SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Presented By :
What Is Biogeographical Classification
Biogeographic classification of India is
the division of India according to
Biogeography is the study of the
distribution of species (biology),
organisms, and ecosystems in
geographic space and through
geological time. There are ten
biogeographic zones in India.
The Biogeographical Zones in India
can be Classified As :
1.Trans Himalayan zone.
5.Western ghat zone.
6.Deccan plateau zone.
7.Gangetic plain zone.
8.North east zone.
10.Islands present near the shore
The Himalayan ranges immediately north of the Great
Himalayan range are called the Trans- Himalayas. The
Trans-Himalayan region with its sparse vegetation has
the richest wild sheep and goat community in the world.
The snow leopard is found here, as is the migratory
Features Of Trans-Himalayan Region
• Cold And Arid Region
• Temperature -35 to 3 degrees Celsius
• 4500 mts above sea level
• Sparse vegetation has the richest wild sheep and
• Extensive Area Covered by BARE ROCKS & GLACIERS
Flora And Fauna
Himalayan vegetation varies according to both
altitude and climatic conditions. They range
from the tropical deciduous forests in the
foothills, to temperate forests in the middle
altitudes. Higher up, coniferous, sub-alpine,
and alpine forests spring up. These finally give
way to alpine grasslands and high altitude
meadows. They are followed by scrublands
which lead up to the permanent snowline
These habitats are home to a wide variety of
mammals, birds and reptiles. The Tibetan wild
ass is limited to the upper reaches of the
western Himalayas, while the one-horned rhino
is found only in the foothills of the eastern
Himalayas. The snow leopard is a resident of
the very high altitudes in the western and
eastern Himalayas; the leopard though is found
all through the range. Some of the species are
also migratory in nature, moving with the
The Himalayas consist of the youngest and
loftiest mountain chains in the world. The
Himalayas have attained a unique personality
owing to their high altitude, steep gradient and
rich temperate flora.
Features Of The Himalayas
• Rich Endemic Forest In North East
• Thick Subtropical and Alpine Forests - Central
Himalayas and Western Himalayas
• Tropical Rainforest in Eastern Himalayas
• 250,000 species of Flora & 45000 species of
• Temperature: 18 to 30 degrees Celsius
Flora and Fauna
The forests are very dense with extensive growth
of grass and evergreen tall trees. Oak, chestnut,
conifer, ash, pine, deodar are abundant in
Himalayas. There is no vegetation above the
Several interesting animals live in the Himalayan
ranges. Chief species include wild sheep,
mountain goats, ibex, shrew, and tapir. Panda and
snow leopard are also found here.
• Deserts in India such as Thar Desert and Kutch
receive around 25cm of precipitation annually
• Temperature: 30 to 50 degree Celsius
• Hot and Extreme Climate
• Vegetation found in Oasis
• Soil is composed of sand and hard rock
• States Covered Rajasthan & Gujarat
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little
precipitation occurs and consequently living
conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The
lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface
of the ground to the processes of denudation.
Features Of Desert Region
Flora And Fauna
Cactus, Prickly Peer, Octillo Plant, Boojum etc.
Snakes, Owls, Mice, Armadillo Lizards, Foxes,
Vultures, Rabbit, Cat, Camel etc.
1. States included: Parts of Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra.
2. Transitional zone between desert and dense forests of western Ghats.
3. Natural vegetation is thorn forest.
4. Discontinuous vegetation, that is, vegetation in patches.
5. Open areas of bare and water deficit soil.
6. Flora: Thorny shrubs, grasses, cereals, some variety of bamboo, dry
8. Fauna: Birds, jackals, leopards, eagles, snakes, fox, buffalo. Gazelle,
9. lions, wolves, zebras, deer etc.
WESTERN GHATS ZONES
Covers Malabar plains and Western Ghats.
States included: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Parts of Kerala.
Mountains along the west coast of India.
Average altitude of mountains: 900-1500 mts Above sea level.
Diverse topography. Unique sets of flora and fauna.
Rich evergreen forests, medicinal plants, ornamental plants.
Included in the biodiversity hotspots of the world.
Sparsely populated. Mainly tribal population lives there.
Fertile land for rice cultivation, commercial crops, plantation etc.
14 endemic species of legless amphibians.
Fauna: home to 325 globally threatened species, 16 species of endemic
mammals, tiger, lion tailed macaque, 288 freshwater species, 508
species of birbs,6000 species of insects, 344 species of butterflies,
DECCAN PLATEAU ZONE
Semi arid regions lying in the rain shadow region of western Ghats.
Central and eastern highlands provide many forest products.
Composed of oldest crystalline rocks.
Height varies from 300 to 900 mts above sea level.
It is semi arid in the north and tropical in most parts.
Rain falls in the monsoon and temperature can exceed up to 40 degrees
Types of forests: deciduous, thorn forests and scrublands.
Consists mainly of black soil. Suitable for commercial crops, especially, cotton.
Flora: teak, Sal.. Consists mainly of dry deciduous forests.
Fauna: grazing animals, four horned rhinoceros, gaur, wild water buffalo, bear,
wild dog, Indian giant squirrel, tiger etc.
Home to more than ninety species of animals and various other carnivores.
GANGETIC PLAINS ZONE
Alluvial soil, fertile soil, drained by river ganga.
Purely agro based area.
Major trees in this area: teak, Sal, shisham, mahua, khair etc.
Moist deciduous forests, densest human population.
Fauna: Tiger, one horned rhinoceros, Asian elephant, gaur, swamp deer,
crocodile, gharial and a large number of other vertebrae.
States covered: Parts of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, parts of West
25-35 cm of annual rainfall.
Patches of grassland ecosystem.
79 known species of mammals.
Lots of biodiversity conservation areas.
95% of the land converted into agricultural land
Group Number of species
in India (SI)
Number of species
in the world (SW)
Mammals 350 4629 7.6
Birds 1224 9702 12.6
Reptiles 408 6550 6.2
Amphibians 197 4522 4.4
Fishes 2546 21730 11.7
Flowering Plants 15000 250000 6.0
Comparison between the Number of Species
in India and the World
Of all Zones in India, this zone is richest in Species &
Botanically, Khasi-Jaintia hills of Meghalaya are known as
one of the richest zone in India.
Mammalian species include 390 species out of which 63% is
found in Assam.
The forests harbor 80,000 out of 15,000 species of
flowering plants. In floral species richness, the highest
diversity is reported from the states of Arunachal Pradesh
(5000 species) and Sikkim (4500 species) amongst the North
• India has a coastline extending over 5,500 km
• Mangrove Forest & Coral Reefs found in Lakshadweep are
prominent features of Coastal Zone.
• Fertile Lands are found here which are suitable for rice &
Islands near the Shore line
• The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union
territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of
the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
• Though, biological investigations , 2200 species of
flowering plants have been identified so far. Among
animals, 58 species of mammals, 242 species of birds, 83
species of reptiles, 10 species of amphibians, 750 species
of fishes, 326 species of coelenterates (corals & sponges
etc.), 941 species of mollusks, (oyster, clams etc.) and 1500
sp. of insects besides other creatures, have been
Dugong-The State Animal Palm Civet Barking Deer
Water Monitor Lizard Leather back Turtle Andaman Banded Krait