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[L-2]- Endocrine System- Nov 27, 2019.pdf

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[L-2]- Endocrine System- Nov 27, 2019.pdf

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  11. 11. ➢ For many years, the pituitary gland or hypophysis was called the “master” endocrine gland because it secretes several hormones that control other endocrine glands. ➢ We now know that the pituitary gland itself has a master—the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus Chemical Control and Coordination
  12. 12. ➢ This small region of the brain below the thalamus is the major link between the nervous and endocrine systems. ➢ Cells in the hypothalamus synthesize at least nine different hormones, and the pituitary gland secretes seven. ➢ Together, these hormones play important roles in the regulation of virtually all aspects of growth, development, metabolism, and homeostasis. Hypothalamus Chemical Control and Coordination
  13. 13. ➢ It is a pea-shaped structure that measures 1–1.5 cm in diameter and lies in sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. ➢ It attaches to the hypothalamus by a stalk, the infundibulum and has two anatomically and functionally separate portions: ○ Anterior pituitary ○ Posterior pituitary. Pituitary gland Chemical Control and Coordination
  14. 14. Chemical Control and Coordination
  15. 15. ➢ It is also called adenohypophysis and accounts for about 75% of the total weight of the gland. ➢ It consists of two parts in an adult: ○ Pars tuberalis forms a sheath around the infundibulum. ○ Pars distalis is the larger portion. Anterior Pituitary Chemical Control and Coordination
  16. 16. ➢ It is also called neurohypophysis and consists of two parts: ○ Pars nervosa ○ Infundibulum. ➢ A third region of the pituitary gland called pars intermedia atrophies during human fetal development and ceases to exist as a separate lobe in adults. Posterior Pituitary Chemical Control and Coordination
  17. 17. Chemical Control and Coordination
  18. 18. ➢ It secretes hormones that regulate a wide range of bodily activities, from growth to reproduction. ➢ Release of its hormones is stimulated by releasing hormones and suppressed by inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus. Adenohypophysis Chemical Control and Coordination
  19. 19. ➢ Hypothalamic hormones reach the anterior pituitary through a portal system. ➢ Blood flows from capillaries in hypothalamus into portal veins that carry blood to capillaries of the anterior pituitary. Hypophyseal portal system Chemical Control and Coordination
  20. 20. ➢ Hypothalamus has clusters of specialized neurons, called neurosecretory cells. ➢ They synthesize the hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones in their cell bodies. ➢ These hormones reach the axon terminals by axonal transport. Neurosecretory Cells Chemical Control and Coordination
  21. 21. ➢ Anterior pituitary hormones travel to target tissues throughout the body. ➢ Those anterior pituitary hormones that act on other endocrine glands are called tropic hormones or tropins. Tropic Hormones Chemical Control and Coordination
  22. 22. ➢ Five types of anterior pituitary cells secrete seven hormones— ○ Somatotrophs ○ Thyrotrophs ○ Gonadotrophs ○ Lactotrophs ○ Corticotrophs Types of Anterior Pituitary Cells Chemical Control and Coordination
  23. 23. ➢ These secrete human growth hormone (hGH) or somatotropin. ➢ It stimulates several tissues to secrete insulin like growth factors. Somatotrophs Chemical Control and Coordination
  24. 24. ➢ These secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin. ➢ TSH controls the secretions and other activities of the thyroid gland. Thyrotrophs Chemical Control and Coordination
  25. 25. ➢ These secrete two gonadotropins: ○ Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ○ Luteinizing hormone (LH). ➢ FSH and LH both act on the gonads. ➢ They stimulate secretion of estrogens and progesterone and the maturation of oocytes in the ovaries, and sperm production and secretion of testosterone in the testes. Gonadotrophs Chemical Control and Coordination
  26. 26. ➢ These secrete prolactin (PRL), which initiates milk production in the mammary glands. Lactotrophs Chemical Control and Coordination
  27. 27. ➢ These secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol. ➢ Some corticotrophs (remnants of the pars intermedia) also secrete melanocyte- stimulating hormone (MSH). Corticotrophs Chemical Control and Coordination
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