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FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF SPHENOID BONE
DR. RESHMA PETER
INTRODUCTION
 Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) of bone is a rare primary benign disorder of bone .
 Caused by somatic activating m...
 Characterized by a focal proliferation of fibrous tissue in the bone marrow leading to osteolytic
lesions distortion an...
3 CATEGORIES
Monostotic fibrous dysplasia(70%)
 involves a single bone
 It generally arrested by puberty.
 equal male t...
McCune-Albright syndrome
approximately 3-5% of patients with
fibrous dysplasia
It primarily affects females.
1. Polystotic...
NATURAL PROGRESSION AND CLINICAL BEHAVIOR
 most commonly behaves as a slow and indolent growing mass lesion.
 The facial...
 When rapid enlargement occurs, adjacent vital structures, such as the optic nerve, globe and auditory
canal/structures ,...
 In MFD and PFD, progression of the lesions appears to taper off as the patients approach puberty (on
reaching skeletal m...
HISTORY AND CLINICAL EXAMINATION
 Presence of functional impairments and duration
 Onset of menarche in females (to rule...
If the symptoms include
 rapid expansion
 new onset of pain
 visual change or loss
 hearing change or loss
 evidence ...
ORBIT,OPTIC NERVE,SPHENOID BONE
Involvement of the frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid regions results in
 Proptosis
 Dystopi...
 There has been significant controversy regarding the management of FD of the sphenoid bones that
encase the optic nerve,...
 Prophylactic decompression of the optic nerve (“unroofing”) has been recommended by many
surgeons
 Unfortunately, decom...
 Once it is determined that there is FD surrounding the optic nerve(s) and orbit, a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic
ex...
OCT
 uses high resolution cross-sections of the optic nerve to determine RNFL thickness
 A thin RNFL correlates with vis...
AUDITORY CANAL,TEMPORAL BONE,CRANIAL NERVES
 The temporal bone is frequently involved (>70%) in patients with craniofacia...
INVESTIGATIONS
PLAIN XRAY
 The pagetoid, or “ground-glass,” pattern (56% )
Most common
Appears as a mixture of dense and ...
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
 investigation of choice for diagnosis and follow-up
 Superior bony details
 Accurate assessment of...
Variations in CT appearance of fibrous dysplasia based on age.
A) FD in the young patient most often appears as homogenous...
MRI
 Distinguishes fibrous dysplasia from meningioma, osteoma, or mucocele
 define the extent of soft tissue involvement...
BONE BIOPSY
Replacement of the normal lamellar cancellous bone by abnormal fibrous tissue.
If the lesion is in a site that...
COMPLICATIONS OF FIBROUS DYSPLASIA
1. Pathological fracture
2. Bone deformity
3. Massive cartilage hyperplasia
4. Accelera...
 Spontaneous transformation to malignancy in FD reported in 0.5% of patients.
 The average length of time between the d...
MANAGEMENT BY ANATOMIC SITE AND INVOLVEMENT
Facial bones
 Asymmetry and swelling -the most common complaints
 Secondary ...
 In the pediatric population, of all the patients who present for evaluation of facial swelling
and asymmetry 50% are FD
...
QUIESCENT FD LESION
 Observation and monitoring for changes with annual evaluations.
 The patient’s symptoms, clinical a...
 Complete resection may be possible in monostotic lesions, it is unlikely to be possible in pfd
or mas), and the surgeon ...
NON-AGGRESSIVE BUT ACTIVE FD
 ideal to wait until the lesion becomes quiescent and the patient has reached skeletal matur...
 In the future, improvement in CT imaging and software will allow for accurate surgical simulation and
intraoperative nav...
AGGRESSIVE AND RAPIDLY EXPANDING FD
 complain of new onset pain or paresthesia/anesthesia .
 Based on the site of involv...
 In cases of an associated lesion, the management is based on that associated lesion e.g. an ABC with FD
would warrant cu...
CHERUBISM
 genetically distinct from FD
 manifest by expansile, multiloculated, radiolucent fibro-osseous lesions with m...
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
 Meningioma
 Paget’s disease or osteodystrophies of the skull base
 eosinophilic granuloma
 Han...
PROGNOSIS
 Fibrous dysplasia has a good prognosis with low rates of malignant transformation.
 The disease may stabilize...
THANK YOU
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Fibrous dysplasia of sphenoid bone

  1. 1. FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF SPHENOID BONE DR. RESHMA PETER
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) of bone is a rare primary benign disorder of bone .  Caused by somatic activating mutations in the α subunit of the stimulatory G protein encoded by the gene GNAS  Represents a defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation that originates in the mesenchymal precursor of the bone.
  3. 3.  Characterized by a focal proliferation of fibrous tissue in the bone marrow leading to osteolytic lesions distortion and weakening of bone deformities and fractures.  Normal medullary bone replaced with a variable amount of abnormal and structurally weak fibrous and osseous tissue and haphazardly distributed woven bone  Although the lesion is not encapsulated, it tends to remain enclosed within a shell of cortical bone.  This shell can be thinned as a result of the pressure exerted on it.
  4. 4. 3 CATEGORIES Monostotic fibrous dysplasia(70%)  involves a single bone  It generally arrested by puberty.  equal male to female ratio Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia  involves multiple bones  In the skull, sphenoid and frontal bones are affected.  lesions may be localized to one region of the body or they may be disseminated  up to 50% may involve bones in the head and neck.  likely to continue to progress even after puberty, beyond the third or fourth decades.
  5. 5. McCune-Albright syndrome approximately 3-5% of patients with fibrous dysplasia It primarily affects females. 1. Polystotic fibrous dysplasia 2. Endocrine disorder  Precocious puberty  Hyperthyroidism  Gigantism or acromegaly  Cushing syndrome 3. Café au lait patches never cross the midline & have irregular border (coast of Main borders)
  6. 6. NATURAL PROGRESSION AND CLINICAL BEHAVIOR  most commonly behaves as a slow and indolent growing mass lesion.  The facial deformity and distortion of adjacent structures such as optic nerve, eye/globe, nasal airway, cranial nerve VII, middle ear ossicles, and teeth are gradual and insidious.  Uncommonly, in young children and pre-pubertal adolescents, the lesions may demonstrate rapid growth, cortical bone expansion and displacement of adjacent structures such as the eye and the teeth.  rapid growth is associated with other pathological lesions such as aneurysmal bone cysts or mucoceles or more rarely with malignant transformation
  7. 7.  When rapid enlargement occurs, adjacent vital structures, such as the optic nerve, globe and auditory canal/structures ,nasal airway  invaded or compressed functional deficits.  Rapid enlargement of FD in the nasal bones, maxilla or mandibular symphysis obliteration of the nasal cavity or by posterior displacement of the tongueairway obstruction  Thus aggressive surgical resection in such cases to avoid potential blindness or hearing loss  However, generally a conservative expectant approach is more prudent
  8. 8.  In MFD and PFD, progression of the lesions appears to taper off as the patients approach puberty (on reaching skeletal maturity) and beyond.  Continued active disease and symptoms into adulthood are uncommon.  MFD, does not progress to PFD and neither progress to MAS  In MAS,growth of the lesions may diminish after puberty,overall degree of bony enlargement and deformity is more severe and disfiguring than in patients with PFD.  The most severe deformities and symptoms occur in patients with poorly controlled growth hormone excess  Aggressive management of GH excess in patients with PFD and MAS is recommended
  9. 9. HISTORY AND CLINICAL EXAMINATION  Presence of functional impairments and duration  Onset of menarche in females (to rule-out precocious puberty)  Other endocrine abnormalities or pathologies (such as hyperthyroidism, pituitary abnormalities, and renal phosphate wasting)  Growth abnormalities (review of growth charts)  History of fractures (to rule-out the presence of other FD lesions in the extremities)  Presence of skin lesions (café- au-lait lesions)
  10. 10. If the symptoms include  rapid expansion  new onset of pain  visual change or loss  hearing change or loss  evidence of airway obstruction  new onset of paresthesia or numbness a referral to a surgical specialist- neurosurgeons, craniofacial surgeons, oral & maxillofacial surgeons done immediately. Appropriate specialists that may be consulted include:, otolaryngologists, neuro-ophthalmologists, audiologists and dentists,endocrinologists,orthopedics surgeons, depending on the site of involvement or symptoms.
  11. 11. ORBIT,OPTIC NERVE,SPHENOID BONE Involvement of the frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid regions results in  Proptosis  Dystopia  Hypertelorism Less common findings include:  optic neuropathy  Strabismus  lid closure problems  nasolacrimal duct obstruction and tearing  trigeminal neuralgia  muscle palsy with skull base involvement
  12. 12.  There has been significant controversy regarding the management of FD of the sphenoid bones that encase the optic nerve, particularly in patients whose vision is normal  Blindness may be a sequelae because of the proximity and compression of the optic nerve by FD, and there have reported cases of acute loss of vision.  In one study it was reported that vision loss was the most common neurologic complication in this disease
  13. 13.  Prophylactic decompression of the optic nerve (“unroofing”) has been recommended by many surgeons  Unfortunately, decompression may result in no improvement of vision (reported in 5-33% of cases), or worse postoperative blindness.  In addition the abnormal bone tends to grow back in most cases.  Thus ,its recommended that FD in the skull base around vital structures, including the optic nerve, should be managed according to the clinical examination and regular diagnostic imaging and observation is appropriate in asymptomatic patients
  14. 14.  Once it is determined that there is FD surrounding the optic nerve(s) and orbit, a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic examination should be done to establish the baseline.  This should be followed by comprehensive annual exams.  visual acuity  visual-field exam  contrast sensitivity  color vision  dilated fundus exam  pupillary examination for afferent pupil  extraocular movements  proptosis measurement with exophthalmometry, lid closure, hypertelorism  tear duct and puncta exam.  The diagnosis of optic neuropathy should be reserved for those with a visual field defect or if 2 of the 3 exams (contrast sensitivity, color vision, and fundus/disc exam) are abnormal.
  15. 15. OCT  uses high resolution cross-sections of the optic nerve to determine RNFL thickness  A thin RNFL correlates with visual field changes and evidence of optic neuropathy.  useful for examining patients that cannot undergo a visual field exam (such as children)  It may predict visual recovery after surgery.  In the case where the RNFL may be thin prior to surgery, it is unlikely that surgery will improve vision while a patient with a normal RNFL may have some improvement after surgical treatment (either decompression or proptosis correction)
  16. 16. AUDITORY CANAL,TEMPORAL BONE,CRANIAL NERVES  The temporal bone is frequently involved (>70%) in patients with craniofacial PFD or MAS while uncommon in monostotic disease  The common causes of hearing loss appeared to be narrowing of the external auditory canal due to the surrounding FD and fixation of the ossicles within the epitympanum from adjacent involved bone significant cerumen buildup.  regular ENT exams to maintain patency in patients in whom the external auditory canal is particularly narrowed.  A rare complication is the development of a cholesteatoma, an obstruction of the canal with cerumen and desquamated skin  It typically requires surgical intervention to relieve the obstruction and chronic infection  In the case of PFD or MAS, there is concern that contouring and excision of the surrounding FD may exacerbate regrowth of the lesion.  However, only case reports have been documented noting this possibility.
  17. 17. INVESTIGATIONS PLAIN XRAY  The pagetoid, or “ground-glass,” pattern (56% ) Most common Appears as a mixture of dense and radiolucent areas of fibrosis  The sclerotic pattern (23%) uniformly dense  The cystic pattern (21%) a spherical or ovoid lucidity surrounded by a dense bony shell
  18. 18. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY  investigation of choice for diagnosis and follow-up  Superior bony details  Accurate assessment of the extent of the lesion  Differentiates FD from other osteodystrophies of the skull base, including otosclerosis. osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’disease and osteopetrosis.  Distinguishing features of fibrous dysplasia on CT includes  “ground-glass” appearance  Symmetry  thickness of cranial cortices  presence of cystlike changes  often clear margin between affected and unaffected bone
  19. 19. Variations in CT appearance of fibrous dysplasia based on age. A) FD in the young patient most often appears as homogenous, radio-dense lesions often described as having a ground glass appearance on CT. B) As these patients enter adolescence, the FD lesions progress to a mixed appearance which stabilizes in adulthood C) but does not necessarily resume a homogenous appearance
  20. 20. MRI  Distinguishes fibrous dysplasia from meningioma, osteoma, or mucocele  define the extent of soft tissue involvement, particularly if CNS structures are impinged on. BONE SCINTIGRAPHY  a single and cheap examination comparing with other imaging methods
  21. 21. BONE BIOPSY Replacement of the normal lamellar cancellous bone by abnormal fibrous tissue. If the lesion is in a site that cannot be biopsied due to unacceptable risks, history, clinical examination and radiographic diagnosis may be adequate for diagnosis.
  22. 22. COMPLICATIONS OF FIBROUS DYSPLASIA 1. Pathological fracture 2. Bone deformity 3. Massive cartilage hyperplasia 4. Accelerated bone growth 5. Malignant degeneration -osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma Radiological Criteria for sarcomatous degeneration:  Cortical destruction  Extraosseous soft tissue component
  23. 23.  Spontaneous transformation to malignancy in FD reported in 0.5% of patients.  The average length of time between the diagnosis of FD and a malignant transformation 13.5 years  Clinical findings of increasing pain and an enlarging soft tissue mass  Radiographic features include a rapid increase in the size of the lesion and a change from a previously mineralized bony lesion to a lytic lesion  Osteosarcoma is the most common malignancy, followed by chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and giant cell sarcoma
  24. 24. MANAGEMENT BY ANATOMIC SITE AND INVOLVEMENT Facial bones  Asymmetry and swelling -the most common complaints  Secondary deformities due to slow growing FD include vertical dystopia (difference in the vertical position of the eyes), proptosis, frontal bossing, facial and jaw asymmetries or canting.  The degree of facial deformity varies, but those with MAS are the most severely affected, particularly when associated with untreated or inadequately treated growth hormone excess  The use of bisphosphonates such as alendronate, pamidronate, or zoledronic acid for craniofacial FD has been considered for pain reduction and to reduce the rate of growth of the lesion
  25. 25.  In the pediatric population, of all the patients who present for evaluation of facial swelling and asymmetry 50% are FD  Thus, FD must be high on the differential diagnosis for children with facial swelling and asymmetry.  The management of FD in young and older patients is dictated by the clinical and biological behavior of the lesion, as the histology does not provide reliable prognostic or predictive information.  The FD lesions of the face may be described as 1. Quiescent (stable with no growth) 2. Non-aggressive (slow growing) 3. Aggressive (rapid growth +/- pain, paresthesia, pathologic fracture, malignant transformation, association with a secondary lesion)
  26. 26. QUIESCENT FD LESION  Observation and monitoring for changes with annual evaluations.  The patient’s symptoms, clinical assessment including sensory nerve testing in the region of involvement, photographs, and facial CT should be obtained at each visit.  An annual CT may be necessary for the first 2 years; however, the interval may be lengthened based on the clinical findings.   Surgical contouring by a maxillofacial or craniofacial surgeon is indicated if the patient is bothered by facial disfigurement. 
  27. 27.  Complete resection may be possible in monostotic lesions, it is unlikely to be possible in pfd or mas), and the surgeon must weigh the reconstruction options that will provide the patient with the best outcome as well as preserve the function of adjacent nerves and structures.  Orthognathic surgery to correct a concurrent malocclusion or facial/dental canting  Regular follow-up with the surgeon is necessary to determine that there is no recurrence and further deformity.
  28. 28. NON-AGGRESSIVE BUT ACTIVE FD  ideal to wait until the lesion becomes quiescent and the patient has reached skeletal maturity before performing an operation.  in cases where the patient’s psychosocial development may be impaired due to the facial deformity, surgical contouring and/or resection may be warranted.  In cases of PFD or MAS where the disease is extensive, the lesions are often not resectable.  Repeat surgical contouring and extensive debulking may be necessary to achieve acceptable facial proportions
  29. 29.  In the future, improvement in CT imaging and software will allow for accurate surgical simulation and intraoperative navigational tools may guide the surgeon throughout the contouring.  Advanced CT software is useful for superimposition of pre- and post-operative images.  These can then be compared to follow-up CT scans to determine stability of the result or the presence of regrowth.  Despite these new imaging technologies, there is no therapy or technology that can predict and/or prevent regrowth.
  30. 30. AGGRESSIVE AND RAPIDLY EXPANDING FD  complain of new onset pain or paresthesia/anesthesia .  Based on the site of involvement, the patient may also report visual disturbances, epiphora, impaired hearing, nasal congestion or obstruction, sinus congestion and pain and malocclusion.  Immediate evaluation by a maxillofacial surgeon, ENT, or craniofacial surgeon and CT imaging.  associated expansile lesions such as ABC or mucocele, malignant transformation, and osteomyelitis.  A biopsy of the area of growth is necessary prior to surgical management.
  31. 31.  In cases of an associated lesion, the management is based on that associated lesion e.g. an ABC with FD would warrant curettage of the ABC and contouring of the underlying FD.  Malignant transformation of FD has been reported in less than 1% of cases of FD .  Typically the malignancy is a sarcomatous lesion, most often osteosarcoma but fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and malignant fibrohistiocytoma have also been reported  In such cases, immunohistochemical analysis with MDM2 and CDK4 may assist in distinguishing FD from a malignancy as a malignancies will often express MDM2 or CDK4 while FD will not .The treatment is based on the management of the malignancy and resection with adequate margins is necessary.  Osteomyelitis must be treated with prolonged antibiotic therapy and pain management, however en bloc resection of the FD lesion may be required for refractory pain and persistent infection.
  32. 32. CHERUBISM  genetically distinct from FD  manifest by expansile, multiloculated, radiolucent fibro-osseous lesions with multiple giant cells located bilaterally and symmetrically in the jaws.
  33. 33. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS  Meningioma  Paget’s disease or osteodystrophies of the skull base  eosinophilic granuloma  Hand-Schuller-Christian disease,  low-grade central osteosarcoma. Unlike fibrous dysplasia, meningiomas will exhibit a homogenous, sclerotic appearance if hyperostosis is present ,may involve surrounding soft tissue, and display rapid contrast enhancement on MRI.
  34. 34. PROGNOSIS  Fibrous dysplasia has a good prognosis with low rates of malignant transformation.  The disease may stabilize with bone maturation.
  35. 35. THANK YOU
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