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BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIA

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BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIA

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BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIA

  1. 1. BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDIA Presented By : 73.Rajat Shukla 74.Rishabh Sanghvi 76.Rishabh Lohar
  2. 2. What Is Biogeographical Classification Of India? Biogeographic classification of India is the division of India according to biogeographic characteristics. Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species (biology), organisms, and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. There are ten biogeographic zones in India.
  3. 3. The Biogeographical Zones in India can be Classified As : 1.Trans Himalayan zone. 2.Himalayan zone 3.Desert zone. 4.Semiarid zone. 5.Western ghat zone. 6.Deccan plateau zone. 7.Gangetic plain zone. 8.North east zone. 9.Coastal zone. 10.Islands present near the shore
  4. 4. Trans-Himalayan Region
  5. 5. Trans-Himalayan Region The Himalayan ranges immediately north of the Great Himalayan range are called the Trans- Himalayas. The Trans-Himalayan region with its sparse vegetation has the richest wild sheep and goat community in the world. The snow leopard is found here, as is the migratory black-necked crane. Features Of Trans-Himalayan Region • Cold And Arid Region • Temperature -35 to 3 degrees Celsius • 4500 mts above sea level • Sparse vegetation has the richest wild sheep and goat community • Extensive Area Covered by BARE ROCKS & GLACIERS
  6. 6. Flora And Fauna Flora: Himalayan vegetation varies according to both altitude and climatic conditions. They range from the tropical deciduous forests in the foothills, to temperate forests in the middle altitudes. Higher up, coniferous, sub-alpine, and alpine forests spring up. These finally give way to alpine grasslands and high altitude meadows. They are followed by scrublands which lead up to the permanent snowline
  7. 7. Fauna: These habitats are home to a wide variety of mammals, birds and reptiles. The Tibetan wild ass is limited to the upper reaches of the western Himalayas, while the one-horned rhino is found only in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas. The snow leopard is a resident of the very high altitudes in the western and eastern Himalayas; the leopard though is found all through the range. Some of the species are also migratory in nature, moving with the seasons.
  8. 8. Himalayas
  9. 9. Himalayas The Himalayas consist of the youngest and loftiest mountain chains in the world. The Himalayas have attained a unique personality owing to their high altitude, steep gradient and rich temperate flora. Features Of The Himalayas • Rich Endemic Forest In North East • Thick Subtropical and Alpine Forests - Central Himalayas and Western Himalayas • Tropical Rainforest in Eastern Himalayas • 250,000 species of Flora & 45000 species of Fauna • Temperature: 18 to 30 degrees Celsius
  10. 10. Flora and Fauna Flora: The forests are very dense with extensive growth of grass and evergreen tall trees. Oak, chestnut, conifer, ash, pine, deodar are abundant in Himalayas. There is no vegetation above the snowline. Fauna: Several interesting animals live in the Himalayan ranges. Chief species include wild sheep, mountain goats, ibex, shrew, and tapir. Panda and snow leopard are also found here.
  11. 11. Desert Region
  12. 12. • Deserts in India such as Thar Desert and Kutch receive around 25cm of precipitation annually • Temperature: 30 to 50 degree Celsius • Hot and Extreme Climate • Vegetation found in Oasis • Soil is composed of sand and hard rock • States Covered Rajasthan & Gujarat Desert Region A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. Features Of Desert Region
  13. 13. Flora And Fauna Flora: Cactus, Prickly Peer, Octillo Plant, Boojum etc. Fauna: Snakes, Owls, Mice, Armadillo Lizards, Foxes, Vultures, Rabbit, Cat, Camel etc.
  14. 14. SEMI-ARID zones 1. States included: Parts of Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra. 2. Transitional zone between desert and dense forests of western Ghats. 3. Natural vegetation is thorn forest. 4. Discontinuous vegetation, that is, vegetation in patches. 5. Open areas of bare and water deficit soil. 6. Flora: Thorny shrubs, grasses, cereals, some variety of bamboo, dry 7. forests. 8. Fauna: Birds, jackals, leopards, eagles, snakes, fox, buffalo. Gazelle, 9. lions, wolves, zebras, deer etc.
  15. 15. WESTERN GHATS ZONES  Covers Malabar plains and Western Ghats.  States included: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Parts of Kerala.  Mountains along the west coast of India.  Average altitude of mountains: 900-1500 mts Above sea level.  Diverse topography. Unique sets of flora and fauna.  Rich evergreen forests, medicinal plants, ornamental plants.  Included in the biodiversity hotspots of the world.  Sparsely populated. Mainly tribal population lives there.  Fertile land for rice cultivation, commercial crops, plantation etc.  14 endemic species of legless amphibians.  Fauna: home to 325 globally threatened species, 16 species of endemic mammals, tiger, lion tailed macaque, 288 freshwater species, 508  species of birbs,6000 species of insects, 344 species of butterflies,
  16. 16. DECCAN PLATEAU ZONE  Semi arid regions lying in the rain shadow region of western Ghats.  Central and eastern highlands provide many forest products.  Composed of oldest crystalline rocks.  Height varies from 300 to 900 mts above sea level.  It is semi arid in the north and tropical in most parts.  Rain falls in the monsoon and temperature can exceed up to 40 degrees  in summer.  Types of forests: deciduous, thorn forests and scrublands.  Consists mainly of black soil. Suitable for commercial crops, especially, cotton.  Flora: teak, Sal.. Consists mainly of dry deciduous forests.  Fauna: grazing animals, four horned rhinoceros, gaur, wild water buffalo, bear,  wild dog, Indian giant squirrel, tiger etc.  Home to more than ninety species of animals and various other carnivores.
  17. 17. GANGETIC PLAINS ZONE  Alluvial soil, fertile soil, drained by river ganga.  Purely agro based area.  Major trees in this area: teak, Sal, shisham, mahua, khair etc.  Moist deciduous forests, densest human population.  Fauna: Tiger, one horned rhinoceros, Asian elephant, gaur, swamp deer, crocodile, gharial and a large number of other vertebrae.  States covered: Parts of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, parts of West Bengal.  25-35 cm of annual rainfall.  Patches of grassland ecosystem.  79 known species of mammals.  Lots of biodiversity conservation areas.  95% of the land converted into agricultural land
  18. 18. INDIA AS A MEGADIVERSITY NATION
  19. 19. Group Number of species in India (SI) Number of species in the world (SW) SI/SW (%) Mammals 350 4629 7.6 Birds 1224 9702 12.6 Reptiles 408 6550 6.2 Amphibians 197 4522 4.4 Fishes 2546 21730 11.7 Flowering Plants 15000 250000 6.0 Comparison between the Number of Species in India and the World
  20. 20. North-East Zone  Of all Zones in India, this zone is richest in Species & Endemics.  Botanically, Khasi-Jaintia hills of Meghalaya are known as one of the richest zone in India.  Mammalian species include 390 species out of which 63% is found in Assam.  The forests harbor 80,000 out of 15,000 species of flowering plants. In floral species richness, the highest diversity is reported from the states of Arunachal Pradesh (5000 species) and Sikkim (4500 species) amongst the North Eastern States.
  21. 21. Coastal Zone • India has a coastline extending over 5,500 km • Mangrove Forest & Coral Reefs found in Lakshadweep are prominent features of Coastal Zone. • Fertile Lands are found here which are suitable for rice & coconut trees.
  22. 22. Islands near the Shore line • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. • Though, biological investigations , 2200 species of flowering plants have been identified so far. Among animals, 58 species of mammals, 242 species of birds, 83 species of reptiles, 10 species of amphibians, 750 species of fishes, 326 species of coelenterates (corals & sponges etc.), 941 species of mollusks, (oyster, clams etc.) and 1500 sp. of insects besides other creatures, have been identified.
  23. 23. Dugong-The State Animal Palm Civet Barking Deer Water Monitor Lizard Leather back Turtle Andaman Banded Krait

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