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  1. 1. Glazer and Cunitz Shallice et al Spiers et al Clive Wearing Lockhart et al HM (Milner 1962) Vicari et al (2007) Eslinger et al Baddeley Klauer & Zhao Keppel and underwood (1962) Muller (1900) McDonald et al Danaher (2008) Kane et al (2000)
  2. 2. Proposed that rehearsal was not the only means by which memories may be transferred to LTM and the level of processing was another method hence the inclusion of elaborative rehearsal in the revised MSM again highlighting the overly simplified nature of the model. He was found to have lost his episodic memory but not procedural again suggesting more than one type of LTM store. Studied 147 patients with amnesia fi n d i n g e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t Schachters theory finding problems with semantic and episodic memory but not procedural or PRS highlighting even LTM is not a single store as the theory for MSM proposes KF who suffered brain damage resulting in difficulty with verbal information in STM but normal ability with visual information. This highlights how STM is not a single store as the MSM suggests Demonstrated support for the STM and LTM being different stores. Participants were tasked with recalling word lists with earlier and later words more likely to be recalled and this was known as the primacy and recency effect. This Primacy effect occurs as the first words are transferred to LTM while the Recency effect occurs as the last words are still within the STM. Delays of 10 seconds or more before recall resulted in only a primacy effect with only LTM affected. Provided support for the visual cache and inner scribe. They found more interference occurred between two visual tasks compared to a visual and spatial task suggesting both were separate components with the visual cache dealing with colour and form and the inner scribe dealing with spatial relationships. Demonstrated the existence of the visuo-spatial sketchpad when participants were given the task of tracking a moving light with a pointer. While doing this they were tasked with one of two other tasks: One to describe all the angles on the letter F and another to perform a verbal task. Describing the angles was difficult as both tasks competed for the limited resources of the Visuo-Spatial sketchpad but not the verbal task as that involved two different slave systems. Highlighted this with one patient EVR who had a cerebral tumor removed. While he performed well on reasoning tasks suggesting his CE was functional, he struggled with poor decision making skills suggesting some elements of his CE was partly damaged. This suggests there may be other components to the CE which the WMM is unable to explain due to it being over-simplified in its theory A case study of a young girl (CL) who suffered brain damage after the r e m o v a l o f a t u m o u r f o u n d deficiencies in ability to create new episodic memories. However she was still able to create semantic memories supporting the theory that they are separate. HM could not form episodic or semantic memories due to the destruction of his hippocampus and temporal lobes however he was able to form procedural memory through learning how to draw figures by looking at their reflection (mirror drawing). However he could not recollect how he had learnt this skill supporting the case for different stores between “knowing how” to do something and semantic knowledge based memories or experience based (episodic). Found individuals with bigger working memory spans were less susceptible to proactive interference when testing recall using three word lists compared to individuals deemed to have less working memory spans. It is unclear whether those with greater working memory spans have achieved this either through more practice in some form but it highlights how interference theories cannot be fully generalised to everyone. Found when people were exposed to adverts from competing brands within a short time frame, participants struggled to recognise the brands or their message. Considering the millions spent on advertising this presents a big problem but also provides marketers practical ways to overcome this. By ensuring adverts are spaced significantly far apart from the airing of rival brands or by repeating more on one day rather than over the weak with rival brands, this can help avoid dilution of adverts. Experimented with participants giving them lists of adjectives to remember (List A). After learning List A they were given List B and tasked with learning this. Recall was found to be poorest when List B was a list of synonyms of List A (12% recall) supporting the case for confusion to occur between the two memories as interference theory states. Identified retroactive interference through a study where participants tasked with learning a list of syllables are given an intervening task between exposure to the syllables and recall. The intervening task (describing paintings) produced retroactive interference with participants struggling to recall their lists. Demonstrated proactive interference. Participants were tasked with recalling consonant trigrams after varying intervals where they were tasked with counting backwards in threes. Forgetting increased after each interval however little forgetting occurred at the start. Proactive interference can explain this as earlier consonants entered the long-term memory and thus interfered with the formation of new memories.
  3. 3. Abernethy Overton Tulving and Psotka Baddeley’s Loftus and Palmer Loftus & Pickrell Warren et al Yuille and Cutshall Forster et al Deffenbacher Loftus et al Clifford and Scott Christianson et al Fazey & Hardy Kohnken et als
  4. 4. 45 Students were shown several films of road traffic incidents and then given a questionnaire to describe the accident and answer a series of questions about their observation. One critical question varied between conditions with one group asked asked how fast the vehicles were going when they “hit” each other while other groups had verbs implying different degree’s of collision such as “bumped, smashed, contacted, collided”. Results found the words that implied a stronger collision resulted in greater average estimates of speeds from participants. Divers tasked with learning material either on dry land or while underwater were found to have poorer recall when they were tested on retrieval in a context that differed from where encoding and learning happened. For example testing them for material they learnt underwater while on land resulted in poorer retrieval than if they were tested while still underwater. The same was true vice versa too with better recall shown when the learning context remained the same as encoding. They showed how interference effects occurred due to the absence of any cues to aid retrieval. Participants were given word lists to remember with one condition having category headings and another without. In conditions without category headings, fewer words were recalled than when headings were present showing the information was available but simply unable to be accessed due to the absence of cues. Participants learnt material either drunk or sober and found participants struggled with recall more when trying to retrieve the information in a state that is different to the time of encoding. For example trying to recall information sober when it was learnt drunk (and vice versa) Found that after participants had learnt various material, they showed greater difficulty with recall when they were tested by an unfamiliar teacher in an unfamiliar room compared to a familiar teacher and familiar room. This shows support for the importance of context aiding the memory retrieval process. Reviewed 21 studies finding the stress-performance relationship followed an inverted U as proposed by the Yerkes-Dodson Curve Found supporting evidence for this in one study where participants who thought they were watching a real life robbery and believed their responses would have an impact on an upcoming trial actually be more accurate in their recall. Found that witnesses to real events tended to have accurate recall even many months after witnessing events with misleading questions having little affect suggesting previous findings by Loftus into leading questions may possibly be limited to laboratory settings Finding younger children were more susceptible to influence to misleading information than older conducted a study into how misleading information could create false memories in individuals. 24 participants ranging in age from 18-53 were given four stories about their childhood gathered from relatives. Three of the stories were true while one was false and it included being lost in a department store when aged 5 and an elderly lady rescuing them. Participants were then asked questions on whether they recalled these stories and results found 29% of the fake stories were recalled by participants believing them to be true. 68% of the true stories were recalled correctly also. Meta analysis of 53 studies found the cognitive interview increased recall on average by 34% when compared to standard interview methods showing it is effective and has validity. Catastrophe theory which may better explain the conflicting findings of how anxiety affects EWT on a 3- dimensional scale. This includes performance, physiological arousal and also cognitive anxiety too. This model proposes that as physiological arousal increases beyond the moderate optimum level, unlike the Yerkes- Dodson curve where there is a steady decline, they observed a drastic drop in performance which they proposed is caused by increased mental anxiety and worry Found contradicting evidence. When witnesses to real bank robberies were tested on recall, they found increased anxiety led to improvements in the accuracy of recall. This suggests high levels of anxiety in situations do not always divert attention away from what is happening found that that people who saw a film of a violent attack remembered less than people in a control group who saw a less stressful version. They concluded that witnessing stressful situations in real life will be far more stressful than observing a film and memory accuracy may well be more affected in real life with poorer recall. In condition 1 a man exited a discussion holding a pen while condition 2 saw a man exiting holding a paperknife covered in blood after a loud altercation. The group who observed the pen were more accurate (49%) than the group observing the violent situation (33%).
  5. 5. Fisher et al Wagstaff et al Fisher et al
  6. 6. Found the CI produced more information than the standard interview but this was much greater for older participants than a younger control group. Reported that in practice police officers stated CI requires more time than is usually available and often officers may limit a witnesses account to what the officer feels is appropriate or necessary. Found supporting evidence for the cognitive interview in real world studies when 16 police officers interviewed 47 people twice who were victims of crime themselves or witnesses. 7 officers were trained to use to the cognitive interview while 9 used standard interview methods and formed the control group. Results found the cognitive interview gained 47% more facts overall compared to the standard interview and concluded it was beneficial for improving EWT