Hindi Name dkyh fepZ
Botanical name Piper nigrum L.
Plant Parts used
Fruit (Fleshy pericarp and Hard
Important Chemical Content Piperine
Ch. No. (2n) 2n=4x=52
King of Spices
Ancestor of black pepper: P. wightii and P. galeatum
It is the most important foreign exchange earning commodity among the Indian
Pepper alone contributes about 70% of total export earnings from all spices.
Popularly it is known as “Black gold” because of its unique position in the
About 90% of the total production of the world is in India of which about 98 %
in Kerala alone.
In. Maharashtra, black pepper is grown in the Konkan region.
Highest productivity in the world: Thailand
Highest productivity in India: Karnataka (1kg/vine)
Perennial climbing vine.
Type of flower: Protogyny
Wild form usually dioecious but most cultivated one are gynomonoecious.
Inflorescence type: Catkin
Fruit type: Single seeded berry
Pepper is naturally self pollinated crop due to geitnogamy
Mode of pollination: Hydrophily
Based on growth habits, five distinct types of stem portions can be identified in the
shoot system of a pepper vine:
1. Main Stem: originate from a seed or from a stem cutting. It climbs on a
support with the aid of aerial or adventitious roots.
2. Runner Shoots: produced from the basal portion of the main stem, growing
at right angle to the main stem, usually restricted up to 50 cm from the ground
3. Fruiting branches (Plagiotropes): are produced from the nodes of the main
stem and they grow laterally, bearing the spikes.
4. Topshoots (Orthotropes): It grow vertically, profuse branching with large
number of adventitious roots at the nodes.
5. Hanging shoots (Geotropes): special type of shoots which hang down and
Name Percentage Other attributes
Panniyur-1 F1 hybrid between
2.5kg/vine, 1200 kg/ha, more adaptable to open
conditions, sensitive to excess shade, dry recovery:
35.3% oleoresin: 11.8% essential oil: 3.5% piperine
OP seedlings of
4.5kg/vine, 2828 kg/ha, shade tolerant, medium sized
berries, dry recovery: 35.7%, oleoresin: 10.9%, piperine:
F1 hybrid between
4.4kg/vine, 2169 kg/ha, excessive vegetative vigour,
long spike, bold berries, prefers open condition, dry
recovery: 27.8% Oleoresin: 12.6%. Piperine: 5.2%
Panniyur-4 Selection from
Kuthiravally type II
2.3kg/vine, 1419 kg/ha, stable in yield, performs well
even under adverse conditions, dry recovery: 34.7%,
Panniyur-5 O.P Progeny of
2.75kg / vine, 3075 kg/ha, suitable for intercropping in
Arecanut gardens dry recovery: 35.7%, Piperine:5.3%,
Oleoresins:12.33%, essential oil:3.80%
Panniyur-6 Clonal selection from
Tolerant to drought
Panniyur-7 O.P Progeny of
Tolerant to drought
Pepper Research Station, Panniyur, KAU, Kerala
Name Percentage Other attributes
Sreekara A selection from Karimunda
4.8kg/vine, 2352 kg/ha, tolerant to drought dry
recovery 35%, piperine: 5.0%, Oleoresins:
13%, essential oils: 7%
Subhakara A selection from Karimunda
4.2kg/vine, 2677 kg/ha, dry recovery: 35%,
piperine: 3.4%, oleoresins: 12%, essential
Panchami A selection from Aimpiriyan
5.2 kg/vine, 8320 kg green pepper/ha, piperine
4.7% oleoresins: 12.5%, essential oil 3.4%, dry
Pournami A selection from Ottaplackal
type coll. No. 812
4.7 kg/vine, 7526 kg of green pepper/ha,
Piperine 4.1%, oleoresins 13.87, Essential oil
3.4%, dry recovery 31%, tolerant to root knot
PLD-2 Clonal Selection from
4.7 kg per vine, 31.13% dry recovery,
oleoresin 15.45%, essential oil 4.8%, piperine
Vadakkan A natural triploid
Shakti OP seedlings of Perambramundi Tolerant to Phytophthora
Package of Practices
Pepper thrives well in humus rich virgin soils.
Fertile, well-drake, lomy soil, rich in humus are ideal.
Soil pH should be between 5.5 to 7.0
The crop is susceptible to water logging and hence is planted by preparing heap
of soil on field.
Native of humid tropics.
Require warm and humid climate.
High humidity helps for luxuriant crop growth and better yield.
Very high or low temperatures axe not conductive for growth,
Temperature range: 10 – 40°C.
Rainfall: Up to 200 cm.
Can be cultivated up to 1500 m above sea level,
Crop is pollinated through raindrops and hence frequent showers during
flowering are beneficial
Propagated vegetatively or by seeds.
Commercially propagated by vegetative method (shoot cuttings/runner
Cuttings with 2-3 nodes are made from vines or runners and raised in
plastic bags during February-March.
Pepper rapid multiplication technique: Single node roofed cutting using
bamboo method is the best method with an advantage of higher multiplication
rate (1:40) and good anchorage due to the presence of two root system.
1. Either grown as mono crop by training on support or standards.
(Planting distance 3×3 m).
2. Grown as mixed crop with coconut and arecanut.
3. Pepper vines are trained on trees like mango, cashew, jackfait, etc.
a) Mono Crop:
1. Proper site is selected.
2. Pits of 60 cm3 arc dug at distance of 3 x 3 m.
3. Pits are filled with mixture of 10 to 20 kg of well-decomposed FYM, 1 kg SSP and good
soil and 50 g Lindane powder..
4. Pangara rootstocks 1.5 to 2 m long are planted in these pits a year before actual planting
of pepper in August-September.
5. Pit of 45 cm3 are dug at 30 cm distance on the east and north sides of Pangara rootstock.
6. Rooted cuttings are then planted in these pits in the month of June-July.
7. Banana varieties like Lai velchi can be planted as intercrop for first three years.
This helps to give shade till proper growth of pangara and also obtain additional income.
1. Two pits of 45 cm3 at 30 cm distance on east and north sides of the main crop.
2. Pits are filled as above.
3. Planting of rooted cuttings is done in the months of June-July.
Manures and fertilizers :
a) CPCRI (Central Plantation Crop Research Institute) Kasargod, Kerala : 10 kg
FYM, 100 g N, 40 g P2O5 and 150 g K2O / vine / year.
b) KKV, Dapoli: 20 kg FYM, 4 kg Neem cake, 150 g N, 75 g P2O5 and 140g K2O/
vine / year.
Application: The recommended does is applied from 3rd year onwards.
1st year : 1/3rd of recommended dose.
2nd year : 2/3rd of recommended dose.
Does is applied in two splits:
• 1st split (1st week of September) – Full does of FYM, P2O5, K2O and 1/2 N.
• 2nd split (February) – Remaining 1/2 dose of N (1/2 N).
The above does should be applied in a shallow ring around the vines at a distance of
Irrigation is given at an interval of 7 – 8 days in winter and 2 – 4 days during
Mulching with grasses or dried leaves helps in reducing loss of soil moisture
during summer months.
• Two diggings are given once in May-June and again in October-November.
• Weeding and earthing is done for better growth and to improve soil aeration.
Training and Pruning
Being a perennial climbing shrub, black pepper requires staking, training and tying as
and when required during growth.
A single stem is maintained up to a height of 1 m by removing lateral branches.
In order to facilitate easy harvesting and spraying operations, the growth of vine is
regulated up to a height of 7- 8 m.
Regulation of shade is done by lopping the branches of standards in order to allow
optimum light for the pepper vines.
Stage of harvesting depends upon the kind of pepper to be made.
Products Products Maturity at Harvest
White pepper ripened fruits
Black pepper fully matured berries are harvested when any one berry
in cluster shows scarlet red colour
Canned pepper 4-5 months after fruit set
Dehydrated green pepper 10-15 days before full maturity
Oleoresin, Oil 15-20 days before full maturity
Pepper powder Fully mature with maximum starch
• Plains: December-January
• Hills: January-April
Average yield of pepper:
800-1000 kg/ha or 2 – 3 kg berries/vine/year.
Bush pepper yield: 100-150 g of dry pepper/pot/year
Pepper Oil and Oleoresin:
Pepper oil is obtained by steam distillation of coarsely powered berries yielding
2 to 3.5 % oil
Pepper oleoresin is obtained by solvent extraction method by using ground
Ethyl acetate is a useful solvent for extraction.
Oleoresin gives true flavor of spice and is used in meat production, vegetables,
salads, ketchups and soups.
PLANT PROTECTION IN BLACK PEPPER
Pollu disease or Anthracnose
Slow decline or slow wilt
Foot rot or quick wilt
Pepper pollu bettle