Active defense:
In this, we give strong arguments against persuader to defend
our existing view.
It makes observation more strong and reduce the impact of
persuader to influence on our attitude.
• Biased assimilation
It is the tendency to evaluate the persuasions information as
less convincing and reliable than our existing attitude.
This makes us difficult to change our views.
• Attitude polarization
In this, we give more importance to our existing information.
It strengthened our initial information in such a way that we
can’t change our views.
22. Major job attitudes
• OB describes three job attitudes of human while at work.
It is the positive feeling about the job.
The person who are highly satisfied with their job hold positive
feelings about their jobs, while unsatisfied hold negative feelings.
It related to job satifaction
If the people are highly satisfied with their jobs, then their
involvement in the job increases greatly and care about the work
It increase their competence, meaningfulness and autonomy to
23. Major job attitudes
A job holder identify the organization and its goals
and wishes to be a member in the organization.
There are three separate dimensions:
affective commitment: It is the emotional
attachment to the organization and a belief in its
Continuance commitment: remaining with
organization for economic reasons.
Normative commitment is the obligation to remain
with organization for moral or ethical reason.
24. Development of attitude
Attitude develop in the process of want satisfaction.
Person develop positive attitude towards the objects which satisfies
primary and secondary wants.
Person develops positive attitude while approaching goal.
Attitude are shaped by exposed information
The religious and cultural thought prepare the people shape their attitude.
The belief system of close associates like parents, teacher and friends
influence the attitude.
The role of different channel of media also shape our attitude.
Recent Study showed that genetic factor also play in the development of
Identical twins are closely related to their attitude.
Different learning theories like social learning, classical conditioning
and instrumental conditioning etc are found to be essential to
• Prejudice is prejudgment, or forming an opinion before
becoming aware of the related facts of a case.
• It include belief structure, information and prejudgment of that
• It refers to biased, often negative attitude about the group of
• The word is often used to refer to predetermined usually
unfavourable, judgments toward people or a person because
of gender, political opinion, social
class,age, disability, religion, sexuality, race/ethnicity, languag
e, nationality, or other personal characteristics.
• Prejudice leads discrimination which indicate action toward
the group that are the target of prejudice.
• Prejudice can also refer to unfounded beliefs.
• Prejudice is positive or negative.
• Gordon Allport defined prejudice as a "feeling, favorable or
unfavourable, toward a person or thing, prior to, or not based on,
• According to Baron and Bryne prejudice is an attitude; it is usually
negative, towards the members of some group, based solely in their
membership in that group. This definition shows;
Prejudice is an attitude and cognitive aspect.
It is usually negative
Aimed towards the biased group
Because the person belong to that group
27. Causes of prejudice
• Enhance self esteem.
People feel superior themselves in various ways.
They often talk and put down the negative views towards the other
group and hold prejudice.
• Saving effort
Some people never want to change their information which are
received later because the information which they received earlier are
Prejudice develops due to struggle for jobs, housing, good school.
People always want good homes, high status, that might not be
available to all.
This leads to high completion and develop prejudice.
28. Causes of prejudice
• Direct experience.
people often develop prejudice to other group of people during
direct interaction with them .
They don’t like the behaviour (talking, eating, dressing) of such
group during direct interaction.
• Role of medias
The medias show the low status of minority people which create
• Social categorization
Social categorization is the distinction made on the basis of race,
age, occupation, income religion and so on.
We divide people into two categories as us and they.
Persons in us category are viewed as favorable term and them
are perceived more negative
29. Causes of prejudice
• Social norms
Every society has their own social norms which guides the
behaviour of people of that group.
Prejudice develop when any one goes out of the laws of society
and also if any one hate the laws set by the society.
Social identity theory
It explains that individuals seek their self esteem by identifying
them with special social group and think themselves as superior
If individuals feel secure in their group, they can be generous
toward the other group and show reduced prejudice but if the
group is threatened then strong negative prejudice develops.
30. Causes of prejudice
• Cognitive sources
These are a type of cognitive form of prejudice.
Some people hold stereotype belief , thinking, feeling etc towards the
certain race , religiion and other group.
The belief about specific group directs the individual to form prejudice.
• Illusory correlation
It refers to overestimating the rate negative behaviour towards
relatively small group.
Eg White race in USA overestimate the crime rate among black race.
• In group differentiation and out-group homogeneity
It states that the members of out group are similar to one another than
the members of one’s own group.
Person who hold strong prejudice towards some social group often used
to say “you know what they are like ;they all are the same”
31. Technique to reduce prejudice
• It is common in life and wide spread in most societies.
• People often develop prejudice against sex, race, religion,
• It can reduced though different techniques
Prejudice is not a in born character and is developed
It is acquired through parents, medias, teachers.
So , training should given to biased parents, person to
alter their prejudice so that they can promote their
children and others to reduce prejudice.
32. Technique to reduce prejudice
• Direct inter group contact:
In recent time, there is less contact and communication among different
This leads less recognition of similarity between them.
So, increased contact may increase the mutual attraction, interaction and
communication with out group which help to decrease the prejudice.
Frequent contact among different group increase friendship which can
increase the empathy and understanding between groups. Thus, reduce
the conflict or racial prejudice.
One of important factor of prejudice is the concept of us and they. The
boundary between us and they should be reduced which reduce
Gaertner and his colleagues (1989, 1993) the theory of re-categorization
or “common in group identity model”.
This model suggest that the individual belonging to different social group
come to view themselves as a members of a single social entity.
33. Technique to reduce prejudice
• Cognitive interventions:
Stereotype is the one of the major factor to develop
It can reduced by motivating and awareing the people
about conservative thoughts and beliefs.
Negative thinking traits like poor, hostile, to racial or
ethnic group causes prejudice .
It should be reduced by developing positive thinking as
well as by saying ‘no’ to such setreotype traits associated
with specific group.
34. Effects of prejudice
• Prejudice affects the everyday lives of millions of people across
• Prejudice held by individuals unnaturally forces on others who
are targets of their prejudice,a false social status that strongly
influences who they are, what they think, and even the actions
• People acting out their prejudices cause domestic violence,
crime, death, and the loss of billions of dollars in lost
productivity, property loss, and expense to society.
• Prejudice can enforce very dramatic barriers or invisible
barriers on individuals.
• Opportunities in life are lost and personal relationships
damaged when people act upon their prejudice.
• When not acknowledged and confronted, prejudice negatively
impacts the lives not only of the victims, but of those holding
35. Social influence
• It is the effort made by individual to change attitudes, beliefs, perception
and behaviour of others.
• It occurs when one's emotions, opinions, or behaviours are affected by
• It includes- conformity, compliance, Obedience and intense indoctrination
Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in behaviour,
belief or thinking to align(support) with those of others or to align with
People accept social norms in order to be liked by others and change
Social norms may be spoken or unspoken
Spoken norms also called social norms has powerful effect in our
Government function through laws, rules and regulation and are
generally regulated by written rules and signs in public places.
E.g., speed limit 10 km, No horn sign in school and hospital area etc.
36. Social influence
Unspoken norms also influence influence our behaviour.
For example, the current and rapidly changing standers of dress,
fashion influence the behaviour of people.
People stands when national anthem of their country is played at
sport events and other public gathering is also unspoken social norms.
Compliance is the act of responding favorably to an explicit or implicit
request offered by others.
Compliance is when people appear to agree with others, but
actually keep their dissenting(uncooperative) opinions private.
Technically, compliance is a change in behavior but not
Obedience is a form of social influence that derives from an
It is a good thing as it enhances a society by putting togethrits
members to obey lawas, rules and costoms.
37. Social influence
On the contrary, if it goes to the negative direction, it becomes pain to
Obedience is generally distinguished from compliance, which is
behavior influenced by peers, and fromconformity, which is behaviour
intended to match that of the majority.
Obedience can be seen as immoral,
For example, in a situation when one orders a person to kill another
innocent person and he or she does so willingly, it is generally
considered to be immoral.
However, when one orders a person to kill an enemy who will end
many innocent lives and he or she does so willingly, it can be
38. Intense indoctrination
• Indoctrination is the process
of inculcating(inspiring) ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a
• indoctrination is a critical component in the transfer
of cultures, customs, and traditions from one generation to the next.
• Indoctrinated person is expected not to question or critically
examine the doctrine they have learned, often in the context
of political opinions, religion, religious belief etc.
• Indoctrination is sometimes associated with negative
• For example, A mass suicide occurred in people’s temple with its
914 members when ordered to do so by their leader in 1978.
• Discrimination is the behavior or actions, usually negative, towards
an individual or group of people, especially on the basis of
sex/race/social class, etc.
• Racial discrimination in South Africa. Apartheid (literally
"separateness") was a system of racial segregation that was
enforced in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. Non-white people
where prevented from voting and lived in separate communities.
• Age discrimination is discrimination against a person or group on
the grounds of age.
• Gender Discrimination: In Western societies while women are
often discriminated against in the workplace, men are often
discriminated against in the home and family environments. For
instance after a divorce women receive primary custody of the
children far more often than men. Women on average earn less pay
than men for doing the same job