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  1. Without discussing it with anyone • Write down the first 10 words that come to mind (you won’t be asked to share if you don’t want to!) • Think about one or two of the most recent dreams you can remember. What was in the dream? What was happening? • Think about what you see in each of the images below.
  2. Sigmund Freud ‘Father of Psychoanalysis’Psychodynamic Psyche = mind Dynamic = active
  3. Key assumption of Psychodynamic approach … Behaviour is influenced by the unconscious mind. This content is only accessedthrough dreams; Freudian slips or free-assciation. Behaviour is influenced by the unconscious mind.
  4. Symbolism • Long things that ‘jut out’: Penis – Mountains, sticks, umbrellas, poles, trees, baguettes, snakes • Objects which can be lengthened: Penis – Aerials, extendable pens, • Objects from which water run: Phallus – Pipes, fountains, taps, watering-pots, hoses • Things which go ‘up’: Erection – Helicopters, aeroplanes, rockets • Penetration – Knives, weapons, swords, guns, rifles, cannons
  5. • Hollow objects that contain things: Vagina – Cupboards, tunnels, boxes, bottles, suitcases, tins, pockets • Entrances: Vagina – Doors, gates, castles. • Curvy objects: Breasts – Footballs, apples, peaches, other fruits, • Playing: Masturbation • Rhythmical activities: Sexual intercourse – Dancing, climbing, riding. • Authority figures: Father + the Oedipus/Electra complex – Police, teachers, doctors…
  6. Key assumption Everyone has ‘life instincts’ & ‘death instincts’ Eros Sexual energy; libido Drives that preserve life. Freud focused on sexual drive as he felt basic drives of hunger/shelter were met in modern society. Thanatos Death instinct is self- destructive. Freud believed there was an innate drive to return to the state before birth.
  7. Key assumption of Psychodynamic approach … The first 5 years of life are the most important in developing a personality. Psychosexual Development
  8. 8yrs to 11yrs 2yrs to 3yrs Teen to adult 0 to 2yrs 3yrs to 7yrs Early years is critical in personality development
  9. Too little or too much stimulation can lead to fixation No fixations at this stage as libido is dormant but Freud argued that this is where we learn to use defence mechanisms as sexual urges are displaced into other activities.
  10. A Very Familiar Image
  11. Freud’s Theory of Personality We are born with our id Works on the pleasure principle Seeks instant gratification Ego develops around 18m Works on the reality principle. Seeks ways to achieve goals Superego develops around 4yrs Works on the morality principle. Our conscience. Aims to do ‘what’s right’
  12. Defence Mechanisms • Ego has to manage conflict between – Id & Superego. – Libido (life energy) & Death instinct. • Sometimes uses unconscious defence mechanisms to cope – Repression – Denial – Displacement If these conflicts can be brought into the conscious mind, they can be released and the individual freed from the anxiety/neurosis Freud used dream analysis & free association to try and bring the unconscious into the conscious.
  13. So how does Freud explain aggression? The Self is protected from Thanatos (Death instinct) by directing it outwards as aggression Frustration from the denial of pleasure leads to aggression. For Freud, aggression is not just the outward behaviour but is within the individual. As a child, parents will stand in the way of pleasure. Superego prevents aggression towards parents and it can become self-destructive Catharsis is the release of this aggression and it may be through sport, watching violence on screen or playing video games.
  14. Summary • Most of our motivations are unconscious to us. • Everyone has life & death instincts. • Personality develops in early years through psychosexual stages. – During these stages (particularly phallic) our parents have a strong influence on development of superego • Personality is made up of id, ego & superego. • Frustration is caused by denial of pleasure and this leads to aggression. • Aggression can be dealt with safely through catharsis.
  15. Evaluation - Strengths • Used case studies to gather rich, qualitative data (valid) • Freud’s ideas had real application at the time and can be credited with improving care & treatment for mentally ill.
  16. Evaluation - weaknesses • Unscientific – Unmeasurable concepts – Case studies ungeneralisable – Symbolism requires interpretation. • Evidence suggests that catharsis increase aggression, not reduce. – Eg, Bandura showed that watching aggressive behaviour increased aggression in children. • Biased sample as most patients were middle class women. • Only considers individual development to puberty.
  17. How do Psychodynamic & Biological explanations compare? • Is aggression caused by internal or external factors? • Is aggression an emotion or a behaviour? • Are the research methods scientific? • Is there any overlap between evidence for biological & psychodynamic theory?
  18. • Is aggression caused by internal or external factors? – Freud: Internal drives/conflicts – Bio: Internal structures/ chemical reactions • Is aggression an emotion or a behaviour? – Freud: Emotional energy that is released to resolve conflicts – Bio: Behaviour that will improve survival through attack for resources or self-defence. • Are the research methods scientific? – Freud: No; case studies, subjective dream interpretation – Bio: Yes; animal experiments/ brain scans • Is there any overlap between evidence for biological & psychodynamic theory? – Freud’s unconscious could be located in the limbic system. – Biological evidence that children do not develop rational thinking capacity until age 3. This links to Freud’s idea that young children are all id with ego developing in toddlers.