Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

Aerodynamic optimization techniques in design of formula One car

114 vues

Publié le

A short presentation on Aerodynamic optimization techniques in design of Formula 1 cars.
The major performance gain in a Formula 1 car is its Aerodynamic performance, as
engine and mechanical tweaks to the car only provide marginal gains. Thus, it has become
the key to success in this sport, resulting in teams spending millions of dollars on research
and development in this field each year. Even though the aerodynamics in formula 1 is at an
advanced stage, there is potential for further development. With the under-body
aerodynamics banned by the FIA, the only significant changes that can be made to improve
the aerodynamic performance of the car are by modifying the front and rear wings crosssections,
i.e. airfoils, or by developing new diffuser to modify the air flow underneath the car.
Design of airfoil is one of the important factors to consider while designing the car. Design of
the optimum airfoils is track-dependent since each track has different aerodynamic
requirements. The development of the F1 car is regulated by the rules sanctioned by the FIA.
In recent years, the FIA has reduced the allowable operational hours for development at the
wind-tunnel by a F1 team. This study, focuses on the fundamentals of aerodynamics in a F1
car and the various techniques that were and are used by in the design of an F1 car by
different teams on the chassis, the drag reduction techniques on the front and rear wings etc.
for achieving the best lap times possible around a particular track. This will also effectively
focus the area of development in aerodynamics for the car and testing methods both software
and real time for evaluating the design tweaks.

Publié dans : Ingénierie
  • Soyez le premier à commenter

Aerodynamic optimization techniques in design of formula One car

  1. 1. AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES IN DESIGN OF FORMULA 1 CAR Department of Mechanical Engineering Guided by: Prof. Tedy Thomas Nehru College of Engineering and Research Centre Presented by: Ramachandran S (NCAOEME078)
  2. 2. ABSTRACT The major performance gain in a Formula 1 car is its Aerodynamic performance, as engine and mechanical tweaks to the car only provide marginal gains. Thus, it has become the key to success in this sport, resulting in teams spending millions of dollars on research and development in this field each year. Even though the aerodynamics in formula 1 is at a advanced stage, there is potential for further development. This study, thus, focuses on the various techniques that were and are used by in the design of an F1 car by different teams on the front and rear wings for achieving the best lap times possible around a particular track. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  3. 3. Introduction • Engineered with perfection, the loud and aggressive Formula One (F1) racecar is the ultimate racing machine. • Its reputation has been defined by its amazing speed and handling characteristics, which are for the most part, a product of its aerodynamic features. • Vehicle traveling at high speed must be able to do two things well i.e.. reduce air resistance and increase downforce. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  4. 4. Literature Survey 1. Atsushi OGAWA ET.AL., said about formula One vehicles are fitted with a variety of aerodynamic devices. This produces complex mutual interference in the air flows around the vehicles, generating highly nonlinear flows. The clarification of these aerodynamic phenomena helps to enable efficient optimization of aerodynamic devices. This paper provided some examples of findings regarding the air flows around Formula One vehicles obtained using wind tunnels and CFD. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  5. 5. 2. PrasadGaware ET. AL., explained on aerodynamics as a branch of dynamics which relates with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with the solid object. Aerodynamic is a combination of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, with much theory sharedbetween them. In this paper different forces acting on a formula 1 car (drag force, lift force).Measurement of forces is done by computational fluid dynamics CFD and wind tunnel testing WTT. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  6. 6. 3. Triya Nanalal Vadgama ET.AL., A modern Formula One (F1) Racing Car has almost as much in common with an aircraft as it does with an ordinary road car. Aerodynamics has become a key to success in the sport and teams spend millions of dollars on research and development in the field each year for improving performance. The aerodynamic designer has two primary concerns: i. The creation of downforce, to help push the car’s tyres onto the track and improve cornering forces, ii. To minimise the drag that occurs due to turbulence and acts to slow down the car. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  7. 7. 10% 7% 6% 6% 5% 5% 4% 4%4% 49% ESTIMATED F1 Team Budget Split R&D Manufacturing Race Team Capital Expenses Drivers Test Team Hydraulics Rent, Bills, etc., Sponsor Chasing Engine Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  8. 8. • The graphic above shows how much a team spend money on. As the engine is pretty expensive, R&D costs cover 10% of the costs, where Manufacturing covers 7%. Aerodynamic development costs is included in R&D. • This means the second most expensive factor in a Formula One team is Research & Development. That’s why engineers have to be careful with calculations and CFD simulations and use Wind Tunnels quite effectively. As Wind Tunnels are pretty expensive to run. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  9. 9. HISTORY OF AERODYNAMIC DEVELOPMENT IN F1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  10. 10. First Steps • Drag Reduction: Fast Circuits, Low power engines 1915 INDIANAPOLIS 500 1916 INDIANAPOLIS 500 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  11. 11. Racecar Evolution • Downforce Research: Tire and engine tech are improved • Extreme Solutions: Adjustable wings and Suction Fans LOTUS TYPE 49 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  12. 12. 1970s and 1980s: Innovation of Ground Effect and Its Ban • By the mid 1970s 'ground effect' downforce had been discovered. Lotus engineers found out that the entire car could be made to act like a wing by the creation of a giant wing on its underside which would help to suck it to the road. • The ultimate example of this thinking was the Brabham BT46B, designed by 50 | P a g e Gordon Murray, which actually used a cooling fan to extract air from the skirted area under the car, creating enormous downforce. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  13. 13. • The so-called ‘ground-effect era’ lasted until 1982. Even before the 1981 season, the FIA had banned for safety reasons the use of movable sideskirts on the underside of Formula 1 cars, in order to increase the ground clearance and thus reduce the cornering speeds. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  14. 14. • Wings, Reversed Wings, Body sealing an Underskirts LOTUS TYPE 78 Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  15. 15. • In 1977, Lotus came up with an innovative design again. It built Lotus 78, nicknamed ‘wing car’. Lotus 78 was the first car to have the ground effect, and it started a revolution. • Basically, what Lotus did with its design was that they turned their complete chassis into a wing, increasing the downforce enormously Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  16. 16. 1990s & 2000: Start of Aerodynamic Era in Formula One • Starting 2000s, aerodynamic development became the biggest area a Formula One R&D worked on. • Bargeboards started to have new friends as teams added several different tuning vanes to the car. Bullwrinkles were introduced. Other aerodynamic parts were fairings, forward tuning vanes, much more complicated front and rear wing endplates, batman, earwing, many side panels, aerodynamic mirrors, etc. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  17. 17. • Modern Flat and Stepped Body MCLAREN P4 1C JORDON STEPPED UNDERFLOOR Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  18. 18. AERODYNAMIC DESIGN FACTORS OF A SIMPLE FORMULA ONE CAR • As we have got through the theoretical part of Aerodynamics in Formula One, it is time to apply the information we have discussed on a Formula One car design. • In current Formula One pre-season, no car is designed from a scratch. Engineers always use teams’ previous car as a template. Then change the design with computational methods, just like we are going to do. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  19. 19. Drag • Drag reduction is commonly not the main target of F1 aerodynamic optimization. • For low power F3, electric e- Formula racing its still a major factor. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  20. 20. Downforce • Vehicle stability and handling are primarily dictated by tyre performance, but this performance is considerably related to aerodynamic loads. ie., optimal loading of the tyres by control of font and rear downforce can lead to: • Improved braking performance • Improved cornering speed • Stability Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  21. 21. Downforce and Grip • The tyre can transfer a force through its contact that is a function of vertical load(linear). Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  22. 22. Braking Performance • Increased downforce reduces braking performance Braking distance to stop and braking time vs initial speed with and without downforce Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  23. 23. Cornering Speed • Steady state turning leads to forces on the tyres which increase with downforce and to centrifugal forces which increase with cornering speed. Maximum speed and cornering time vs track curvature R with and without downforce Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  24. 24. Body • Bodyworks and particularly underfloor are the most powerful aerodynamic devices • Underfloor works as a Venturi in ground effect Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  25. 25. • Regulations ban underfloor shaped as an inverted wing (floor must be flat between axles) but allows a rear diffuser that massively affects the pressure under the vehicle Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  26. 26. Wings • Wings are the most efficient aerodynamic device • Open wheeled rear wings have a very small aspect ratio • Wings are installed far- forward far- after to enhance their balancing effect Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  27. 27. • Race car wings are designed to heavily interact with the surroundi ng bodies: e.g. the rear bottom wing works in symbiosis with the underfloor diffuser to pump air from the venturi p!cuas . im-s11 enr:.: p,'#.lll'.-, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  28. 28. Barge boards and side boards • Bargeboard is a vertical panel situated longitudinally, between the front wheels and the sidepods • Bargeboards act primarily as flow conditioners, smoothing and redirecting the turbulent (or dirty ) air in the wake of the front wing and the rotating front wheels Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  29. 29. • McLaren appear to have found a very neat solution for redirecting the airflow over the rear wing and consequently allowing the flap to stall. • Whilst they have been very tight lipped about the system, it is most likely that the conduit from the front to rear of the car has a vent in the cockpit that can be blocked by the drivers left leg, which is not in use on long straights. • Blocking the vent could direct enough airflow through the conduit to disrupt the flow over the rear flap and induce a stall. This approach is ingenious for two key reasons: F Ducts Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  30. 30. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  31. 31. • The section of the main plain immediately adjacent to the 50 cm-wide neutral section in the middle of the wing is critical in generating airflow vortices that influence how air passes to the rest of the car. • What McLaren did for the first time in Austin was to add two small slots in this area, one in the short- chord main plain and another in the second element of the wing (both slots highlighted in yellow). This opens up a new area of development not before seen in F1 racing and one which other teams will no doubt be rapidly investigating. McLaren Wonder Wing Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  32. 32. AERODYNAMIC DEVELOPMENT METHODS • There is a huge race going in Formula One also off-track • Teams use a lot of different software and hardware to develop their cars. For aerodynamics, Research and Development centres in each team develop the cars in three steps. • The three major ways teams develop their aerodynamics are Computational Methods, Wind Tunnels, and On-Track Testing. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  33. 33. Computational Methods • While developing aerodynamics of a Formula One car, the first step teams take is making computational drawings and analysis. • This includes Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and Computer-Aided Analysis (CAA). For aerodynamic purpose, CFD Simulations are the most important part of this design process. • These CFD Simulations are simply based on two equations regarding Fluid Mechanics: The continuity equation and Newton’s Conservation of Momentum equation in their complex forms. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  34. 34. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  35. 35. Wind Tunnels • After the computational methods, next step of developing the aerodynamics of a Formula One car is wind tunnel. • Wind tunnels are much more useful than computational methods in result base, as it is a complete sample of the car running through the wind. Wind tunnels give more correct results, but they are not used as frequent as computational methods. • Wind tunnels are very expensive. Running a wind tunnel, on the other hand, is not cheap as well. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  36. 36. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  37. 37. On Track Testing • On-Track testing is the most efficient way to get information for analysis in aerodynamic development of a Formula One car. Results of testing is much more correct than CFD simulations or wind tunnels, and the any kind of error rate is eliminated. Only errors in testing is the weather, track, and driver conditions. • But it’s also the less frequent one, as it requires a lot of money and equipment. And since FIA allowed teams with less budget in 2010, it limited on-track testing tremendously. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  38. 38. • To visualize the streamlines of the wind flow for analysis after testing, teams use flow visualization paint in testing. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  39. 39. CONCLUSION After detailed study of aerodynamics in F1 car, we can say that F1 car is most aerodynamic of all the vehicles. The design is made such that it cuts through the air with minimum air friction and channelize the air flowing over up to the rear wings. It gives highly reduced drag and lift force acting on the car body. It generates more amount of down word force making the car stable at very high speeds. It is the pinnacle of racing sport technology. Each team uses their own tweaks to increase the performance within rules of FIA. Department of Mechanical Engineering, NCERC
  40. 40. REFERENCES 1. Ogawa, A., Yano, S., Mashio, S., Takiguchi, T., Nakamura, S., Shingai, M.: Development Methodologies for Formula One Aerodynamics, Honda R&D Technical Review 2009, F1 Special (The Third Era Activities), p. 142-151 2. PrasadGaware , Anwar Maniyar ,Vinod Sonawane ,Nishigandh Gorade International Journal of Research in Advent Technology (IJRAT) Special Issue E- ISSN: 2321-9637 3. Triya Nanalal Vadgama, Mr. Arpit Patel, Dr. Dipali Thakkar, “Structural analysis of Formula One Racing Car”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (ISSN(P): 2394-2444,)

×