2. Pakistan’s manufacturing sector constitutes as the second largest sector of the
country’s economy contributing 13.5 percent to GDP and generating biggest
number of industrial career opportunities with technology transfer.
The major reason for the existence of this industry is the availability of the raw
materials. Pakistan has unlimited reserves of limestone and clay, which can support
the industry for another 50-60 years.
The annual production of the cement at the time of the creation of Pakistan was
only 300,000 tones per year. By 1954 the production increased to 660,000 tonnes
per annum against a demand of 1,000,000 tonnes per annum. At this time PIDC
(Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation) took initiative and established two
cement factories Zealpak (240,000 tonnes) and Maple Leaf (100,000 tonnes)
having a capacity of 340,000 tones, thereby increasing the production to 1,000,000
tonnes per annum.
3. Pakistan is among the world’s fastest-growing construction markets and is
predicted to grow an average 12 percent yearly for the next five years especially
because of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) mega projects. The cement
sector is aiming to even raise its capacity, riding a wave of Chinese-financed
infrastructure projects across Pakistan.
5. World Cement Exporters
The major world exporters of Cement Industry are as follows:
China (2500 million metric tons)
India (280 million metric tons)
United States (83 million metric tons)
Iran (75 million metric tons)
Turkey (75 million metric tons)
6. China is the world’s market leader of cement. The annual production of cement
in China is whopping 2500 million metric tons. These cement companies are
mostly owned and operated by the state due to which the cement manufacturing
companies has the support from the government and they require very less capital.
The main reason of manufacturing so much cement is the growing population and
urbanization due to which more and more people are moving to cities and
metropolitans from rural areas. Though the cement industry is huge, it is criticized
and praised at the same time. The cement industry is undoubtedly responsible for
the huge and brilliant infrastructure but it has also resulted to a huge amount of
pollution which is really bad for the environment.
7. At the start of the PRC in 1949, the Chinese cement industry was relatively small
with many small cement kilns spread throughout towns and villages. In the 1980s
a trend towards large integrated cement plants emerged and several
government-owned cement producers were established to raise production. In
2000 the government began to reduce the number of small cement plants on the
basis of their inefficiency and high levels of emissions. These efforts are ongoing.
8. ANHUI CONCH CEMENT CO., LTD.
CHINA NATIONAL BUILDING MATERIAL CO., LTD.
CHINA NATIONAL MATERIALS COMPANY LIMITED
CHINA RESOURCES CEMENT HOLDINGS LIMITED
FUJIAN CEMENT CO., LTD.
GANSU QILIANSHAN CEMENT GROUP CO., LTD.
GANSU SHANGFENG CEMENT CO., LTD.
Major Cement Manufacturers in China
11. A largest cement manufacturers of Pakistan with a production capacity of 14,000
tons per day (4.200 million tons/annum). 1986 Initially it was state-owned
company with thousands of employees.
The company established their first active plant in southern Punjab city Dear Ghazi
Khan and then they established their second plant in northern Punjab's
D.G. Khan Cement
14. Lucky Cement Limited was founded in 1993 by Abdur Razzak Tabba. The company
started with factories in the Pezu located in Lakki Marwat District district of the
North West Frontier Province(Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). It now, also, owns a factory in
Lucky Cement Limited is one of the largest producer and leading exporter of
quality cement in Pakistan with the production capacity of 7.75 million tons per
annum. The company is listed on Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad and London Stock
17. Maple Leaf Cement is the third largest cement factory in Pakistan. It was set up in
1956 as a joint collaboration between the West Pakistan Industrial Development
Corporation and the government of Canada. It is strategically located at Daudkhel
(District Mianwali) in Northern Pakistan, which is an area rich in raw materials
required for the production of cement.
The total capacity of maple leaf is 11,700 tpd. The capacity of White Cement has
also increased from 100 tpd to 500tpd with the addition of a new plant. Maple Leaf
cement has 9% of the market share of OPC and is a leading brand in Pakistan with a
diverse customer base. It is also the largest producer of White Cement in the
country with 80% of market share.
18. Headquarters: Lahore, Punjab/Pakistan
Company Type: Public Company
NOE: 501-1000 employees
Market Share: 8%
Specialties: Ordinary Portland Cement, Sulphate Resistance Cement, Low
Alkali Cement, Wall Coat Maple Cement & White Cement
20. APCMA is the apex body of the cement manufacturers of Pakistan. It is registered
body under section 3 of the Trade Organization Ordinance 2007 wide license no 14,
dated April 26, 2008 issued by Ministry of Commence. It was incorporated on14th
of September 1992 under section 32 of the Companies Ordinance 1984.
APCMA plays a significant role in projecting the cement industry to the
Government and coordinating various activities in respect of formulation of
Government policies for the cement industry through its continuous dialogues and
All Pakistan Cement Manufacturer Association
21. Represents on all major policy making bodies concerned with cement.
Supplies desired information to all concerned Ministries
Helps in preparation of important Government documents concerning cement like
Reports for Five Year Plans, etc.
APCMA identifies and strengthens industry’s role in the economic development of
Provides up-to-date statistical data/information to the industry and other agencies.
Interacts for Industry's problems with the Government and co-ordinates various
activities with other bodies.
Focuses infrastructural problems (Rail, Coal, Power, etc) and suggests suitable
measures for their solution.
All Pakistan Cement Manufacturer Association
Coal rates, power tariffs, freight plays a very important factor in the price
determination, interestingly, government control all of these prices.
The government policies proved to be amazing for the cement industry of
Higher spending by the Government towards PSDP (Public Sector Development
Program) led to the increase of cement demand in Pakistan.
The public sector projects under this program includes the construction of large
and small dams, powerlands, highways, roads, irrigation canals, rapid transit
systems and flyovers etc.
Cement sector is running at 97-99 percent capacity utilization per month.
This sector is expanding by nearly 30 million tons over the next five years.
Cement industry is among the highest contributors to the national exchequer
over the last four years and has paid Rs189 billion in taxes.
Future of cement industry is very bright. Pakistan is among the world’s fastest-
growing construction markets and is predicted to grow an average 12 percent
yearly for the next five years especially because of CPEC mega projects.
A large number of government infrastructure and housing projects are under
Pakistani consumers prefer buying branded cement like D.G Khan Cement, Lucky
Industry will create large number jobs in coming years.
Technological advancements are underway in developed countries and govt
have positive plans to bring in new technology.
Emphasis is on creating highly energy efficient and environment friendly
technology to produce cement.
26. Porter’s Five Forces
Treat of New Entry:
Threat of New Entry Entering the business is expensive.
Huge players advantage from economies of scale.
Wide appropriation and showcasing channels are critical key resources that are
hard to replicate by new players, along these lines restricting entry.
Increasing costs implies bring down IRR for new green-field capacities.
Generally high barriers to entry.
27. Porter’s Five Forces
Around 55% of cement is consumed by the housing sector, with retail customers
accounting for the bulk of the customer base. But retail buyers do not have
much leverage in dictating the pricing.
Lack of substitutes also causes no buyer power.
Local markets are dominated by small number of cement firms.
Demand is inelastic— exists at all price points.
Overall, no buyer power.
28. Porter’s Five Forces
Most companies have captive limestone reserves, so no supplier power here.
Coal linkages have reduced so companies depend more on alternative fuel
sources, where suppliers can dictate prices.
Cement manufacturers have argued that price hikes in the industry are due to
increases in the price of both transportation and raw materials.
This means that suppliers are powerful enough to force new prices on the
Overall, moderate to high supplier power.
29. Porter’s Five Forces
Threat of Substitution:
No threat, as there is no substitute for cement. Other building materials such as
timber are only suitable for low-rise buildings. On the other hand, although steel
can be used for medium to high-rise buildings, building regulations normally
require structural steel to be encased in concrete for fire protection purposes. This
increases the importance of cement and hence reduces the threat of its
30. Porter’s Five Forces
Large companies enjoy economies of scale.
Competition is regional is nature, as cement cannot be transported across
Given over-capacity, slowdown in demand weakens prices, so no real pricing
Overall, moderate competitive rivalry.
31. Swot Analysis
Strong Industry Base
Sustained Growth in Production and Exports
Easy Availability of Production Resources
Surplus Production for Local and Export Markets
Good Local and International Reputation
32. Swot Analysis
Lack of Innovation and Technology Development
Absence of Vision to identify weaknesses
Lack of Funds to Take Up New Projects
Lack of Professional Expertise within Industry
Dependence on Cartelisation for adequate Revenue
Lack of Research & Development
33. Swot Analysis
Future Growth Potential
Emerging Export Markets
Developing a Long Term Vision and
Research to Develop New Products
Focus on Cost Optimization
Possible switch over to Cement Roads
34. Swot Analysis
Low Per Capita Consumption
High Incidence of Taxes
High Input Cost
Decline in Profitability
Inadequate Bulk Loading Facility at Ports
35. 1. Extraction of Raw Materials
The raw materials are extracted from the quarry by digging the holes through
machines in mountain.
2. Storage and Blanding of Raw materials
3. Raw Grinding and burning
4. Cement grinding and Storage
5. Packaging and delivering
37. Production Process
Criteria Dry process Wet process
Hardness of raw material Quite hard Any type of raw material
Fuel consumption Low High
Time of Process Lesser Higher
Quality Inferior quality Superior quality
Cost of production High Low
Overall Cost Costly Cheaper
Physical state Solid Liquid
Comparison of Dry and Wet Process