2. Course Detail:
Unit 1: Introduction to E-Government and E-
Governance (5 Hrs.)
Difference between E-Government and E-Governance; E-
Government as Information System; Benefits of E-
Government; E-Government Life Cycle; Online Service
Delivery and Electronic Service Delivery; Evolution, Scope
and Content of E-Governance; Present Global Trends of
Growth in E-Governance
3. Unit 2: Models of E-Governance (10 Hrs.)
Introduction; Model of Digital Governance: Broadcasting /
Wider Dissemination Model, Critical Flow Model,
Comparative Analysis Model, Mobilization and Lobbying
Model, Interactive – Service Model / Government-to-
Citizen-to-Government Model (G2C2G); Evolution in E-
Governance and Maturity Models: Five Maturity Levels;
Characteristics of Maturity Levels; Towards Good
Governance through E-Governance Models
4. Unit 3: E-Government Infrastructure
Development (10 Hrs.)
Network Infrastructure; Computing Infrastructure; Data
centers; E-Government Architecture; Interoperability
Framework; Cloud Governance; E-readiness; Data System
Infrastructure; Legal Infrastructural Preparedness;
Institutional Infrastructural Preparedness; Human
Infrastructural Preparedness; Technological Infrastructural
5. Unit 4: Security for e-Government(5 Hrs.)
Challenges and Approach of E-government Security;
Security Management Model; E-Government Security
Architecture; Security Standards
6. Unit 5: Applications of Data Warehousing and
Data Mining in Government (5 Hrs.)
Introduction; National Data Warehouses: Census
Data, Prices of Essential Commodities; Other Areas for
Data Warehousing and Data Mining: Agriculture,
Rural Development, Health, Planning, Education,
Commerce and Trade, Other Sectors
7. Unit 6: Case Studies (10 Hrs.)
E-Government Initiatives in Nepal, Cyber Laws,
Implementation in the Land Reform, Human
Resource Management Software, NICNET,
Collectorate , Computer-aided Administration of
Registration Department (CARD), Smart Nagarpalika,
National Reservoir Level and Capacity Monitoring
System, Computerization in Andra Pradesh, Ekal Seva
Kendra, Sachivalaya Vahini, Bhoomi, IT in Judiciary,
E-Khazana , DGFT, PRAJA, E-Seva, E-Panchyat,
General Information Services of National Informatics,
Centre E-Governance initiative in USA, E-Governance
in China, E-Governance in Brazil and Sri Lanka
9. E-Governance overview
E-governance which stands for Electronic
governance is the implementation of information
and Communication Technology for providing
government services and exchange of information.
E-government is a process of transforming
government; it requires planning, political will and
a sustained dedication of resources.
E-government is the use of information and
communications technologies (ICT) to transform the
traditional government by making it accessible,
transparent, effective and accountable.
E-government does not mean putting more computers on
the government officers desks.
It establishes a relationship between government officials
and citizens, providing greater access to government
information and services by making the government
accessible online; promoting citizen participation by
enabling citizens to interact more conveniently with
11. What is E-government?
It refers to the implementation of information and
communication technology like the internet.
With the use of technology, it improves the
government activities and processes.
E- government is embedded in combinations of
political conditions as well as cultural, technological
and organizational changes designed to support and
drive a profound transformation in government units.
Generally, the e-government concepts brings four
E-Administration:- improving government processes by
using ICTs and government process management. No
paperwork, each and every process need to be done via the
use of ICT.
E-Government services:- Delivering government services
electronically to citizens, businesses, and government
employees. Example- application for citizenship through
the online system.
E-Democracy:- Improving transparency and democratic
decision making, as well as citizen’s participation in public
decisions. Example- E-voting.
E-Governance:- It is a development, deployment and
enforcement of the policies, laws, and regulations
necessary for developing cooperation, networking and
partnerships between government units, citizens and the
business. Citizen will get government services using
13. Benefits of E-Government
Better provision of government services
Improved interaction with different groups and citizen
Citizen empowerment through access to information
Efficient government management
Easy implementation of Right to information
It is a two-way process government to citizen and vice-
15. What is E-Governance?
It is a part of e-government. E-governance is dealing with
all regulations and policies to control the services provided
by the e-government.
E-governance is a form of e-business in governance
comprising of processes and structures involved in
deliverance of electronic services to the public, viz. citizens.
It also involves collaborating with business partners of the
government by conducting electronic transactions with
Besides, it entails enabling the general public to interact
with the government, through electronic means, for getting
the desired services.
However, the e-government is an electronic government,
which should be regulated by the e-Governance.
E-governance refers to the utilization of information and
communication technology(ICT) for providing government
services, disseminating information, communication
operation with the general public.
Various manifestations of e-governance initiative will be in
terms of the government delivering services to citizens of
transacting business, offering general information, or
conducting interactions with the general public and
business using such IT tools as:
Internet web sites publishing (including online
WAP application and publishing
Intranet development and usage
Promotion of citizen access.
The aim, ultimately, is to simplify and improve governance
and enable people's participation in governance through
mail, and Internet.
E-governance is much more than just preparing some
It ranges from the use of Internet for the dissemination of
plain web based information at its simplest level to services
and online transactions on the one hand and utilizing IT in
the democratic process itself, i.e. election on the other.
18. Benefits of E-Governance
Information delivery is greatly simplified for citizens and
It gives varied departments information to the public and
helps in decision making.
It ensures citizen participation at all levels of governance.
It leads to automated services so that all works of public
welfare is available to all citizens.
It revolutionizes the functions of all government and
Each department and its actions is closely monitored.
Public can get their work smartly done and save their time.
It provides better services to citizens and brings
government close to public. Public can be in touch with the
It cuts middlemen.
19. Benefits of e-governance
Improve delivery of service to citizen.
Improve interface with business and industries.
Empower citizen through access to knowledge and
Make the working of government more efficient and
Smoother flow of information
More collaboration with other agencies
Online access to information
Revenue growth and cost reduction
Availabilities of government 24 hrs/ 7 days.
Online application submission and processing.
20. The key difference between E-government and
E-government is a system whereas e-Governance is
E-government means the application of ICT in
government operations, as a tools to make better
government. E- governance, on the other hand,
implies the use of ICT in transforming and supporting
functions and structures of the system.
It is one-way protocol but e-governance is a two-way
protocol(government to citizen and vice versa).
E-governance is the part of e-government. E-
governance never comes alone.
21. Why E-Governance?
The fundamental motivation for the campaign of e-
governance in India and elsewhere is a slogan-to provide
SMART government--"SMART" being an acronym for
Simple, Moral, Accountable ,Responsive and Transparent
Thus we may conceive a Smart Village or Smart
Municipality or a Smart State, all very difficult, but ideal
Not with standing the difficulties involved in achieving
this, a clear objective of e-governance can be cutting the
cost of governance and also minimizing the complexities of
procedures by possible business process reengineering.
Eliminating the middleman or between the
government and the people.
For example, by doing so, property tax assessment
and collection system can reduce the element of
corruption in the system apart from increasing
The online system based on Internet will reduce
contact with mediating officials, thereby reducing
the possibility of illegal.
The objectives of achieving such e-governance go
far beyond simple computerization of stand-alone
back office operations in government offices.
It should mean a drastic change in the way the
government operates, and this means a new and
redefined set of responsibilities for the executive,
legislative and the judiciary.
This requires bringing about a social purification,
which needs to be done in a comprehensive,
coordinated and planned manner.
24. Different Types of E-governance
The various types of e-governance includes:
G2G(Government to Government)
G2C(Government to Citizen)
G2B(Government to Business)
G2E(Government to Employee)
G2C (Government to Citizens) — Interaction between the
government and the citizens.
This enables citizens to benefit from the efficient delivery
of a large range of public services.
Expands the accessibility and availability of government
services and also improves the quality of services
The primary aim is to make the government citizen-
G2B (Government to Business):
It enables the business community to interact with the
government by using e-governance tools.
The objective is to cut red-tapism which will save time and
reduce operational costs. This will also create a more
transparent business environment when dealing with the
The G2B initiatives help in services such as licensing,
procurement, permits and revenue collection.
G2G (Government to Government)
Enables seamless interaction between various government
This kind of interaction can be between various
departments and agencies within government or between
two governments like the union and state governments or
between state governments.
The primary aim is to increase efficiency, performance and
Read about government to government initiatives in the
G2E (Government to Employees)
This kind of interaction is between the government and its
ICT tools help in making these interactions fast and
efficient and thus increases the satisfaction levels of
27. Strategic Objectives of e-Governance:
The strategic objective of e-governance is to support and
simplify governance for all parties - government, citizens,
businesses and its employees.
The use of ICTs can connect all three parties and support
processes and activities.
There may be two major objectives of e-governance:
Service to the Public: This objective of e-government is to
satisfactorily fulfill the public’s needs and expectations on
the front-office side, by simplifying their interaction with
various online services.
The use of ICTs in government operations facilitates
speedy, transparent, accountable, efficient and effective
interaction with the public, citizens, business and other
Efficient Government: In the back-office, the
objective of e-government in government
operations is to facilitate a speedy, transparent,
accountable, efficient and effective process for
performing government administration activities.
Significant cost savings (per transaction) in
government operations can be the result.
For implementing these strategies into reality,
government must be subjected to transformation.
29. E-government as Information Technology
Electronics governance is the application of
information technology by government to transform
itself and its interactions with customer, citizen in
order to create impact on the society.
Information Technology strongly transforms the
relations with citizens, business and other functions
The advent of IT has transformed the way people live,
communicate and work.
It has been seen that the advantage of Information and
communication Technology(ICT) for improving their
business, the government is lagging behind in terms of
offering services to the people.
The typical features like bureaucracy and unwillingness to
change the public domain have caused much criticism
regarding the government services.
It has come to the notice of public organizations which are
seeking ways for improving the efficiency for rendering
better services to their citizen.
The governments have started utilizing the potential of
technology as a credible solution for delivering online
information and services as it facilitates people to access
public services sitting their homes or offices.
In order to take the advantages of e-governance, a rapid
transformation is required in terms of technological
changes, management issues and also financial aspects.
34. Traditional government & E-government
Traditional government E-government
Bureaucratic controls, clear
Isolated administrative functions
and data collection
Functional specialization of units or
Decision based on uniform rules and
awkward reporting approvals
Isolated administrative functions
Disjointed information technologies
Time consuming process
Client service and community
Integrated resource service and
Breakdown of unit barrier,
Decision based on negotiation
and implicit controls and
Integrated resource services
Integrated network solutions
Rapid streamlined responses
35. Digital Divide
The term digital divide is used to refers to a gap in
technology use between two groups.
The two groups can be divided along economic, racial,
age or even gender lines.
The divide within countries may refers to inequalities
between individuals, households, businesses or
geographic areas, usually at different socioeconomic
levels or other demographic categories.
The divide between differing countries or regions of
the world is referred to as the global digital divide,
examining this technological gap between developing
and developed countries on an international scale.
36. For example, a school where every student has laptop
or tablet versus a school with no computer.
37. Challenges to e-government
Implementation of e-government can face a number of
The following have to be addressed on a whole-of-
government basis in order to be overcome:
Legislative barriers:- e-government processes must have
the same standing as paper-based processes.
Financial barriers:- funding arrangements should account
for the agencies working together on e-government
Technology change:- adoption of whole-of-government
standards, software integration and middleware
Digital divide:- large difference in the level of access to the
internet and therefore ability to benefit from e-government
1.Project assessment: Identifying possible e-government
projects; outlining basic project parameters; and assessing
whether or not to proceed with the project.
2.Analysis of current reality: Description and analysis of the
seven ITPOSMO(Information, Technology, Process,
Objective and values, Staffing and skills, Management
system and structures, Other resources: money and time)
dimensions as they exist within the current situation of
3.Design of the proposed new situation : Setting objectives for
the proposed new e-government system, and then
describing in general terms how the seven ITPOSMO
dimensions should be different for the new system to meet
these objectives. Different options for the new
system may be evaluated at this point.
4.System construction : Acquiring any new technology;
undertaking detailed design of the new system; then
building it, testing it and documenting it.
5.Implementation and beyond: Training users to use the
new system; converting data to new formats;
introducing the new system; monitoring and evaluating
its performance and context; then undertaking any
necessary system maintenance.
42. What is Online service delivery ?
An online service refers to any information and
services provided over the internet.
These services not only allow subscribers to
communicate with each other, but they also
provide unlimited access to information.
Online services can range from simple to complex.
A basic online service may help subscribers gain
needed data through a search engine, while
complex one might be an online mortgage
application from bank.
Online service may be free or paid.
43. What is Electronic Services Delivery?
Electronic services delivery(ESD) refers to
providing government services through the
internet or other electronic means.
It related to e- services and e- government.
It is a driver of public sector modernization.
For example as considered to public e-service,
public agencies are the service provider and
citizens as well as businesses are the service
Internet is the main channel of e- service delivery
while other classic channels(e.g. telephone, call
center mobile phone, television) are considered.
50. E-governance usages ranking 2013
The Waseda University Institute of
e-Government release the 2013
Ranking. This is the ninth
consecutive year of monitoring
and surveying the development
of e-Government worldwide (55
countries) by the research team
of Prof. Dr. Toshio Obi, Director
of Institute of e-Government,