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 Ethos
Ethos is a discipline that examines one’s morality or the moral standard
of the society. Ethics means expected sta...
Embark upon self study, self analysis and self criticism to locate areas of
friction and disharmony, a self examination of...
fluctuating environment and rapid changes. Faith is Prerequisite to
develop and realize the power of intuition.

 Purp...
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  1. 1.  Ethos Ethos is a discipline that examines one’s morality or the moral standard of the society. Ethics means expected standards in terms of your personal and social welfare. It includes honesty, morality, responsibility etc  Needs of Indian ethos • Management attitude: Top management having firm belief in value oriented involving whole in the management. Profit is earned through service and satisfaction of all stakeholders, employees, customers, shareholders, and citizen. Fulfillment of social responsibility. • Humanizing organization: Looking at the three aspects of humane organization ie., inter personal relations, man machine equation where main in the prime concern and inner management through mental and spiritual growth of individual. • Interiorizing (self) management: Self management are management by consciousness. When the soul manages the other four members of the human being namely the body, mind, intellect and the heart, the conflict these four have amongst them can be resolved. This management my consciousness. The objective of self management is to first know and manage oneself and then manage others. • Self introspection
  2. 2. Embark upon self study, self analysis and self criticism to locate areas of friction and disharmony, a self examination of one’s thought, feelings, emotions, sensation, passion and desire to reduce and subdue the ego • Brain stilling For rational enduring decisions silent mind is a necessity. A perfect mounum (calm mind enjoying tranquility) is necessary. Brain stilling is the most reliable method to discover solution to problems and difficulties which seems to be difficult to tackled by reason and intellect because through this one can come into contact with the inner mind and high consciousness • Stepping back Never decide anything, never speak a word, and never throw yourself into action without stepping back. The stepping back from a situation for whiles enable one to control and master a situation • Self dynamising meditation A dynamic meditation is meditation of transformation of lower consciousness into higher consciousness and hence called transforming meditation. Through meditation in a silent and calm mind one can reaches a high level of consciousness which offer guidance in the form of institutions to tackle the multitude problem. This is called consciousness approach to management • Role of intuition (feeling) Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without reasoning or inferring. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind and when fully developed is efficient and effective for taking prompt and sound decisions. Intuition skills enable one to cope with confidence the
  3. 3. fluctuating environment and rapid changes. Faith is Prerequisite to develop and realize the power of intuition.  Purpose of Indian ethos • To develop proper management To develop proper management system in the organization. Management systems based on principles as per ancient wisdom are of immense help for the smooth conduct of business. Value oriented management system can be established with the help of Indian ethos • To ensure all round development To ensure all round development growth and prosperity i.e. ., productivity, marketing, profitability • Work sincerely Indian ethos teaches us that if you work sincerely for the society, for your organization and for the nature you will really enjoy your life through money harmony, peace and happiness your image is bright • Productivity of human being Indian wisdom indicates that productivity of human being is more importance than plant capacity  Characteristics / Nature of values: 1. Part of culture
  4. 4. Values are elements of culture and culture is the complex of values, ideas, attitudes and other meaningful symbols to shape human behavior in the society. Every society has its own culture and people in that society adhere to cultural requirements. 2. Learned responses The human beings live in society having certain cultural characteristics, which prescribes them to behave in a particular way. Their behavior is represents a set of stimuli to an individual and also a set of responses appropriate to those responses or alternatively punished for not adopting or indirectly associated with other stimulus situation that are rewarding. Thus through the learned experiences the individuals are uncultured or socialized. Cultural items learned early in life tend to resist change more strongly than learned late in life 3. Inculcated Values inculcated and are passed through generation to generation by specific groups and institutions. Such transmission starts from the family from where the socialization process starts. Apart from family, educational, religious and ethnic institutions also transmit cultural values from one generation to another 4. Social phenomenon Values of social phenomenon. I.e. cultural habits are shared by aggregates of people living in organized society. An individual ways of thinking and behavior constitutes culture. Group is developed and reinforced through social pressure upon those who are interacting with one another 5. Gratifying responses Values exist to meet the biological and other needs of the individuals in the society. Thus elements in the culture become extinguished when they no longer are grafting to members of the society. The society rewards behaviors which are grafting to members of the society. The society rewards behaviors which are grafting for its members. 6. Adapative process
  5. 5. Culture is adaptive either through a dialectical process or evolutionary process. Dialectical or sharply discontinuous change occurs when the value system a culture becomes associated with gratification of only one group or class in the environment. In system and replace it with a new value system such as through revolution or other methods  Qualities of values 1. Fearlessness 2. Courage 3. Purity of mind and heart 4. Integration of thoughts, action and behavior 5. Straight forwardness 6. Generosity 7. Spirit of sacrifice for the sake of common goal 8. Inspired ideals and vision 9. Creativity 10. Empathy, love and affection 11. Patience 12. Faith 13. Friendship with all 14. Calmness 15. Control of mind and restraint on senses and passions 16. Non violence (in ways of adopting collective bargaining) 17. Non greediness
  6. 6. 18. Firm but fair 19. Charity (free health care centers, adult education etc) 20. Harmlessness 21. Modesty 22. Gentleness, truthfulness, loyalty etc • Values for Indian managers The managerial values are categorized in 3 parts in an organizational environment 1. Physical values Accuracy The precesion, exactness and conforming to the fact in details of work Cleanliness In offices, production and warehouses facilities, equipments, customer service areas, raw material and finished product inventory, bathrooms and so on. Maximum utilization of resources The desire and ability of the company to improve its performance by full utilization of its current resources (time, money, equipment, material, space people etc) Orderliness In offices drawers file cabinets, shelves, paper work, files, phone numbers, priority of work, daily and weekly plan
  7. 7. Punctuality and timeliness In arriving on time work, from breaks, from lunch, to meetings, in replying to letters and phone calls, in paying bills on time, etc. Occurring at the most suitable or opportune time Quality of products and services In terms of presentation, functionality, choice value, speed , timeliness, suitability, repeatability, life span, courtesy, friendliness etc Regularity Of meeting, reports, sales calls, performance reviews and so forth Responsiveness The way people, the organization, systems etc react to a need coming from within or from outside the organization Safety In office, warehouses, production and research facilities, vechiles for employees, vendors and customers 2. Organizational values Accountability Of individuals, department and division for performance, results, problems and so on. Communications Up, down and sideways within the company, with customers and vendors, in terms of openness, frankness, clarity, frequency, accuracy, timeliness and brevity
  8. 8. Cooperation Among individuals, departments in terms of plans, activities and systems Coordination Horizontally between departments in terms of plans, activities and systems. Discipline in adherence to company policy, rules, systems, procedures, schedules, standards, and ethics and so on Freedom for initiative To make suggestions, develop plans, make decisions, carry out or modify actions and so on. Integration For smooth operation vertically between different levels of the organization in terms of plans, decisions, priorities. Standardization In terms of forms, files, procedures, reports, performance evaluations, equipment, training, recruitment, orientations, communications and so on. Systemization In sales, marketing, customer service accounting, research, production, engineering, recruitment, training, promotions, communications, coordination, reporting and so on. 3. Psychological values Continuous improvement The desire and ability of the company to develop and incorporate ways to improve itself
  9. 9. Creativity In terms of new products, new ideas, new systems, new production methods, new applications of technology, new methods of financing, new marketing strategies Customer delight The positive emotional response and joy that the customer feels from interaction with our people and our products and services Decisiveness In solving problems, planning, executing plans in terms of speed and commitment to decisions once made. Develop people The desire and ability of the company to improve the lot of the employees working for it Agreement The overall atmosphere and interaction between people, departments, divisions, systems, activities, rules, and policies within the company and between these elements and the external environment, customers, vendors, community laws and so on Innovation The desire and ability of the company to venture into new, breakthrough areas of opportunity Integrity Keeping to one’s word, promise, agreements being truthful, non deceitful etc.with employees, customers, vendors, government etc
  10. 10. Respect for the individual In establishing rules and policies, design of systems, making decisions, executing instructions and so on in terms of people’s health, safety, self esteem, feelings and opinions Service to society Community welfare, environmental protection, development of products and services that meet real physical, social or psychological needs are the primary activities of managers  Values for managers in India a) Core values of mangers in India There may be divergent values in tune with the nature and goals of different functional departments and also the overall organizational culture. However there are some dominant values also known as core values that are considered as crucial by majority of managers • Integrity • Trust • Achievement motivation • Truthfulness • Humility and contentment b) Personal traits of managers in India Personal traits are enduring characteristics of an individual by which he/ she can be identified and also to a certain personal traits which make
  11. 11. him / her successful and efficient. The respondent executives indicated that the following are the dominant traits • Stability • Skill • Creativity • Achievement • Flexibility C) Goals of a typical manager in India Values of a manager will have a direct influence on the goal and objective he sets. Personal goals of a manger may vary depending on goals, culture and philosophy of the concerned organization. Nevertheless, each manager works with a certain aim and purpose in his mind. The following are the goals of a typical manger in India • Customer satisfaction • Achievement of department and organizational goals • Completion of tasks within scheduled time frame • Employee motivation • Career progress d) Important personal qualities of a manager Managers with limited abilities and skills with static values and goals may not be able to achieve success in all circumstances. Certain personal qualities (height, complexion, voice, dressing habits, gregariousness, versatility, etc.Should supplement and stand in good stead of an individual supplement and stand in good stead of an individual to
  12. 12. accomplish all round success, The respondent executives reported that the following five qualities are important for a typical manager in India today • Self control • Articulation abilities • Sociability • Physical stature • Dress e) Private values for managers Private values of a manager refer to all those values which he holds while undertaking activities besides organizational responsibilities. If an individual daily goes for a walk in the morning, it is a value and if he / she spend an hour every night helping the child doing the home work gives by the teachers at school. Therefore all the other roles that a manager has to play called private life values. All those who hold important position in organizational related activities. However there is a small proportion of managerial workforce who ignores organizational responsibilities and work for the promotion of personal interest  Elements of Indian ethos:
  13. 13. Indian management methods are bound to work in India. Indian ethos is better than other ethos present in other countries. Indian believe 1. Ego sublimation rather than ego assertion 2. Sacrificing spirit rather than fighting spirit 3. Team achievement rather than individual achievement 4. Spiritual attainment rather than material prosperity 5. Self control rather than outside control 6. Concept of duties rather than concept of rights 7. Yielding rather than dominating 8. Concern for this age world and improvement 9. Respect for and search for all truth whatever be its source  Work ethos Work ethos refers to certain norms of behavior governing the conduct of workers involved in workers involved in work situations to achieve certain desired objectives. In other words work culture is the involvement of workman with work. The degree of one’s involvement impacts his performance to give high or low productivity, high or low quality i.e. higher the degree of involvement, higher well be the productivity and quality.  Works ethos at different levels of management: Work ethos will be different at different levels.  At Basic level
  14. 14. 1. Discipline 2. To maintain punctuality 3. Coming to work on time 4. Behaving properly with superior, colleagues and subordinates 5. Not wasting time during working hours 6. Dignity in relating to peers, semorn and subordinates 7. To do things those are morally good or sight  At Top level At the top level, it is about commitment and accountability feel responsible for the task assigned to him. Some more points related to top level are 1. Work culture Good work culture means one is fully devoted towards work and has high morale. On the other hand, poor work culture results in high rate of wastage, poor quality, low productivity and low morale 2. Loyalty Work culture is also concerned with a workers loyalty and sense of belongingness to the organization. One should protect the interest of thee organization. No employee should make any adverse comments about the organization in the public 3. Commitment responsibility Every man should work like a master not like a slave. The workers should take full responsibility for the task assigned to them and furthest efforts to achieve what is expected from them.
  15. 15. 4. Sense of belongingness The worker should exhibit by his behavior a sense of belongingness of the organization. A feeling of respect should be there for the organization. One should maintain good relationship with peers, sub ordinates and superiors and treat them well 5. Protecting the interest of organization 6. No adverse comment about the organization in public  Dimensions of work ethos 1. Rightful expectations • Work ethics refer to ethical attitude to work alone in context of employment • In any organization, efficient and diligent performance of duties assigned to the employees • This is rightful expectations and moral demand on the employees of the employer • An employer gives an opportunity, career and a status to an employee • The employee should give out his or her best to the organization. This is ethical demand of duty • Shrinkingwork,making excuse for poor performance, finding faults with organization etc are against the demand of work ethics • On the other hand in the same way employee also has rightful expectation from the employer
  16. 16. • It is regarding their service condition for career advancement and recognition and rewards for their work. So this called ethical employee employer relationship 2. Sense of loyalty towards the organization Loyalty means safe guarding and promoting the interest of the organization. It requires a sense of devotion and allegiance beyond the routine job requirement and duties. A loyal employee should not promote those personal interests which are competing organization at the cost of organization. He acts as a faithful agent promoting organizational goals. Loyalty also means giving organizational needs a higher priority over personal needs 3. Discipline Every organization and work group have written or unwritten rules, norms and ways of working. The members or employees have to follow them. There is a hierarchy of power and authority at the work. The people on lower level are expedited to follow orders, directions and suggestions given by their superiors. Obeying the orders is part of discipline. On the other hand there should be no harassing environment for lower level people. There should be mutual trust, respect and friendly relations between each other. A good organization must provide appropriate channels for grievance redressal and for investigating complaints against its higher level executives. The higher authority should know sense of responsibility. It should be utilized humbly for promoting the goals of organization, to motivate and help subordinates in their self growth and to provide imitative and leadership for collective growth 4. P’s of work ethics Whenever an individual joins an organization he /she is under an obligation of job contract, which confers a right to be duly compensated against what he is committed to perform. To fulfill his obligation and
  17. 17. committed he is expected to preserve certain degree of skills and attitudes such as regularity, punctuality, discipline, initiative etc. All these together combine an ethical value system which every employee must follow however sometimes organizations atmosphere may be different. Even then an individual is expected to be ethical at his own level. Generally at work place, people are concerned for three factors or 3p’s i.e. pay, prospects, promotion but one 4th P i.e. performance is the most important factor which determines the organizational as well as personal development.  Model of management in the Indian social political environment Models of management I. The chakra borty Model The model bases itself on vedantic concepts Vedanta is a systematic and formulated knowledge life and living. It helps to gain the knowledge of your intrinsic self (fundamentals) According to chakra borty there are 4 goals human system 1. Dharma (rectitude and righteousness) = (correctness and justice) 2. Artha (money and wealth) 3. Kama (desires and needs) = (needs and requirements) 4. Moksha (Liberation of spiritual ones)= (freedom for religious)
  18. 18. Features of chakra borty • To aim and strive for a PURE MIND • Work must be done without personal claims to selfish results (reward) as the primary driving force. Desire less results must by primary objective Work = Desire less work (Nishkan karma) • Balance is the keynote of Indian thought. It tries to maintain balance between short term goals to material achievement and the ultimate divine protection. • Human personality complies An outer active, involved and dynamic self called PRAKRITI An inner inactive witness and silent self called PURUSHA To have an in-depth awareness of the innerse self is crucial for effective self management • The reliability of a leader rests on the quality of impersonal love • The Indian thoughts take the individual as a contra focus. It I am good then the world is good. • No work is inferior or dreaming. Work is not any a means to gain name, fame or power but to purify our minds and ego and take is towards the attainment of heaven • Knowledge is Indian thought speaks of 2 fundamental concepts • CREATOR and CREATION. The Indian thought tries to seek knowledge about the creator rather the creation. The various yogic
  19. 19. process, social norm and values helps in transformation of minds to enable in establishing contact with the creator Thus the model aims in ethico- moral transformation of both the worker and the manger In chakra borty’s news all these features can be summed up in context to industry or business in the BUSINESS ASHRAM vision which is as follows • There should be a growing tendency towards products with longer life cycles as against the shorter one today • Organizations should tend to contract rather the expend as is the current tendency • Localized, decentralized economic activities should include faster than centralized one’s • The need for high speed, long distance continuous travel should gradually decline. Bicycles should again come • Employee relations should become more cooperative and less adversarial. Spirit of trusteeship should also be implied amongst owner/ top managers • Competitive advertising making customers a prey must be reduced • Business growth fuelled by greed and achieved through manipulations, financial mergers and heavy debit financing should be favored less. • The search for strategic advantage, strategic intent, strategic response or global market should be slowed down. Local resources for local markets to meet local needs should be the principal thrust.
  20. 20. • Mental Illnesses due to overconsumption outside and undernourishment within should destine • Loyalty and gratitude to organization and colleague should become important features of professionalism • Reduction in greed and interpersonal rivalry should give way to basic human values like SHARING and HUMILITY • Networking interpersonal or inter organizational should be highlighted than the self centered motive of survival • Decision should be based on basic values of spirituality, ethics and ecologically positive or negative • In education – realization and idealism should regain their lost importance as against the current trend of careerism • Technology should be accepted or rejected by the standards set out by the spiritualized human being • Alignment and empowerment of the individual will with the ultimate divine will would lead to error morally correct decisions • Finally the work place will tend to be transformed into a spiritual/ moral gymnasium. In this the income profit etc will be treated as a means of serving the basic physic economic needs of employees and society Chakra borty stated that his model is idealistic. The problems lies that when the ideals are set too high, instead of acting as an incentive, tends to act negatively as they cannot be attainable
  21. 21. The model also is silent about the visions and the objectives of an organization which are central to ethical behaviors of a corporation and its management II. The Jitatmananda Model Jitatmananda bases his model on the concept of practical Vedanta and particularly swami Vivekananda The model rests on a few essential credos 1. The holistic paradigm (model) According to the holistic paradigm two truths revolutionaries the body of A respectful athitude of honesty, help, care and encouragement are not only the beet policy but only poling in management A worker can generate himself if empowerment, encourage trust faith and support are offered to him Thus holistic paradigm teachers A) Love begets love B) Hatred begets trust C) Trust begets trust D) Gratitude begets gratitude E) Respect begets respect F) Empowerment begets responsible productivity G) Meditation and spiritual practice provides guidance to corporate members
  22. 22. 2. Creation of ethical leaders (I) whatever the excellent and best ones do the commonness follow (II) That leader is the best who has learnt the are of drawing different kinds of people towards him and extracting the best from each one according to his qualities and aptitude • Factors which helps the leader to attract workers are A) The workers must know that the leader sincerely feeds for them B) The workers must see that the leader himself lanes to share all the works that the workers do C) The workers must see that the leader practices what he preaches D) The leader must be pure in body and mind • The leader must lane the following essential qualities A) Evenness or equanimity of mind YOGA KARMA KAUSALAM YOGA is skill in action B) Capacity to face adverse situation with strength and calmness C) Learn to be the servant to be able to rule D) Ability to make the place of work a place of worship E) Ability of creating the environment of a corporate family 3. Creation of self Within as the source of all power. Four ways to manifest self power are A) Knowledge B) Devotion
  23. 23. C) Unselfish action D) Meditation 4. Creative leader must both visionary and missionary To create a leader of the highest creative power, four qualities are necessary a) The yogi- a contemplative man the quintessential thinker, who is fond of research but finds it difficult execute his ideas into action b) The doer- Who executive a plane or an idea efficiently obediently without question c) A visionary – with the power to envision d) The capability to transforms that vision and spiritual dynamism into others 5. Company is a family- Vedic idea of a corporate culture Thus the jitatmananda model envisages the company culture to be entirely formulated around the leader manager’s culture. The role of founder entrepreneur or stockholder his object vision are absent from the model III. The sherlekar model The model is based on turn ideals: A)Human values – spiritual. Ethical and moral B) Holism – unity, oneness, cooperation and synthesis For the development of his thoughts he depends upon certain Indian scriptures:
  24. 24. 1. All work is an opportunity for doing good to the world and thus gaining materially and spiritually in on lives 2. Worship people not only with the material things but also by showing respect to their ever present divinity within 3. Strength and inspiration for excelling in work comes from the divine, god within through prayer, hold readings and unselfish work 4. He who works with calm and even mind achieves the most 5. As we think so we succeed so we become. Attention to means ensures the ends 6. By mutual cooperation respect and fellow feeling all of us will enjoy the highest good both material and spiritual 7. Infinite happiness and infinite peace come to them who see the divine in all beings 8. Regal the other person as divine being Based on these Indian scripture’s principles, sherlekar considers the following basic principles of Indian ethos for management. A) Immense potential energy and talents for perfection as human being has the spirit within his heart B) Karma yoga offers double benefit of private benefit, self purification and public benefit C) Excellence at work through self motivation and self development is the best means of total quality management D) Cooperation is powerful instrument for term work and success in any enterprise involving collective work
  25. 25. E) Inner qualities are much more powerful than the capital materials, plant and machinery which are outer resources • Delegation of authority Although delegation of authority is a significant function of mgmt but it is nearly an informal activities. Excessive centralization is present in it. Subordinates are always or in most of the case unwilling to accept responsibility due to such condition decision are always centralized. • Trade union In Indian corporate sector trade union are always dealt as an enemy of employers. The trade union on their parts is always pressuring the employees for the benefit of their member. Trade union are now just a formality and to enjoy political influences • Transfer policy In Indian public sector there are rare transfer policies. Such policies exit only on papers, transfer is basically done on the punishment, favoritism and recommendation. In private sector some transfer policy still exist but that‘s to for top level employees • Performance appraisal It means evaluation of performance of an employee. In Indian management model there is no concrete appraisal system. Appraisal is not done on the basis of actual performance • Customer’s grievances In practical situation such system seldom (rarely) used and grievance are dealt mostly on the basis of mutual settlement. But now days due to
  26. 26. excessive competitive atmosphere companies have started giving preference to customer grievance • Planning: India has a well established planning commission under prime minister which formulate five year plan. In private corporate sector an especially a medium and small scale farms only short ranged planning is existence. India has hardly been able to achieved any five year plan objective in a successful manner due to lack of proper implementation of programs. Profit maximization is the sole consideration of business organization neglecting other aspect of planning • Recruitment and selection In public sector most of the recruitment and selection is done on the basis of recommendation reference of present employees are giving the priority providing less importance to the performance of the desired candidate • Human resources development No proper policy of employee’s motivation and leadership exist in reality. Decision on promotion and tenure of service are based on recommendation and reference rather than performance. An ambiguous human resources policy is a main cause of employed dissatisfaction • Training and development No proper policy to determine the need of training and development. Expenses allocation for training is very less. No atmosphere to learn and understood the importance of the concept of training and development • Employer employee relationship
  27. 27. Relationship between employee and employer are not very cordial and comfortable. Employer at lower level is given very low autonomy (power authority). They hardly participate in all management function; employees are threatened just as commodity or cost centres  Managerial effectiveness under /EM (Indian ethos in management) The main job of management is not producing results. Workers are to produce results; mangers produce performers. Top management is visionary. They plan 5 or 10 years ahead and perform 2 duties 1. To translate the vision or dream in terms of projects to be accomplished 2. To develop performers who are self motivated. Workers job to produce results by executing the projects S. Item Western management Management Based on Indian N ethos O 1 Belief Production, productivity, profit at Material gain, with belief in any cost achieving human and social welfare also 2 Guidance Management guided by mind Management by consciousness only, led away by ego and desire, power beyond mind, i.e., soul. soulless management Interiorized management 3 Emphasis Worker development, Development of man, integrated management of others, profit growth, harmony, happiness and maximization. Human being health. Management of self given only lip sympathy 4 Tools 5Ms as resources- men, money, Men, machines, materials and materials, machines, markets. methods as conscious partners- all
  28. 28. Science and technology having consciousness whether information for decision marking manifested or dormant. Information and intuition for decision. Ethics and values combined with skills 5 Problem Conflict resolution by Conflict resolution through solving negotiation, compromise, integration and synthesis on arbitration, liquidation of stressing super ordinate common differences only for a temporary goals so that enduring harmony period. No reference to higher and unity is assured. Self consciousness introspection, stepping back aids the search for solution 6 Decision Brain storming (round table Brain stilling(entering the room making approach) of timeless silence) 7 Developm Physical, vital and mental only. Integrated development, whole ent Soul or spirit ignored. Material man approach, breath control and development only, even at the meditation emphasized. Human cost of man and nature enrichment and total quality 8 Approach External behavior. Mental, Noble attitudes. Inner guidance, material, selfish only- soulless team spirit, total harmony, global good  Features of Indian Ethos 1. Divinity of a human being is not merely a notion but a truth which can be experienced in the stillness of the mind. 2. Balance is the keynote of Indian thought. We have synthesis, harmony Between the dual concepts. The Individual is the central focus. 3. Devine element in the individual is only a portion of the universe of the Universal or cosmic consciousness.
  29. 29. 4. Gives greater emphasis on values, human and ethical. Knowledge is not Power. Indian ethos is based on Indian scripture. Indian thoughts provide Eternal knowledge 5. All work is worthy and honorable. 6. Emphasis on duties and responsibilities. 7. Deals with two types of knowledge. a) Knowledge of creation b) Knowledge of creator  The mindset of a manager: S.No According of current According to Indian ethos in management practices management 1 Produce results Produce performers 2 Organize men, materials, Mobilize men and sound out machines and money other readiness 3 Plan, set goals, prepare Obtain agreement and schedules, checklists commitment on means and ends 4 Motivate,praise,reprimand, Inspire, empower, celebrate punish, push people success, mourn failure, draw people 5 Check,control,report a command Set personal example, visible, post accessible, on the move 6 Coordinate, requisition, convene facilitate, show ways to overcome meetings 7 Instruct, issue notices, order, Make queries, sound out ideas, demand compliance encourage suggestions
  30. 30.  Differences between ethics and ethos Differences between ethics and ethos Origin Ethics are derived from the shastras • Ethos are derived from culture Nature Universal • Culture – specific country or region Function Determines punya,paap,swarga, • Determines cultured or cultured narak conduct or misconduct behavior Examples Truth, non violence, donation, kindness • Welcome, pranam, respect to elders love to youngsters  Indian heritage in business and management India has a very rich cultural heritage .However it known to many that India is not a developed country in terms of its economy and business. • Indian business in the past: In the olden days Indian economy was totally based on agriculture. People used to produce whatever they required for their self consumption. People began to specialize in producing different items of luxury and daily use and did not have skills and time left for producing other items of their use. However they were able to produce surplus items with increase in their efficiency. • Indian business in the medieval (relating to mid age)period
  31. 31. Trade and business continued both within the and outside the country. Various sea routes are discovered during the period. Metallic currency was introduced for the first time 1. Trade routes India is connected by road ways in the earlier time also. The road way touched its height of glory in the medieval. The network of these trade routes indicates the extent to which places in the deep interior were involved inter regional exchange of commodities 2. Administration: Administration in India is excellent in mid age. A lot can be learned from the administration emperors.  Quality Management in heritage business Quality is a continuous process of improvement for individual, group of workers, and the whole organization towards the quality. Quality is a participative process because every employee in the organization is involved and expected to take responsibility for improving the quality every moment You can only improve that, which you can measure, be become what we think which implies what is thought about a business and we can improve  Objectives of quality 1. It will enrich the total quality of work, product and services, persons also.
  32. 32. 2. The employee will become self dependent and self manages 3. The employee as a person will become quality conscious 4. The employee will become self discipline  Guiding principle for quality: • Do it right first time This can be fulfilled when the right information is provided to the all levels of the organization so the decision can be taken right in quality oriented • Customer oriented: Business considered customers as the king thus goods and services rendered to them must meet their satisfactory and demanding levels. Customers now focus on the quality even they have to pay more. • Team empowerment The more people feel involved themselves in group or in a team the greater will be the commitment to the organization, its goodwill, customer satisfaction and quality • Continuous improvement There is no limitation in the expectation of the customer of quality therefore continuous improvement must be established with the ever changing affairs in the business. • Work is supreme that can lead to total quality • Commitment for action
  33. 33. • Sense of belongingness to the organization • Focus towards each and every activity for betterment • Selfless action towards work • Total perfection and quality must be the objective of each and every employee  Benefits of Quality management Tangible gains Intangible gains Better product quality Effective team work Productivity improvement improvement of job interest Reduced quality cost Improvement in human relations and work area moral Increased market Customer satisfaction Reduced employee grievances Improved communication better problem solving capacity Improved corporate health and character of the company Better company image  Economics of giving business and management  Analyze the health of business • learn to identify when a customer is in trouble
  34. 34. • consider ways of developing your existing markets and building on relationships with existing customers • consider ways of developing new markets and finding new customers  Minimize cost and maximize efficiency • minimize your fixed and variable costs by checking for better deals than you currently have, eg with utilities providers, contractors and suppliers • manage your relationship with suppliers more effectively • assess suppliers' performance and seek the best possible deal • review your bank charges quarterly  Keep cash flow healthy • tighten up your credit control and maintain a healthy cash flow • learn to work with cash flow forecasts and remain aware of your cash position at all times • keep track of the time it takes for you to pay your suppliers and for your customers to pay you • consider debt factoring and invoice discounting  Limit the risks of business faces • develop strategies to manage all risks you face • carry out a SWOT analysis • consider worst-case scenarios and know exactly what to do if your business experiences serious financial problems  Develop an effective survival strategy • revisit your business plan and development strategy and make changes according to your current circumstances • inspire confidence and keep your employees focused and motivated • use our interactive tools to assess the health of your business  Access sources of business support
  35. 35. • maintain good lines of communication with your accountant and bank • seek advice from your business adviser or from your local Business Link –  LAWS OF KARMA • THE GREAT LAW - "As you sow, so shall you reap". This is also known as the "Law of Cause and Effect”. Whatever we put out in the Universe is what comes back to us. If what we want is Happiness, Peace, Love, and Friendship...Then we should BE Happy, Peaceful, Loving and a True Friend. • THE LAW OF CREATION - Life doesn't just HAPPEN, it requires our participation. We are one with the Universe, both inside and out. Whatever surrounds us gives us clues to our inner state. Be yourself, and surround yourself with what you want to have present in your Life. • THE LAW OF HUMILITY - What you refuse to accept will continue for you. If what we see is an enemy, or someone with a character trait that we find to be negative, then we ourselves are not focused on a higher level of existence. • THE LAW OF GROWTH - "Wherever you go, there you are”. For us to GROW in Spirit, it is we who must change - and not the people, places or things around us. The only given we have in our lives is OURSELVES and that is the only factor we have control over. When we change who and what we are within our heart our life follows suit and changes too.
  36. 36.  THE LAW OF RESPONSIBILITY Whenever there is something wrong in my life, there is something wrong in me. We mirror what surrounds us - and what surrounds us mirrors us; this is a Universal Truth. We must take responsibility what is in our life.  THE LAW OF CONNECTION - Even if something we do seems inconsequential, it is very important that it gets done as everything in the Universe is connected. Each step leads to the next step, and so forth and so on. Someone must do the initial work to get a job done. Neither the first step nor the last are of greater significance, as they were both needed to accomplish the task. Past - Present – Future they are all connected...  THE LAW OF FOCUS - You cannot think of two things at the same time. When our focus is on Spiritual Values, it is impossible for us to have lower thoughts such as greed or anger.  THE LAW OF GIVING AND HOSPITALITY - If you believe something to be true, then sometime in your life you will be called upon to demonstrate that particular truth. Here is where we put what we CLAIM that we have learned, into actual PRACTICE.  THE LAW OF HERE AND NOW - Looking backward to examine what was, prevents us from being totally in the here and now. Old thoughts, old patterns of behavior, old dreams...Prevent us from having new ones.  THE LAW OF CHANGE -
  37. 37. History repeats itself until we learn the lessons that we need to change our path.  THE LAW OF PATIENCE AND REWARD – All Rewards require initial toil. Rewards of lasting value require patient and persistent toil. True joy follows doing what we're supposed to be doing, and waiting for the reward to come in on its own time.  THE LAW OF SIGNIFICANCE AND INSPIRATION - You get back from something whatever YOU have put into it. The true value of something is a direct result of the energy and intent that is put into it. Every personal contribution is also a contribution to the Whole. Lack luster contributions have no impact on the Whole, nor do they work to diminish it. Loving contributions bring life to, and inspire, the Whole. 1. Self-purification and Self-development. 2. Individual growth and welfare. 3. Collective growth and welfare. 4. Minimum play of passion, jealousy, hatred. 5. Team spirit and Teamwork. 6. Autonomous management, minimum control and supervision. 7. Manager acts as a Mentor. 8. Self-motivation. 9. Perfection 10. All round happiness and prosperity. 11. Skills and values united. 12. Conflicts resolved by integration
  38. 38.  Vedanta philosophy in contemporary management: The term ‘management’ as referred in this paper includes activities like planning, organizing, directing, staffing, motivating coordinating, budgeting, reporting and controlling that are carried out for achieving the goals of the organization. The purpose of management is to reach the goals of the organization. Vedanta: The four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva) are divided into two parts. The beginning part (Vedapoorva), talks about rituals. Vedanta, the concluding part reveals the ultimate knowledge on God, Universe and Living Beings. Vedanta is a collection of many Upanishads (108 of them are considered important). The purpose of Vedanta is to guide the human beings to reach the goal of life. • Vedanta in Management: ‘Vedantic Management’ as opposed to the current management practices that are popularly followed, hereafter referred as ‘Western Management’. The purpose of both Vedantic Management and Western Management is identical, namely, reaching the goals of the organization. It is beyond the scope of the organization and it is not proposed that the organization change its goals for adopting Vedantic Management. The basic contention of the Vedantic Management will be more effective and efficient in achieving the goals of the organization, without laying any constraints on the profit-motives of the organization.
  39. 39. Vedantic Management does not require the organization to follow any ethical/ moral values. Corporate responsibility towards the society is not a precondition for introducing Vedantic Management in an organization. Vedantic Management is not biased towards any particular religion. It does not involve introducing any religion/ belief system in the management practices. Even after switching from Western Management to Vedantic Management, the organization will continue to be secular. • Source of knowledge: Knowledge on management is gained by the author from his two decades of managerial experience working in various capacities in many leading industrial organizations. In addition, he has learnt Upanishads, sitting by the side of his masters (Swami Suddhananda, Swami Paramarthananda, Swami Guruparananda and Swami Omkarananda). It result of reflecting on the Western Management practices observed by the author in the light of the Vedantic knowledge gained from these enlightened spiritual masters. • Conceptual difference It is not possible to introduce Vedantic Management as a supplement or add-on to the Western Management practices that are currently followed in most of the organizations. The current management system has to be completely replaced by the new system since it is fundamentally different. • Individual Goal Oriented: Vedantic Management requires the organization to consider the personal goals of the employees as the stepping-stones to achieve the goals of the organization. This means the primary task of the organization is to facilitate the fulfillment of the personal goals of the employees. Vedantic Management assures that if this primary task is performed well the goals of the organization will be achieved as a by-product.
  40. 40. Personal goals of the individual do not vary, as it is popularly believed. Vedanta reveals that there is only one goal for all the human beings in the world. Unfortunately, due to inadequate British educational system, people have difficulty in comprehending this obvious fact. Vedanta declares that the ONLY goal of all the human beings is to be happy all the time without any trace of anxiety, worry and such negative emotions ever (referred hereafter as Joyful Living). However, due to ignorance, people assume various ‘personal goals’ like earning material prosperity, job-satisfaction, fulfillment of self-esteem needs etc, with a hope that these will lead them to Joyful Living. People at various stages in life chase various things with a hope that the fulfillment of their expectations will give them everlasting happiness. Most people do not realize that they are chasing a mirage until they retire from job. It will be too late by then. Vedantic Management expects the organization to remind all their employees that their ultimate goal in life is to be happy and then dedicate the existence of the organization to fulfill this single goal. According to Vedanta, the true purpose of any work is to help the human being to reach the goal of Joyful Living. Therefore, the only purpose of any organization is to serve as a stepping-stone for the employees to reach their individual goal of being happy all the time. Thus, Vedantic Management creates a symbiotic relationship between the organization and its employees. The varying goals of the organization (like profit maximization or increase in market share and such) are tightly integrated with the achievement of the only individual goal of the employee. In addition, to teaching the employees that their only goal is happiness, the organization has to teach them that the only way that they can achieve their goal is to follow the prescription given in Vedanta. Vedanta reveals that increment, promotion, incentives, paid vacation, power, position, job-satisfaction, etc do not help the individual to reach their goal. Vedanta prescribes Karma Yoga as a compulsory requirement for reaching the goal. Therefore, the organization should employ the
  41. 41. services of enlightened spiritual masters and teach the employees how to perform their work as Karma Yoga. Once the employees is clear on his destination (Joyful Living) and the means (Karma Yoga) he is sure to put his heart and soul in the work leading to dramatic improvements in performance. The organization has to institute appropriate systems (through re- engineering) that will ensure that this dramatic improvement in performance of all the employees at the individual level, lead to achievement of the goals of the organization. Thus, Individual Goal Oriented approach of Vedantic Management will result in effective and efficient achievement of the goals of the organization. • Understanding the Cause and Effect relationship: Western Management is under the wrong assumption that there is a formula for success. The review meetings in all organization spend enormous time and effort in analyzing the cause of failures. Success stores are studied in order to emulate them to ensure success in future endeavors. These practices are based on an erroneous assumption that there is a linear relationship between cause (hard/ smart work) and effect (success or failure). Vedantic Management is based on the message from Bhagavad Gita that human beings are responsible only for action and the results are given at HIS discretion. This statement is proved repeatedly in our personal, social, political and professional life. It is impossible to guarantee success in any field with 100% certainty. Western Management assumes that the managerial talent is inadequate in case of failures. Similarly, it assumes that the success is the result of hard work, careful planning and such mundane efforts. The fact remains that there is no apparent linear relationship between efforts and results. Recognizing this truth, Vedantic Management gives emphasize only on the process in which work is carried out. It does not judge the performance based on the results. Even if the results are in line with the expectation, Vedantic Management requires the individuals to examine
  42. 42. their performance critically with a view to attain perfection. Vedanta reveals that there will always be scope for improvements in performance and the results will always be inadequate. Based on this revelation, Vedantic Management guides the organization on a continuous path of process improvement without paying too much attention on the results. Results are important only for planning. It is wrong to judge the performance based on results. • Work of Human Personality: Western Management is built on the wrong premise that a human being is what he is, due to the environment. It assumes people can be shaped with appropriate tools (like training programs and motivation techniques). Vedanta reveals the fact that human personality consists of five layers (physical, physiological, psychological, intelligential and spiritual) that are grouped under three bodies (Physical, Subtle and Causal). Only the physical body is developed to the current stature during this lifetime. The subtle body, which is responsible for skills, capabilities, emotions, intelligence, is developed over the innumerable previous births. No one can significantly improve their level of skills or intelligence in one lifetime. Human beings are born countless times prior to the current birth and they have acquired various skills, capabilities, emotional traits, intelligence during these countless life experiences. Whatever be the quantum of effort put in by the individual during the current lifetime, he can improve his personality only marginally compared to the accumulated stock of infinite lifetimes. Vedantic Management does not expect the employees to change significantly. It is aware improvements in any individual will always be marginal. Therefore, jobs are modified to suit the employee rather than waiting for the employee to become more skilled to meet the expectations of the job.
  43. 43. Western Management ignores the truth regarding rebirth. As a result, it differentiates employees as ‘high performer’ and ‘low performer’ wrongly. Vedantic Management does not prescribe any comparison among employees. since intrinsically they are not comparable. It recommends that everyone should compare only his or her own past performance and continuously improve the existing skill sets, intelligence etc. • Self-motivation: Western Management employs different techniques to motivate the employees. Not all such efforts make any lasting effect on the employee. This is due to the reason that the basic requirement of the employee is not addressed. It is not that the organization does not correctly judge the basic requirement of the employee. In most cases, even the employee does not know what he wants. Vedantic Management guides the employee to find out his/ her ultimate goal of life and then shows a path, which will lead them to that goal. If the employee gets clarity on the goal and the path, then the journey is performed through self- motivation. It is ofcourse a difficult task to educate the employee and give clarity on the goal and means. However, when it is done, there is nothing more to be done to motivate the employee. He will perform to the best of his ability without ever requiring any prompting from the organization Vedantic Management prescribes that the employees are compensated at industry standards and they are provided with a work environment that is conducive for performing Karma Yoga. This will ensure that the employee is retained in the organization. In such an environment, the performance of the individual will continuously increase, without any expressed or implied demand. This phenomenon happens because as a part of Karma Yoga, the employee is expected to increase his performance continuously Thus, the employee will work harder and smarter for reaching his personal goal, which will result in continuous improvements in his
  44. 44. performance. There is no need to employ any motivation tools/techniques at all. • Role of leadership: Western Management gives undue importance to the top management in achieving the goals of the organization. Clarity in vision, appropriate structuring of the organization, understanding of the market environment and such functions are the responsibilities of the top management and they continue to be so even under Vedantic Management. However, Western Management expects the top management to lead the entire organization towards the organizational goals. Vedantic Management absolves the top management from this responsibility of leading the organization. Once all other functions of the top management are done to the best of their abilities, the organization is set on motion by enabling each employee to perform Karma Yoga in the workplace. Employees will then drive the organization in the chosen path. They need not be inspired by their leader. They do the work because they want to reach their personal goal of Joyful Living. Under Vedantic Management, customer satisfaction is a by-product of employee satisfaction. The employee is aware that if he does Karma Yoga he will reach his personal goal. Karma Yoga requires that the employee put his heart and soul in the work aiming at perfection all the time. In addition, he is happy doing his job. This happiness spreads at all directions and incidentally the customer is satisfied. As against pulling the organization under Western Management, the entire team of employees pushes the organization towards its goal. This results in far superior performance. Vedantic Management enables the entire organization move forward on its own momentum without expecting a few individuals (top management) to do a Herculean task of pulling the organization towards its goal. • Re-engineering is an essential requirement for Vedantic Management:
  45. 45. Employees will be self-motivated to perform work in an organization where Vedantic Management is in vogue. However, in order to derive benefit from such motivated work force, it is essential that the business processes of the organization be reengineered. Vedantic Management recommends Japanese way of re-engineering as opposed to following BPR principles as practiced in USA. • Employees work without leadership Vedantic Management declares that if the organization provides appropriate environment, employees will work without any supervision. They will do their work to the best of their ability, putting their heart and soul in the work if they are allowed to work in their area of swadharma as described in Vedas.  Benefits of introducing Vedantic Management in an organization: • Continuous improvement in the way work There will be continuous improvement in the way work is carried out due to the practice of Karma Yoga. The organization will move towards perfection in all its operations. Productivity will increase many fold. Cycle Time will reduce dramatically. • Eliminate all the job related stress It will eliminate all the job related stress. There will be healthy relationship between employees at all levels. People will start enjoying their work and will look forward to more challenges. • Employees can be retained longer in an organization Employees can be retained longer in an organization. Attrition levels will drastically come down, since the employees will realize that they can achieve their personal goal by staying in an organization that follows Vedantic Management. • Employees will put in their heart and soul in the work
  46. 46. Since the employees will put in their heart and soul in the work, the organization will be able to leverage on the hidden potential of the employees. • Strengthen the existing core competencies of the organization The skill sets, capabilities and the level of maturity of the employees will be enriched through their own self-motivated effort (of performing Karma Yoga). This can be used to strengthen the existing core competencies of the organization and for developing new markets/ products.