, Deforestation, Causes, effects, control measures. Impact on tribal people

Attended Bangalore University à Rajeshwari jagadish
17 Jun 2021

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, Deforestation, Causes, effects, control measures. Impact on tribal people

  1. • Definition • Causes of Deforestation • Effects of Deforestation • Forest Degradation in India • Control measures • Impact of deforestation on Tribal people • Case study
  2. • Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest. • Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. • According to UN conference in 1992 deforestation is defined as “ Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub- humid areas resulting from various factors including climatic variation and human activities.”
  3. 1) Shifting cultivation:- • Most of the clearing of forest is done for agricultural purposes. • Poor farmers cut down trees or burn it and start agriculture. • Intensive or modern agriculture destroy the forest on a large scale. • It is principal cause of deforestation in some countries like America(35%), Asia(50%),Africa(70%).
  4. 2) Commercial Logging:- • It involves cutting trees for sale as timber or pulp. • It employs heavy machinery to remove cut trees and build roads. • Logging roads enable people to access the interiors of the forest, which in results in deforestation . • In Africa, 75% of land being cleared by poor farmers is land that has been previously logged.
  5. 3) Mining and Dams:- • Mining, industrial development and hydroelectric power plant projects are also causes of deforestation. • Dams open the previously inaccessible forest and damage ecosystems. • In Brazil, the grand carajas project occupies 90,000 km2. • It also affect 23 tribal groups and also cause the high soil, water and air pollution.
  6. • Deforestation also occurs due to overgrazing and conversion of forest to pasture for domestic animals . • Expansion of agribusiness that grows oil palm , rubber, fruit trees and ornamental plants has also resulted in deforestation. • Governmental sponsored programs that resettle landless farmers on forested sites have contributed to deforestation all around the world. • Other reasons includes fire, pest, etc.
  7. 1) Soil Erosion:- The soil gets washed away with rain water on sloppy area in the absence of trees leading to soil erosion. 2) Expansion of Deserts:- Due to action of strong wind mass of land gradually gets covered to sand deserts. 3) Decrease in Rainfall:- In the absence of forest, rainfall decreases considerably because forests bring rains and maintains high humidity in atmosphere.
  8. 4) Loss of Fertile Land:- Less rainfall results into the loss of fertile land owing to less natural vegetation growth. 5) Effect on Climate:- Deforestation includes regional and global climate change. Climate has become warmer due to the lack of humidity in deforestation regions and also patterns of rainfall has changed. Droughts have become common.
  9. 6) Economic Losses:- Deforestation will cause loss of industrial timber and non-timber products and loss of long term productivity on the site. 7) Loss of Bio-diversity:- Deforestation cause the bio- diversity leading to disturbances in ecological balance world wild.
  10. 8) Loss of medical Plants:- There are many species of plants, which have been used in India for centuries as insecticide, fungicide, in medicine and in bio-fertilizers. Deforestation may lead to the extinction of these valuable plants. 9) Environmental Changes:- It will lead to increase in carbon dioxide concentration and other air pollutants. This would result in Global Warming. 10) Change in living Habits:- This may force indigenous people to live a new life which they are not prepared. Disturbance in forest eco-system may result in other eco-systems that may be separated by great distances.
  11. • Depletion of forestry cover less than 90% is considered as forest degradation and more than 90% is considered as deforestation, according to Food and Agriculture Organisation(FAO) of the UN. • Logging is considered as a forest degradation and not as a deforestation. • In India timber is used for preparing plywood, veneer, boards, doors, windows and other furniture.
  12. • Wood is also used for cooking and heating. • Population, rapid development and men’s dependency on forest are mainly responsible for Forest Degradation. • India has lost 3.4 million hectares of forest cover from the period of 1951-1970. • Nearly 1% of land is turning barren per year due to deforestation.
  13. • Reforestation:- Many countries in the world have started reforestation and forestry, and East Asian nations are leading in this regard. Many East Asian countries, including China, have successfully managed to reverse deforestation. • Legislation :- By making suitable changes in the law, so that cutting trees in a forest will not only lead to deforestation being controlled in a major way, but its flow may also be reversed.
  14. • Wildlife Sanctuaries :- Sanctuaries are very important, not only to save wildlife, but to save trees as well. Sanctuaries go a long way in protecting all wildlife. • Commercial Forest Plantations :- There can be special forest plantations for all the wood that is needed for the industry. This way the wood can be cut in a controlled and regulated environment.
  15. • Cities :- All cities, let alone new cities, have to be managed properly. Their expansion has to be curtailed or at least done in a systematic manner, so that there is enough green cover, and new trees are planted where ever possible. Incentive to Corporate :- Tax cuts should be granted to corporations, to get them actively interested in reforestation.
  16. • Water Management :- Improper water management affects deforestation in a big way. If the wildlife doesn't have water, then the entire ecosystem will falter. The construction of new dams should be planned properly, so that any one area isn't deprived of water, while another area has abundance of it.
  17.  In the name of development people have been indulging in deforestation in large numbers thus snatching away the homes of the tribals. The tribal community has not only lost the physical entity of land because of deforestation but has lost its heritage, its culture, its legacy and inheritance  Displacement  Due to deforestation when the tribal families are displaced to urban, industrial or mining areas so as to make out an existence, they are confronted with strange experiences and insurmountable problems. During the first few days the tribals remain completely disillusioned and despondent in the strange environment, because of lack of food, water, shelter, and place for defecation, lack of friends and neighbors etc. This has resulted in the break down of socio-economic interdependence
  18.  As a result of the destruction of the environment and increasing pressure from the village many men have to migrate to other region, which increases the workload of women. Thus the economic status of the family particularly of women deteriorates due to the migration. Moreover, in the absence of men, women are left to fend for themselves and deal with the exploitative elements such as moneylenders, businessmen and landlords. Tribal women with low literacy are especially susceptible to this situation, leading to land alienation, cheating and sexual exploitation  Exploitation: Jarawas, a pre-historic indigenous tribe when came in contact with the tourists were sexually exploited. The tourists would give bare Jarawa men and women money, throw empty water bottles at them, and some offered cigarettes to small Jarawa children. This led to the Jarawa children becoming addicted to smoking and the adults dancing in exchange for money
  19.  DEFORESTATION AFFECTS TRIBAL PEOPLE IN MANY WAYS:  •They are unable to carry out their traditional ways of life, and their homeland is often destroyed.  • It can affect their food and water sources, nothing farming, deforestation is when trees are cut down for things such as logging, and tribes live in the rain forests, they live like their ancestors by hunting for their food.  • They do not have all the modern technology that we have. When the trees are cut down it will destroy their homes and they will have no where else to go and they won’t be able to adapt to the lives people live in the urban areas of their countries, they also would find it very hard to get a job due to their history of living in tribes and rainforests.
  20.  When indigenous people lose their rainforest refuge, they do not die out, in the physical sense, nor can they just relocate, as some animals are able to do.  • They do lose their culture and their ways of life that have lasted for many generations.  • They lose their traditional beliefs and sustenance patterns that allowed them to live in harmony within the rainforest for so many generations  • Their great knowledge of the rainforest, how it works and awareness of medicinal plant species is also lost.
  21.  The hamburger chain Burger King has been buying animal feed produced in soy plantations carved out by the burning of tropical forests in Brazil and Bolivia.  The meat in Burger King sandwiches comes from livestock who are raised on soybeans.  The cultivation of soybeans is the leading cause of deforestation especially when it’s grown as a monoculture and sprayed with pesticides.  The suppliers who provide soybeans to Burger King are the same businessmen and traders who are causing deforestation.  Thus, its corporate sustainability policy fails to inform its stakeholders about how its meat produced or how many of its ingredients are raised sustainably and responsibly
  22.  Health:  The reduction in the extent and quality of land available for shifting cultivation, the disappearance and reduced availability of minor forest produce along with the forest have thus led to a decline in the quality and quantity of food consumed. The consequences of inadequate and low nutrition food intake combined with the extra workload are bound to show on their physical health. Physical deterioration has been compounded by the non-availability of many medicinal herbs or roots, derivatives of animals etc which in the past served as effective medicine in times of illness.  Examples  The new Greenpeace report, “Slaughtering the Amazon,” tracks beef, leather, and other cattle products from ranches involved in illegal deforestation in the heart of the Amazon rainforest. The investigation indicates the “laundering” of leather and beef into supply chains of top brands such as Adidas, Reebok, Nike, Clarks, Timberland, Gucci, IKEA, Kraft, and Wal-Mart.
  23. Conclusion : - If we do not put an end to deforestation, all of earth’s forests will disappear within the next 100 years.