2. Content of presentation
What is authority ?
Types, sources of authority and Power
Responsibility and Accountability
Relationship between Authority and
Delegation of Authority
Decentralization of Authority
Authority is the right to act and the
power to make Decision.
Authority resides in positions rather
than in people.
Authority is seen as the legitimate
right of a person to exercise
influence or the legitimate right to
make decisions, to carry out actions,
and to direct others.
4. Characteristics of authority:
It is legitimate right to command and
Authority is granted to achieve the
predetermined goal of the enterprise.
Authority is right to direct others to
get things done.
Authority is a commanding force
binding different individuals.
Authority is delegated downward.
Power is defined as “the ability of
individuals or groups to induce or
influence the beliefs or actions of
other persons or groups”
- Weihrich , Cannice & Koontz.
Power is a much broader concept than authority.
Bases of power:
- Legitimate power: arises from position.
- power of expertness: arises from
- referent power: arises from belief in
-coercive power: power to punish.
- reward power: power to reward.
“Responsibility may be defined as the obligation
of a subordinate to whom a duty has been
assigned to perform.”
- Koontz O’ Donnel
“The obligation of an Individual to carry out
assigned activities to the best of his or her
-Terry and Franklin
9. Characteristics of responsibility:
Responsibility is to assign duty to human
Responsibility always flows upward from
juniors to seniors.
Responsibility is result of duty assigned.
Responsibility is the obligation to complete
the job as per instruction.
Responsibility can never be delegated. It is
personal obligation ,and absolute also. The
manager remains responsible to his superiors
for his job even after its delegation.
Empowerment means that
employees, managers, or teams at
all levels in the organization are
given the power to make decisions
without asking their superiors for
12. Relationships between authority and
1. Parity in authority and responsibility:
After giving the responsibility, requisite
authority regarding work delegated
should be granted.
13. Imbalance in authority and
If authority is greater than
responsibility ,then this could result
in autocratic behavior.
14. Imbalance in authority and
If responsibility is greater than authority
,then this could result in frustration.
15. 2. Authority always flows downwards,
while responsibility always flows
16. Delegation of Authority
Delegation is the transfer of authority
to subordinates to enable them to make
decisions and use resources.
Entrusting responsibility and authority
to others who then become responsible
to us for their results but we remain
accountable to our boss what our
17. And also delegating is...
Not merely the downwards
transmission of authority
Responsibility Vs. Accountability
18. Delegating is ….
Responsibility Delegate RESPONSIBLE
19. Characteristics of
Delegation of Authority
It enables a manager to function independently within the
broad limits of authority specified by the superior.
The superior does not delegate total authority, but retains a
part of that for himself or herself.
A manager cannot delegate what he or she does not posses.
Delegation does not mean giving away authority . It is, of
course, a revocable act. The manager delegating the
authority retains the right to recall.
The superior, who delegates the authority, Cannot escape
responsibility for the activities of subordinates whom
authority has been delegated.
21. Whether you are a manager in a big firm or a
small company, you need to know how to
handle people if you want things to run
smoothly. The more we know about people the
better we will be able to get along
22. To decide who can do the task...
We have to ….
consider capabilities of our people
know what our people need
be able to match task to people
27. Knowing what people need
Know the Facts Feel Support
area of you will be fully
ramifications and you care about
its boundaries task and want
the amount of them to be
the standards you have
which you require confidence in
time-scale their ability
28. Matching Task To People
SHOULD KINGS & QUEEN
not enough time JOKER
need special expertise
29. We delegate because
To solve their own problem
gives you more time for adding value
makes you dispensable
helps you motivate your staff and
assess their potential
30. It is so hard to delegate when
the delegator ...
does not clearly understand where his
own authority and responsibility
begins and ends
thinks he can do the work better than
believes in the exercise of the
authority and managerial prerogative
31. It is so hard to delegate when
the delegator ...
believes that subordinates are
is not willing to delegate
is feeling irreplaceable
is not trusting people
is not accepting different
is giving too much away
34. Overall policy and planning for
your area of responsibility
POLICY making it clear to your
staff what you expect
The allocation and control of
delegated duties, the
organization of your own time,
PLANNING the establishment of routines
for yourself and your team
36. Selection, training and
performance appraisal for your
•An abrogation of your managerial
accountability to allow any of these
function to be carried out for you by
37. Promotion, praise and
discipline for your immediate
• it may be subject to
organizational policies and decision
•does not stop you from making
38. Anything your immediate boss
wants you to do personally
•You may resist if you think that your boss
•but if your arguments are objected then you have
little option but to comply
40. We should not delegate...
overall policy and planning for our
area of responsibility
a concentrated focus on our value-
selection, training and performance
appraisal for our immediate
41. We should not delegate...
promotion, praise and discipline for
our immediate subordinates
Anything our immediate boss wants us
leadership for our people
final accountability for the work of
42. HOW TO DELEGATE ?
Deciding what to delegate
Deciding who can do it
Attitudes to delegating
Checklist for delegating
Benefits of delegating
43. Decentralization of Authority
As the organization in size and complexity,
decentralization tends to increase. The faster the
rate of organizational growth, the greater the need
It is an expansion of delegation of authority. It is
wide distribution of authority and responsibility to
the smallest unit.
When the managers and supervisors at he middle
and lower levels are given considerable autonomy in
decision-making, the organization is considered to
44. Assumption of Decentralization
Those most involved in the particular
product, service, or consumers know
what to do and can do it more quickly
if given the authority to commit
45. Advantages of Decentralisation
Lift to Top Executives
Motivation of Subordinates
Growth & Diversification
Efficient Supervision and Control
How Delegation of
Authority is different
48. Delegation of Decentralization
Temporary nature, can Permanent nature
Delegation without delegation is not possible.
Decentralization is possible
It is important to delegate
It is not necessary for responsibility and
delegation of responsibility. accountability.
It is necessary. It is not necessary
Less freedom to More freedom to
Limited scope Wide scope
The purpose is reduction of The purpose is expansion of
the workload authority