2. LAW ENFORCEMENT
Scope: Pertinent laws and issuance, principles,
concepts, procedures, methods and techniques in
the administration, organization, and operation of
police service, to include industrial security
management. Specially, it includes areas to wit:
police administration and organization, patrol
techniques and operations, personnel and records
management, intelligence and industrial security
3. Personnel Administration.
Personnel administration refers to the
management of the people in working
organizations. It is also frequently called
personnel management, industrial
relations, employee relations, and
manpower management. It represents a
major subsystem in the general
management system, in which it refers to
the management of human resources, as
distinguished from financial or material
4. The term may be used to refer to
selected specific functions or
activities assigned to specialized
personnel officers or departments.
It is also used to identify the entire
scope of management policies and
programs in the recruitment,
allocation, leadership, and direction
5. What is a law enforcement agency?
A law enforcement agency is a term
used to denote any agency which
enforces the law. This may be a
state or local police, federal
agencies such as the Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the
Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA) in the United States of
6. It may also refer to a national police
force such as the Philippine
National Police. It can be used to
describe an international
organization such as ASEANAPOL,
EUROPOL or INTERPOL. Law
Enforcement administration begins
with the definition of the required
quantities of particular personal
7. Police to population ratio in the Philippines
is mandated by the NAPOLCOM. Its primary
basis would be the prevailing peace and
order situation as reflected by the current
Crime statistics attempt to provide a
statistical computation of the level, or
amount, of crime that is prevalent in
8. What is a Crime Index?
Crime indexes are generated to
examine and analyze crime statistics.
The most ordinary source of such
statistics are records reported to the
9. Crime rate is an amount of the rate of
occurrence of crimes committed in a
given area and time. Most commonly,
crime rate is given as the number of
crimes committed among a given
number of persons. Often, the type of
crime is exactly specified a crime rate
might be given as the number of
murders (or rapes, robberies, thefts,
etc.) per 100,000 persons per year
within an area.
10. The (UCR) Uniform Crime Reports
contain official data on crime that
is reported to law enforcement
agencies it focuses on index crimes.
UCR is a summary-based reporting
11. CALCULATIONS OF RATES
Crime Rate per 1,000 inhabitants: This
represents the number of Index offenses per
For example: What is the crime rate for a municipality
with 513 Index offenses (murder, rape, robbery,
aggravated assault, burglary, theft and motor vehicle
theft), with a population of 8,280?
513 (Index offenses) ÷ 8,280 (population) = .061957 x
1,000 = 62.0 (crime per 1,000 inhabitants)
12. What is a Crime Trend?
A crime trend shows the extent to which crime increased
or decreased. This is done by comparing a period of the
current year with the same period of a previous year.
For example: A municipality experienced 264 Index
offenses in a previous year and 513 Index offenses in the
current year. What is the percent of the increase?
513 (current year Index offenses) 264 (previous year
Index offenses) = 249 (numerical increase)
249 (numerical increase) ÷ 264 (previous year) = .943 x
100 = +94% (percent change)
NOTE: If there were more Index offenses in a previous
year than in the current year, we would have a
13. Crime trend data from one period to the next are
presented in the UCR Program’s annual report.
A crime trend represents the percentage change
in crime based on data reported in a prior
equivalent period. These statistics play a
prominent role for both offense and arrest
analyses. Trends can be computed for any time
frame, such as months, quarters, or years. The
UCR Program employs two types of trend
statistics: volume trends and rate trends. Local
agencies can compute trends for a given offense
for any period of time.
14. Trend computation requires two numbers
representing the two comparable time frames.
In the example below, (earlier) represents the
crime volume or rate for the first period or
earlier period of comparison, and (later)
represents the corresponding crime volume or
rate for the second period or later period of
comparison. The trend is computed by first
subtracting (earlier) from the (later), then
dividing the difference by (earlier), and finally
by multiplying the quotient by 100.
15. How to determine the Number of Police
personnel per 1,000 inhabitants?
This is calculated in the same manner as a crime rate.
For example: A municipality with a population of 8,280
and 28 police personnel. How many officers are there
per 1,000 population?
28 (police personnel) ÷ 8,280 (population) = .00338 x
1,000 = 3.4 (police personnel per 1,000 inhabitants)
NOTE: This formula can be applied to either total police
personnel or just police officers per 1,000 inhabitants.
16. What is Police Assaulted Rate?
This is calculated at a rate per 100 police
For example: A municipality with 25 officers
had five of them assaulted during the
month. What is the police
5 (police officers assaulted) ÷ 25 (police
officers) = .2 x 100 = 20 (police assaulted
per 100 officers)
17. What is a Clearance Rate?
This refers to the percent of Index offenses
cleared (solved), over a specific period of
For example: A municipality with 513 Index
offenses in a chosen time frame, cleared 95
of these offenses. What
is the clearance rate?
95 (Index offenses cleared) ÷ 513 (Index
offenses) = .185 x 100 = 18 .5 (percent
18. When can we consider a crime is
When the criminal/suspect is identified.
When the criminal/suspect is arrested.
When the proper offense is charged
against the criminal/suspect.
19. What is a Crime volume?
is a basic indicator of the frequency of
known criminal activity. In analyzing
offense data, the user should be aware that
a UCR volume indicator does not represent
the actual number of crimes committed;
rather, it represents the number of reported
20. The crimes are divided into two
components: violent and property
Crimes against persons/crimes against
21. Offense and arrest rates
Crime rates are indicators of
reported crime activity
standardized by population. They
are more refined indicators for
comparative purposes than are
volume figures. The UCR
Program provides three types of
crime rates: offense rates, arrest
rates, and clearance rates.
22. POLICE ORGANIZATION AND
ADMINISTRATION WITH PLANNING -
This course deals with the study of the
police organization, the structure,
function and administration of the
Philippine National Police. It also
includes the study of RA 6975 and RA
8551 and Police planning designed to
guide the students on how to effectively
device strategies and tactics for effective
23. What is a police organization?
Police are agents or agencies authorized to use
force and other forms of coercion and legal
means to effect public and social order. The term
is most regularly associated with police
departments of a state that are empowered to
exercise the police power of that state within a
defined legal or territorial area of responsibility.
Police or law enforcement is agency of a
community or government that is responsible for
maintaining public order and preventing and
24. Etymology of “Police”
The word police comes from the Latin politia (“civil
administration”), which itself derives from the
Ancient Greek πόλις, for polis (“city”).
The term police refers to a body of civil authority,
which is tasked to maintain peace and order,
enforce the law, protect lives and properties and
insure public safety. Regarded as the initiators of
the criminal justice system, society’s first line of
defense against crime and criminality.
25. What is the Home Rule Theory
The Home Rule Theory – Law enforcers or
policemen are regarded as servants of the
community, who rely for the efficiency of
their functions upon the express needs of
the people. In this concept, policemen are
civil servants whose key duty is the
preservation of public peace and security.
This is practiced in the United States and
in England where the governmental
structure follows a decentralized pattern.
26. What is the Continental theory?
The Continental Theory – In this concept,
policemen are regarded as state or
servants of the higher authorities. This
theory prevails in European countries
where the governmental organization
follows the centralized pattern, e.g. Spain,
Italy and France. The people have no
share or little participation with the duties
nor connection with the police
27. What is the difference between Old
and New Concept of policing?
The Old Concept – Police service is give the impression of
being merely suppressive machinery. This philosophy
advocates that the yardstick of police competence is the
increasing number of arrests, throwing offenders in detention
facilities rather than trying to prevent them from committing
crimes. While, The Modern Concept – This thought of police
service regards police as the first line of defense of the
criminal justice system, an organ of crime prevention. Under
this concept, police efficiency is measured by the decreasing
number of crimes. It further broadens police activities to
cater to social services, and has for its mission the welfare of
the individual as well as that of the community in general.
28. What is an organization?
Organization - In police management, it is
the arrangement of people with common
purpose and objective in a manner to enable
the performance of related tasks by
individuals grouped for the purpose. This
organization can be functional, Line, line and
staff, etc. depending on the objectives and
functions of the organization.
29. What is an organizational structure?
An organizational structure is a mechanical
means of depicting by an arrangement of
symbols; the relationships which exists
between individuals, groups and functions
within the organization. Lines of authority and
responsibility and functional relationships
between groups and individuals are clearly
defined to ensure compliance and
30. What is a functional Organization
Functional Organization: In this type of
organization, the performance of certain
duties, at all levels, is controlled and directed
by a separate organizational authority. Each
work unit or function is placed under the
supervision of 4 to 8 specialists, one of each
of the unit’s major or special activities. The
functional organization divides authority and
responsibility between several specialists.
31. What is a line organization?
Line Organization: This is the simplest form of
organization. All operations and administrative
functions are included in the scalar chain of authority.
The straight line organization often called the
individual, departmental or military type of
organization is the oldest type but seldom
encountered in its true form except in any but the
smallest establishments. The channels of authority
and responsibility extend in a direct line from top to
bottom within the structure. Authority is absolute and
32. What is a line and staff organization?
In the scalar chain of authority, the line is the
backbone of the organization. The line is
supplemented by the staff, which gives advice and
assistance to the line in carrying out its objectives.
Both line and staff personnel are responsible jointly
for the performance. Line officers take direct action
while staff personnel furnish technical information,
advice and expertise without having direct authority
over line personnel. Line and staff type of
organization is a combination of the line and
functional category. It merges staff specialists for
units with line organization.
33. What are police territorial units?
Police territorial units which establish their
respective area of responsibility are:
Districts, Sectors, Beat, Route and Posts.
(Area of Responsibility)
34. Post is a fixed point or location to which an officer
is assigned for duty, such as designated desk or
office/ crosswalk or an intersection for traffic
duty/ or spot or location for general duty.
Route refers to a length of street or streets,
designated for patrol purposes. Also referred to as
Beat is an area assigned for patrol purposes,
whether foot or motorized.
Sector is an area containing two or more beats,
routes or posts.
District is a geographical subdivision of a city for
patrol purposes, usually with its own station.
35. What are police functional units?
Functional units are
jurisdictional it may be
classified as a bureau, division,
sector and unit.
36. Bureau is the largest organic unit within a
Division- the primary subdivision of a
Section- functional units within a
particular division. This is necessary for
Units- functional groups within a section
where further specialization is needed.
37. What is the doctrine of chain of command?
This refers to the line or chain of
supervisors from top to bottom. It is the
system which purpose is to ensure that
orders, directives, and other information
are channeled downward and upward
through an organizational structure in a
timely and uniformed fashion. It is also the
manner through which the supervisors
establish and maintain the necessary
control over subordinates.
38. What are the categories of police Tasks?
There are three categories of police duties, namely
Primary line or operational police tasks, Secondary
or auxiliary service tasks and Administrative or
managerial police tasks. Primary line or operation
police tasks are: Patrol, Investigation, Traffic, Vice
and Juvenile control. Secondary or auxiliary service
tasks are as follows: Records, Property, Crime
laboratory, Transportation and Communication.
And, administrative or managerial police tasks are:
Personnel, Intelligence, Inspection, Planning,
Budgeting, Training and Public/community
39. What is the doctrine of unity of command?
It simply means that each individual unit, and/or
situation should be under the control of only one direct
unit supervisor. Presence of several bosses confuses
the operation of subordinates. In police service, it is
important that only one man be in complete command
or supervision of each officer. Confusion is created
when more than one supervisor undertakes
independent command of an operation performed by
several subordinates or when a subordinate receives
orders from one or more superior. In such a scenario,
the orders given are not likely to be harmonious and
conflicting orders confuse subordinates and make the
coordination of efforts difficult.
40. What is the span of control?
The ability of one man to direct, coordinate, and
control immediate subordinates- his span of control-
has physical limits, because he can be only in one
place at one time, and his inability to work for a
continuous 24 hours daily.
Determinant factors for proper span of control are:
Native ability, Complexity of the tasks to be
performed, Separation from the superior from
immediate subordinates, Time demanded by the
public for personal assistance. Factors which results
in error in span of control are: Over estimation of his
own ability and Inability or unwillingness to delegate
41. What is delegation of authority?
The principle of delegation of work is
related to the process committing an
activity to another’s care. It is closely
related to the principle of span of control
in that even though the span of attention
is excessive, the harm from it can be
reduced by delegation of many details to
subordinates. The division of the tasks of
command among the officers of the
various units is referred to as the
delegation of authority.
42. What is command responsibility?
An officer of the police force who is directly or
immediately in command shall be answerable under
the doctrine of command responsibility for any of
Misfeasance- It is the improper performance of some
act which might be lawfully done. In the police service
this is equivalent to irregularities in the performance of
Malfeasance- Also known as misconduct, it is the
performance of some act which ought not to be done.
Nonfeasance- It is the omission of some act which
ought to be performed. It as also referred to as neglect
43. Exemptions to the doctrine of “Command
When the commanding officer was not
properly informed of the acts or omission
of his subordinates;
When the commander was properly
informed and he conducted an immediate
investigation of such act or omission; and
When he acted upon lawful orders from
44. What is the NAPOLCOM?
The NAPOLCOM exercises administrative
control and supervision over the P.N.P.
Republic Act 4864 otherwise known as the
Police Act of 1966 created the
NAPOLCOM. It is a collegial body within
the D.I.L.G., composed of the Secretary as
its Chairman and four regular
commissioners. The NAPOLCOM shall be
an agency attached to the Department of
Interior and Local Government for policy
and program coordination.
45. Who comprises the NAPOLCOM?
The NAPOLCOM shall be composed of a Chairperson, four (4) regular
Commissioners, and the Chief of PNP as ex-officio member.
Three (3) of the regular commissioners shall come from the civilian
sector who are neither active nor former members of the police or
military, one (1) of whom shall be designated as vice chairperson by the
The fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement
sector either active or retired: Provided, that an active member of a law
enforcement agency shall be considered resigned from said agency once
appointed to the Commission: Provided, further, that at least one (1) of
the Commissioners shall be a woman.
The Secretary of the Department shall be the ex-officio Chairperson of
the Commission, while the Vice Chairperson shall act as the executive
officer of the Commission."
46. Qualifications. — No person shall be
appointed regular member of the
NAPOLCOM unless: "
He or she is a citizen of the Philippines;
A member of the Philippine Bar with at least five (5) years
experience in handling criminal or human rights cases or
a holder of a master's degree but preferably a doctorate
degree in public administration, sociology, criminology,
criminal justice, law enforcement, and other related
The regular member coming from the law enforcement
sector should have practical experience in law
enforcement work for at least five (5) years while the
three (3) other regular commissioners must have done
extensive research work or projects on law enforcement,
criminology or criminal justice or members of a duly
registered non-government organization involved in the
promotion of peace and order."
47. What are the general qualification for
appointment to the PNP?
A citizen of the Philippines;
A person of good moral conduct;
Must have passed the psychiatric/psychological, drug and physical tests to be
administered by the PNP or by any NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the
purpose of determining physical and mental health;
Must possess a formal baccalaureate degree from a recognized institution of learning;
Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set by the Commission;
Must not have been dishonorably discharged from military employment or dismissed
for cause from any civilian position in the Government;
Must not have been convicted by final judgment of an offense or crime involving moral
Must be at least one meter and sixty-two centimeters (1.62m) in height for male and
one meter and fifty-seven centimeters (1.57m) for female;
Must not weigh more or less than five kilograms (5 kg.) from the standard weight
corresponding to his or her height, age, and sex; and
For new applicant, must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor more than thirty (30)
years of age: except for the last qualification, the above enumerated qualifications
shall be continuing in character and an absence of any one of them at any given time
shall be a ground for separation or retirement from the service.
48. What is the waiver program?
a. Applicants who possess the least disqualification
shall take precedence over those who possess more
disqualifications. b. The requirement shall be
waived in the following order: age, height, weight
and education. The Commission shall promulgate
rules and regulations to address other situations
arising from the waiver of the entry requirements.
Nature of Appointment under a Waiver Program.
Any PNP uniformed personnel who are admitted
due to the waiver of the educational or weight
requirements shall be issued a temporary
appointment pending the satisfaction of the
49. What is the Field training program?
The Field Training Program: All uniformed
members of the PNP shall undergo a Field
Training Program for twelve (12) months
involving actual experience and
assignment in patrol, traffic, and
investigation as a requirement for
permanency of their appointment.
50. Who appoints police officers of the PNP?
Appointment for Police Officer I to Senior
Police Officer IV . — Appointed by the PNP
regional director for regional personnel or
by the Chief of the PNP for the national
headquarters personnel and attested by
the Civil Service Commission. Inspector to
Superintendent. — Appointed by the Chief
of the PNP, as recommended by their
immediate superiors, attested by the Civil
51. Senior Superintendent to Deputy Director General. —
Appointed by the President upon recommendation of
the chief of the PNP, with proper endorsement by the
Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and subject
to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments.
Director General. — Appointed by the President from
among the senior officers down to the rank of chief
superintendent in the service, subject to confirmation by
the Commission on Appointments: Provided, That the
Chief of the PNP shall serve a tour of duty not to
exceed four (4) years: Provided, further, That, in times
of war or other national emergency declared by
Congress, the President may extend such tour of duty.
52. What is lateral entry?
Lateral Entry of Officers into the PNP: In general,
all original appointments of commissioned
officers in the PNP shall commence with the rank
of inspector, to include all those with highly
technical qualifications applying for the PNP
technical services, such as dentist, optometrists,
nurses, engineers, and graduates of forensic
sciences. Doctors of medicine, members of the
Bar, and chaplains shall be appointed to the rank
of senior inspector in their particular technical
53. Graduates of the Philippine
National Police Academy (PNPA)
shall be automatically appointed to
the initial rank of inspector.
Licensed criminologists may be
appointed to the rank of inspector
to fill up any vacancy after
promotions from the ranks are
54. Manning Levels: On the average nationwide,
the manning levels of the PNP shall be
approximately in accordance with a police-to-
population ratio of one (1) policeman for every
five hundred (500) persons.
The actual strength by cities and
municipalities shall depend on the state
of peace and order, population density
and actual demands of the service in the
particular area. Provided, That the
minimum police-to-population ratio shall
not be less than one (1) policeman for
every one thousand (1,000) persons.
57. What is police promotion?
Promotion is a status change of a policeman
amounting to dynamic elevation of qualified
or deserving members as opportunities
occurs, to assignment or duties of greater
importance. All promotions should be based
on merits and fitness.
Kinds of Promotions: Regular promotion-
quota allocated promotion wherein a
candidate must satisfy all the mandatory
requirements fixed for a certain grade.
Special or Meritorious promotion
58. Time-in-Grade (TIG) – total period of time a
candidate has acquired in a certain grade
regardless of his status of appointment therein.
Time in grade requirements:
Based on Civil Service Commission Memorandum Circular 11 –
0479, dated 09 December 2011
PSUPT to PSSUPT 2 years
PCINSP to PSUPT 5 years
PSINSP to PCINSP 5 years
PINSP to PSINSP 4 years
SPO4 to PINSP 3 years
SPO3 to SPO4 3 years
SPO2 to SPO3 3 years
SPO1 to SPO2 3 years
PO3 to SPO1 3 years
PO2 to PO3 3 years
PO1 to PO2 4 years
Probationary PO1 to PO1 1 year
59. How are retirement benefits computed?
Monthly retirement pay shall be fifty percent (50%) of the
base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in case of
twenty (20) years of active service, increasing by two and
one-half percent (2.5%) for every year of active service
rendered beyond twenty (20) years to a maximum of ninety
percent (90%) for thirty-six (36) years of active service and
over: Provided, That, the uniformed personnel shall have the
option to receive in advance and in lump sum his retirement
pay for the first five (5) years: Provided, further, That
payment of the retirement benefits in lump sum shall be made
within six (6) months from effectivity date of retirement
and/or completion: Provided, finally, That retirement pay of
the officers/non-officers of the PNP shall be subject to
adjustments based on the prevailing scale of base pay of
police personnel in the active service."
60. What are the benefit of PNP members with
permanent physical disability?
Permanent physical disability: An officer or non-officer
who is permanently and totally disabled as a result of
injuries suffered or sickness contracted in the
performance of his duty as duly certified by the National
Police Commission, upon finding and certification by the
appropriate medical officer, that the extent of the
disability or sickness renders such member unfit or unable
to further perform the duties of his position, shall be
entitled to one year's salary and to lifetime pension
equivalent to eighty percent of his last salary, in addition
to other benefits as provided under existing laws.
61. What is compulsory retirement?
Compulsory Retirement: Compulsory
retirement, for officer and non-officer,
shall be upon the attainment of age fifty-
six (56): Provided, That, in case of any
officer with the rank of chief
superintendent, director or deputy director
general, the Commission may allow his
retention in the service for an un-
extendible period of one (1) year.
62. Attrition System for Uniformed Personnel. There shall
be established a system of attrition within the
uniformed members of the PNP within one (1) year
from effectivity of RA 8551 to be submitted by the
PNP to the NAPOLCOM for approval.
Attrition by Attainment of Maximum Tenure in
Position. The maximum tenure of PNP members
holding key positions is hereby prescribed as follows:
Chief PNP - 4 years
Deputy Chief PNP - 4 years
Director of the Staff Services - 4 years
Regional Directors - 6 years
Provincial/City Directors - 9 years
63. Attrition by relief. A PNP uniformed personnel who have been
relieved for just cause and has not been given an assignment
within two (2) years after such relief shall be retired or
Attrition by Demotion in Position or rank. Any PNP personnel,
civilian or uniformed, who is relieved and assigned to a
position lower than what is established for his or her grade in
the PNP staffing pattern and who shall not be assigned to a
position commensurate to his or her grade within eighteen (18)
months after such demotion in position shall be retired or
64. Attrition by Non-promotion. Any PNP personnel who have
not been promoted for a continuous period of ten (10)
years shall be retired or separated.
Attrition by Other Means. Any PNP member or officer with
at least five (5) years of accumulated active service shall
be separated based on any of the following factors:
Inefficiency based on poor performance during the last two
(2) successive annual rating periods; Inefficiency based on
poor performance for three (3) cumulative annual rating
periods; Physical and /or mental incapacity to perform
police function and duties; Failure to pass the required
entrance examinations twice and/ or finish the required
career courses except for justifiable reasons.
65. What is the difference between optional
and early retirement?
Optional Retirement: Upon accumulation of at least twenty (20) years of
satisfactory active service, an officer or non-officer, at his own request and
with the approval of the Commission, shall be retired from the service and
entitled to receive benefits provided by law. While, early retirement program:
any PNP officer or non-commissioned officer may retire and be paid
separation benefits corresponding to a position two (2) ranks higher than his
or her present rank subject to the following conditions:
that at the time he or she applies for retirement, he or she has already
rendered at least ten (10) years of continuous government service;
the applicant is not scheduled for separation or retirement from the
service due to the attrition system or separation for cause;
he or she has no pending administrative or criminal case; and
he or she has at least three (3) more years in the service before
reaching the compulsory retirement age and at least a year before his
or her maximum tenure in position.
66. What is the Internal Affairs Service?
The (IAS) Internal Affairs Service the Administrative
Disciplinary Machinery of the PNP Internal Affairs
Service: The IAS shall conduct “motu-propio”,
automatic investigations of the following cases:
Incidents where a police personnel discharges a firearm;
Incidents where death, serious physical injury, or any violation of
human rights occurred in the conduct of police operation;
Incidents where evidence was compromised, tampered with,
obliterated or lost while in custody of police personnel;
Incidents where a suspect in the custody of the police was seriously
Incidents where the established rules of engagement have been
67. What is summary dismissal?
Summary Dismissal Powers of the PNP Chief and
Regional Directors: The Chief of the PNP and
regional directors, after due notice and summary
hearings, may immediately remove or dismiss any
respondent PNP member in any of the following
When the charge is serious and the evidence of guilt is
When the respondent is a recidivist or has been
repeatedly charged and there are reasonable grounds to
believe that he is guilty of the charges; and
When the respondent is guilty of conduct unbecoming
of a police officer.
68. What is the PLEB?
People's Law Enforcement Board (PLEB): (a) Creation and
Functions. — Within thirty (30) days from the issuance of
the implementing rules and regulations by the Commission,
there shall be created by the sangguniang
panlungsod/bayan in every city and municipality such
number of People's Law Enforcement Boards (PLEBs) as
may be necessary: Provided, That there shall be at least
one (1) PLEB for every municipality and for each of the
legislative districts in a city. The PLEB shall have
jurisdiction to hear and decide citizen's complaints or cases
filed before it against erring officers and members of the
PNP. There shall be at least one (1) PLEB for every five
hundred (500) city or municipal police personnel.
69. Composition and Term of Office. — The
PLEB shall be composed of the following:
Any member of the sangguniang panlungsod/bayan chosen by
his respective sanggunian;
Any barangay captain of the city or municipality concerned
chosen by the association of barangay captains; and
Three (3) other members who shall be chosen by the peace and
order council from among the respected members of the
community known for their probity and integrity, one (1) of
whom must be a member of the Bar or, in the absence thereof,
a college graduate, or the principal of the central elementary
school in the locality. The Chairman of the PLEB shall be elected
from among its members. The term of office of the members of
the PLEB shall be for a period of two (2) years from assumption
of office. Such member shall hold office until his successor shall
have been chosen and qualified.
70. What is operational supervision and control?
The term "operational supervision and
control" shall mean the power to direct,
superintend, oversee and inspect the
police units and forces. It shall include the
power to employ and deploy units or
elements of the PNP, through the station
commander, to ensure public safety and
effective maintenance of peace and order
within the locality.
71. What is the difference between employ and
"Employ" refers to utilization of units or elements of the
PNP for purposes of protection of lives and properties,
enforcement of laws, maintenance of peace and order,
prevention of crimes, arrest of criminal offenders and
bringing the offenders to justice, and ensuring public
safety, particularly in the suppression of disorders, riots,
lawless violence, rebellious seditious conspiracy,
insurgency, subversion or other related activities.
"Deploy" shall mean the orderly organized physical
movement of elements or units of the PNP within the
province, city or municipality for purposes of
employment as herein defined.
72. What is planning?
Planning is the determination in advance how the
objectives of the organization will be attained.
This would include the determination of the
course of action to take in a particular task,
function or activity. Types of Plans: To properly
achieve the administrative planning responsibility
within the police department the chief of police
shall develop departmental plans relating to:
Procedures or policies, Tactics, Operations, Extra-
departmental activities, Management.
73. Planning is the key to administrative process and
may mean any of the following:
The process of combining all aspects of the
public safety activity and the realistic
anticipation of the future problems, the analysis
of strategy and correlation of strategy to detail;
The use of rational design or pattern for all the
public safety undertakings; and
The act of determining policies and guideline s
for police, fire and jail activities and operations
and providing controls and safeguards for such
activities and operations in the public safety
74. TYPES OF PLANS
1. Policy or Procedural Plans
75. POLICY OR PROCEDURAL PLAN.
Standing operating procedure shall be planned to
guide members in routine field operations and in
some special operations in accordance with the
ff. procedures: This is specifically referred to:
1. Field Procedures
Example: Reporting, saluting, use of firearms,
investigation of crimes, raids, etc..
2. Headquarters Procedure
Example: The use of phone, use of police devices,
3. Special Operating Procedures
Example: Preservation of evidence as each chief
has its own way of dealing with this.
76. TACTICAL PLANS. These ARE the
procedures for coping with specific
situations at known locations. Included in
this category are plans for dealing with an
attack against the buildings with alarm
systems and an attack against police
headquarters by law less elements. Plans
shall likewise be made for blockade and jail
emergencies and for special community
events, such as larger public meetings,
athletic contests, parades, religious
celebrations, carnivals, strikes
demonstrations and other street affairs.
77. OPERATIONAL PLANS. These are plans
for operations of special divisions like the
patrol, detectives, traffic, fire and juvenile
control divisions. Operational plans shall
be prepared to accomplish each of the
primary police tasks.
OPERATIONAL PLANS composed of:
• Regular Operating Plans (or Programs)
• Meeting the Unusual Need Plans
78. EXTRA OFFICE PLANS. The active
interest and participation of individual citizen is so
vital to the success of the integrated police
programs that the police shall continuously seek to
motivate, promote and maintain an active public
concern in its affairs. Plans shall be made to
organize the community to assist in the
accomplishment of objectives in the field of traffic
control, organized crime, and juvenile delinquency
prevention. The organizations may call safety
councils for crime and delinquency prevention.
79. MANAGEMENT PLANS. Plans of
management shall map out in advance all
operations involved in the organization
management or personnel and material and in
the procurement and disbursement of money,
such as the following:
c.Specification and Purchasing Procedures
80. What is the History of Philippine Law
Early police were typically either military or semi-
military organizations that evolved from the personal
bodyguards of rulers and warlords or from community
organizations in which citizens banded together for
In the Philippines, the Spanish regime adopted a police
system in which the maintenance of peace and order as
well as the enforcement of laws are an integral part of the
military system for the defense of the colony. In the year
1712, the Carabineros de Seguridad Publica was
organized as a mounted riflemen or cavalry whose duties
expanded in 1781 from a special commission as
government custodian of the tobacco monopoly to a
distinct group charged with the duties of a harbor, port,
border and river police
81. In January 8, 1836, by virtue of a Royal Decree, the Rural
Police known as the Guardrilleros were established in each
town. The law provided that five percent (5%) of able bodied
male inhabitants of each province was to be drafted in the
police service for a three year tour of duty.
In February 12, 1852, the Guardia Civil was organized with
the dual function of a soldier and a policeman whose duties
ranges from the suppression of brigandage by means of
patrolling unsettled territories, detention of petty and local
insurrection, the enforcement of tax collection and was
armed as the Spanish infantry to partially relieve the
Spanish Peninsula Troops of their work in policing towns.
The establishment of the Guardia Civil gave the Spanish
colonizers a tremendous control through a centralized
police administration which enabled the supreme head to
determine the policies to be pursued in law enforcement
and the maintenance of peace and order.
82. After to collapse of the Philippine Revolutionary
government, the Americans established an Insular Police
Force later known as the Philippine Constabulary which
became the institution for preserving the peace, enforcing
the law and maintaining order. Under the support of the
military authorities, the municipal force was inclined and
subjective to military methods of organization and
discipline since they were established along semi-military
lines. The municipal police came to existence as an
appendage of the municipal government in calm towns.
On September 8, 1966, Republic Act No. 4864 was enacted
known as the Police Act of 1966. This law provided the legal
guideline in undertaking at a national level reform which
contributed to the improvement of police efficiency and
performance. To implement its objectives the Police
Commission was created.
83. During the Martial Law Regime of President Ferdinand
E. Marcos, The Integrated National Police was
organized by virtue of PD 765 in August 8, 1975 which
was composed of the Philippine Constabulary as the
nucleus and the INP forces as components under the
Department of National Defense.
Republic Act 6975 which was enacted December 13,
1990 created among others the Philippine National
Police, the Bureau of Fire Protection, the Bureau of
Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine
Public Safety College under a reorganized Department
of the Interior and Local Government. The law paved
the way for the achievement of a Philippine police
force which is civilian in character national in scope.
84. INDUSTRIAL SECURITY
MANAGEMENT - This course deals
with the organizational set-up,
operation and administration of
security agencies. The principles
and relevance of industrial security
as partners of law enforcement
agencies in crime prevention and
the maintenance of peace and order
in business, commercial, industrial
and similar establishments.
85. Security Defined
SECURITY: The term security connotes
safety from harm; it has different
dimensions in public safety, defense
and military matters, information
access and psychology. It is the
condition of being free from fear, doubt,
apprehension, anxiety and danger. It
implies a state of certainty and safety.
86. INDUSTRIAL SECURITY
It is the effective, efficient, economical,
realistic, and practical application,
utilization, implementation, adaptation
and supervision and administration of the
security resources and management
operations to protect and preserve the
interest and capital including the
personnel and investments of any
industrial establishment in order to
obtain its goals or objectives smoothly
87. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY THE TERM
INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENT ?
It refers to any business, construction,
firms, factories, schools, buildings,
structures, stores, malls, supermarkets,
industries, facilities, installations, hotels
or motels, restaurants or inns, agencies or
offices, banks and credit firms,
insurance’s, etc., including its respective
personnel. Logistics and resources.
88. What is physical security?
Physical Security- is the broadest
branch of security. It is defined as a
system of barriers placed between the
matters protected and the potential
intruder. It is concerned utilization of
physical measures to prevent
unauthorized access to facilities, plants,
equipment and safeguard them against
man-made and natural hazards.
89. Principles of Physical Security
1. There is no impenetrable barrier. If an unfriendly
organization is willing to devote attention, time,
money, personnel and devises passing any type of
barrier is conceivable.
2. Physical security must be built upon a system of
defense in depth. The accumulation of several
barriers or depth after depth will provide measurable
time delay to intrusion into a facility and it will allow
control of any foreseeable penetration.
3. Each installation is different. Variable factors such
as location, type of plant, personnel would make
every installation distinct even though similar
security measures are adopted.
90. Three Lines of Physical Defense
Perimeter defense- such as barriers,
perimeter fences or guards at the gate are
considered as the first line of defense.
Inside perimeter defense- such as doors,
floors, windows, walls, roofs, grills and
other entries to a building is referred to
as the second line of defense.
Storage system- such as safes and vaults
are considered as the third line of
91. What is a barrier?
Barrier- is any structure or physical
device capable of deterring, delaying
illegal access into an installation. If
placed to supplement the protection of
an inside or outside perimeter it is
used to define limits to said
installation. They may be referred to
as perimeter barrier.
92. Natural Barriers - Are those natural topographic
features that lend themselves to denying or hindering
entry to an installation. The presence of rivers, seas,
cliffs, canyons or other terrain difficult to traverse is
an ideal natural barrier. To fully exploit its positive
contribution to the security system, the natural
features must be evaluated to determine its positive
and negative points in terms of the denial to access
into a facility they may provide.
Structural barrier - A permanent or semi-permanent
structure that lends itself to hindering access to an
installation. It is primarily constructed for two main
purposes, to deny access and to protection from
exposure to natural elements.
93. Human barrier - Is a systematic employment of humans
as barriers between the potential intruder and the
matters to be protected. The human barrier would give
the alarm in the event of threat to security, apprehend
the unauthorized person, and identify the personnel in
entering or leaving the facility or any combination of the
three. However, humans are subject to being influenced
by a wide variety of factors.
Animal barrier - An animal barrier is used in partially
providing a guarding system or in augmentation
thereto. The cheapest animal used in security is the
geese while sentry dogs, like the German Shepard dogs
are usually utilized in the security business. A sentry
dog is valuable due to its keen sense of smell and
94. Energy barriers -Popularly utilized is the employment
of electrical, mechanical, electronic energy to impose
a deterrent to entry of the potential intruder and to
advertise his presence. Protective lighting system and
protective alarms are commonly used.
95. What are protective cabinets?
Protective Cabinets - referred to as the final
line of defense, it is a high security storage
area where papers, plans, cash and other
negotiable instruments are kept.
96. CATEGORY OR TYPES OF
Class 1 - Commercial records safes
designed for fire protection.
Class 2 - Commercial money safes
designed for robbery burglary
Class 3 - Security cabinets designed to
meet specification for safeguarding
97. Types of security cabinet
Safe - It is a metallic container used
primarily for safekeeping of documents
and small items.
It should be at least 750 lbs. in weight or
anchored to the building if lighter.
The walls should be at least one inch thick
and the door 1 ½ inch thick.
98. Vault - It is a heavily constructed fire resistant
storage facility installed four inches higher than
the floor and part of the building structure. The
door of vaults should be at least 6 inches thick.
The vault wall, ceiling, floor should be reinforced
by concrete at least 12 inch thick. It is normally
moisture and condensation resistant with
electrical conduits which should not exceed 1 ½
inch in diameter.
Standard size vaults can store up to 5,000 cubic
feet and fire resistant of at least 6 hours.
99. File room - Constructed lighter than a
vault but bigger in capacity it is
installed as part of the building which
holds up to 10,000 cubic meters of
essential items. File rooms must be at
least 12 feet in height, with enough
ventilation and fire proof of at least 1
100. What are security hazards?
Human hazard - An act nor condition caused by
humans which affects the safe operation of a facility.
They include sabotage, theft, pilferage and
Natural hazards - Caused by natural phenomena
which results in damage, disturbance and problems
of the normal functions. These include floods,
earthquakes, lightning storms, typhoons and volcanic
101. What is the difference
between relative vulnerability
and relative criticality?
Relative criticality of operation refers to the
importance of the establishment with reference
to the national economy and security. While,
relative vulnerability is the susceptibility of a
plant or establishment to damage, loss or
disruption of operations due to various hazards.
102. What is Personnel security?
Includes all the security measures
designed to prevent individuals of doubtful
loyalty, character, integrity from gaining
access to classified matters and sensitive
facilities. It is composed of conducting
personnel security investigation and
security education programs.
103. What is personnel security
- Is an inquiry into the reputation, character,
integrity, discretion, morals and loyalty of an
individual in order to determine a person's
suitability for appointment or access to
104. What are the motives that
Motives that cause people to be disloyal:
Revenge, Material gain, Prestige, Ideological
105. What are the weaknesses of
Weakness that make people susceptible to
pressure: Weakness of character, Jealousy,
Gullibility, Indebtedness, Investment,
Addiction to narcotics, Alcoholism,
Gambling problems, Moral depravity such
as lesbianism and homosexuality.
106. What is security education?
- The exposure and teaching of employees on security
and its relevance of the building structure used to
keep and protect cash, documents and negotiable
instrument. Security Education Program - A program
given to employees of an installation by lecture and
other means pertaining to measures and safeguard to
be taken to protect the interest of the installation for
loss, damage, sabotage, pilferage, and other criminal
acts. Security Education is composed of seven phases
namely: Seven Phases: Initial interview, Training
conference, Security reminders, Security promotion,
Special interview and Debriefing.
107. What is document security?
It is the branch of security involved in the
protection of documents and classified papers from
loss, access by unauthorized person, theft,
damage and compromise through disclosure. The
term document in security matters, covers any
form of recorded information either printed,
written, drawn, painted, sound recording, films,
maps, etc. The object is to secure and control the
sensitive information contained therein so as not
to prejudice the firm, company or agency.
108. How information is lost?
a. Information is seldom compromised through
electronic bugging, use of sophisticated
equipment by industrial spies.
b. It can also be lost through negligence and
inadvertent disclosure by the owner of the
establishment or person in authorized possession.
c. It can also deliberately stolen by an insider or
person trusted to have access to it.
109. What is VIP security?
Also referred to as Personal Security, it
utilized in the protection of personnel
especially high ranking officials, foreign
dignitaries, and prominent private
individuals from harm, kidnapping and other
similar threats. In the practice of industrial
security, the term business executive
protection is synonymous with VIP security.
110. POLICE PATROL OPERATIONS WITH
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM This deals
with the set-up of patrol force, its
functions and role in law enforcement,
it also includes the types of patrol,
techniques, tactics and strategies;
supervision and functional relationships
with other police units. It also include
police communication system, the use
of radio, telephone, teletype; techniques
in transmission of messages by the use
of conventional and modern electronic
111. What is patrol?
The word patrol is derived from the French word
patrouiler, which means roughly, “to travel on
foot.” In most modern police agencies and
organizations foot patrol had been either replaced
altogether or significantly supplanted through
other patrol methods. The value of foot patrol has
experienced a renewed appreciation in recent
years. It is no coincidence that the foot patrol
officer continues to be the mainstay of the police
112. Patrol is the only form of police service, which
directly attempts to eliminate desire/opportunity of
an individual to commit misconduct. Patrol is the
backbone of the police department since this is the
only division within the structure of the police
organization that may not be eliminated. Patrol is
the only division that performs without fail round
the clock or twenty four hours duty. Patrol may be
amply defined as a repeated circuit of in guarding,
performed to cover, secure and protect a particular
113. ROLE OF POLICE PATROL
The primary law enforcement body of the state is
the police. It is the first component of the Criminal
Justice System in the Philippine setting and is
responsible in performing these fundamental functions:
1. Prevention of Crime and Repression of criminal
2. Preservation of Peace and Order
3. Protection of life and property
4. Enforcement of laws and ordinances and regulation of
5. Investigation of crimes
6. Apprehension of criminals
7. Safeguarding of citizens rights and public morals
114. Police functions can be generalized into two categories:
Peace and Order Maintenance
Law Enforcement embraces crime prevention and
control including customary police functions.
Peace and Order Maintenance covers the peace
keeping role and community-oriented services
(community service role). It has no law enforcement
“To Serve and Protect” – the bottom line of police
work. Basically, that’s the job of a patrol officer. (AFP,
Sec Guard ?)
115. Why is it that the citizens usually call first the police when a
social problem occurs?
Traditionally speaking, these are the reasons: Because the police are
constantly available when needed; dependable when called upon;
and capable of providing advice to decide or settle interpersonal
conflicts. Thus, there are two broad duties of police officers while
1. Provide public protection through:
Preventive enforcement - progressive and continuous patrolling
Selective enforcement – research and investigation
2. Render social services
Assisting other agencies
Serving court notices (warrants)
116. PATROL FORCE DISTRIBUTION
Suggested distribution of police functions.
Police Activity Percentage
1. Patrol Functions 50%
2. Criminal Investigation 15%
3. Traffic Functions 10%
4. Vice and Juvenile
5. Administrative Function 10%
6. Auxiliary Functions 5%
117. Deployment of Patrol Force
A choice of patrol method must be
The purpose of the patrol
The conditions under which it is to be
118. PATROL THEORIES AND METHODS
Theory of Police Omnipresence – high police
visibility discourages criminals. Normally,
criminals think twice before executing their
plans if there is obvious presence of police
officers. Thus, patrol activity should be carried
in a manner that attracts maximum attention to
the police officer or police vehicles. This theory
applies the principle of overt operation or high
119. Low Profile Theory – low police visibility
increases the opportunity to apprehend
criminals. Deceptive absence of the police
officers will let criminals believe that they
will not be detected or caught if they execute
crimes that they plan. In this theory, the
objective is to attract as little attention as
possible while on the process of patrolling.
The officers should operate in a manner that
it would be difficult for either criminals or
the public to determine that the police are
around. The principle of covert operation is
integrated in this theory.
120. Patrol Methods
a. Foot patrol
b. Bicycle patrol
Sector Patrol (Motorized patrol)
a. Automobile patrol
b. Motorcycle patrol
c. Aircraft patrol (Helicopter and fixed wing)
a. Horse (Mounted) Patrol
b. Marine (Water) Patrol
c. Canine (K-9) Assisted Patrol
d. Special Terrain Patrol
121. What is foot patrol?
It is an integral element of many modern
community oriented policing programs. The foot
patrol officer is usually able to develop a much
closer relationship with the people who reside,
shop or work in his beat. He can readily identify
people on the beat since they experience
impersonal and direct contact with them. The
various roles of an officer- information provider,
assistance giver, law enforcer, counselor and
friend are facilitated by this patrol method.
122. What are the advantages of
-It maintains better personal contact with citizens and
develops trust and confidence of the people in the
-It provides clear observation of persons and things.
-It fosters police community relations.
-Patrol officers can enter small alleys.
-Patrol officers presence may deter crimes in business
establishments within their area of responsibility.
-Patrol officers may easily assess the nature and degree
of the incident before pursuing a proper course of
-Closer observation of surroundings, conditions and
123. WHAT ARE THE BASIC TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES OF
1. Do not establish a set of pattern of patrolling procedure.
If you patrol your beat along certain streets and make regular
stops at specific times and locations, criminals will learn your
habits and take steps to avoid.
Turn corners as often as possible to avoid being followed.
Refrain from taking meal or coffee breaks at the same time and
place during your shift.
Reverse the direction of your patrol route, often and at random.
Cut through lanes and alleys.
124. 2. Walk systematically (with purpose) on the beat while on patrol.
Pause often during your patrol and look around you.
If you are not paying attention to your surroundings, you are
not patrolling but you’re strolling.
3. Do not smoke nor drink while on patrol during night or day
4. Walk near the curve during daylight. This technique offers:
A better view for observing street activity;
Less chance of obstruction by pedestrians on the side walk
if you are to take quick action;
Higher police visibility, which is effective in crime prevention.
125. 5. Walk near the buildings during night patrol.
Check the window glass of street level stores or
offices for cracks or broken glass.
Avoid looking backwards, unless necessary. Use
the reflection in store windows to see your back.
Move discreetly to avoid tipping off burglars or
Pause frequently in shadows to observe without
Use convenient light to check doors in case of
126. 6. Do not immediately open the door when intending to
get inside. Observe and evaluate first the situation.
7. Check the interiors of buildings and rattle door knobs
to ensure that premises are secured.
8. Enter and inspect alleys .
9. Watch for persons loitering or hiding in doorways,
either ingress or egress.
10. Use fire escapes to inspect building rooftops once in
11. Be attentive or on alert for the sound of breaking
glass or any unusual noise the may be caused by
127. What is automobile patrol?
The automobile offers the patrol officer the
ability to cover a large area, to respond to
emergency calls quickly, and to employ
useful combination of stealth and mobility
in crime prevention and the apprehension
and detection of offenders.
128. What are the advantages of
-It can cover a wider area;
-It provides faster response to public calls;
-It provides an element of surprise particularly when
a crime is in progress;
-It provides constant availability to public calls;
-It provides officers with needed protection during
-It enables officers to carry other equipment;
-It is less tiresome making patrol officers respond and
deal with emergencies more efficiently; and
-It is more economical.
129. What are the disadvantages
of mobile of patrolling?
-Officers inability to observe their surroundings while
inside their automobile;
-Inability to detect conditions requiring police
-It restricts the ability of the patrol officer to come
into contact with people with reside, travel, work and
shop around their beat.
130. GENERAL PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES
IN AUTOMOBILE PATROL
1.Thoroughly check the patrol car before leaving
the garage. Know your BLOW BAGETS.
2.Do not establish route patterns in patrolling
the area of jurisdiction. Recommended patrol
patterns: Practice OMNIPRESENCE
131. 3. Do not develop the habit of using only the main
road in your area. Most criminal activity occurs at
the backstreets, out of sight from the main thorough
4. Do not spend too much time in drive-inns or
5. Always take note (jut down) the plate numbers of
strange or suspicious vehicles.
6. Get out from the patrol car regularly or frequently
to be visible and accessible to the public and develop
personal contacts in the neighborhood.
132. 7. Set an example to other motorists
Observe/obey all traffic laws for both safety and public
relation reasons, unless you are in route to an emergency or
while on pursuit.
Always park the patrol car in the legal way.
Use seatbelts or shoulder straps and other safety devices.
Use the proper traffic signal lights and hand signals.
8. Avoid driving too fast on general patrol conditions except
during emergencies or in pursuing some criminals/suspects.
Maintain a cruising speed of 20-25 mph during patrol. This is
slow enough to make detailed observations without impending
the traffic law.
9. Maintain frequent contact with the radio dispatcher or other
communication personnel in the field or at the headquarters.
133. 10. Minimize hiding behind hills, curves or
signboards to trap traffic violators. This is bad
public relations and serves to erode community or
public confidence in the police sense of fair play.
11. Frequently check the potential trouble spots in
your patrol area.
12. Stop periodically among parked cars at the
entrance side streets to observe activity on the
13. Check the occupants of vehicles that stop
beside and behind you at intersections.
134. What is bicycle patrol?
The adoption of bicycle patrol was brought about by
the need to saturate areas not accessible by
automobile and too large to be patrolled easily on
foot. Bicycle patrols may be utilized for surveillance
purposes in crowded areas such as malls, shopping
centers when a uniformed police officer would be too
conspicuous. This method is usually targeted toward
criminal detection and apprehension in crimes such as
purse snatching, muggings and sexual assaults.
Bicycles have a combined advantage of mobility, speed
and stealth. They are easily maneuvered in crowded
areas and cheaper to operate and maintain.
135. What is Special Terrain
They are usually four wheel drive vehicles
also known as “All Terrain Vehicles” (ATV),
designed to easily maneuver and traverse
with ease sandy areas such as desserts and
beach fronts as well areas prone to floods.
This would enable patrol officers to respond
quickly to calls to emergency scenes which
may not be accessible to more conventional
forms of transportation.
136. What is motorcycle patrol?
For many years, motorcycles have been
utilized for traffic purposes and parade and
escort duties. Motorcycles offer several
distinct advantages for patrol use. It is easily
maneuverable in heavily congested areas.
However this method has manifested several
disadvantages such as its limited utility under
adverse weather conditions. It also poses an
additional element of danger to patrol officers
due to its vulnerability on the road.
137. What is aircraft patrol?
One of the most significant developments of patrol
methods has been the adoption of both fixed wing
aircraft and helicopters. They have found to be very
adaptable for police work, although used primarily
in large metropolis and cities. They are viewed as
valuable assets in carrying out police patrol mission
under certain circumstances. They offer the
opportunity to patrol large land and sea areas and
observe things that may be hidden from the view of
officers on the ground. In crimes involving chases,
they can keep close observation of fleeing suspects
and can direct the apprehension efforts of ground
138. What is K-9 patrol?
K-9 assisted patrol. Canine units have many
advantages; they are often used in lieu of a second
officer in a motorized patrol unit. They serve as
supplement to the regular patrol force and allow
fewer officers to patrol the same or greater area.
Dogs also pose a significant psychological effect on
would-be-trouble makers. Canines have acute sense
of smell and can be used to track lost or wanted
persons and augment in search and rescue missions
as well. Dogs may also be used in the detection of
explosives, drugs and other contrabands.
139. What is marine patrol?
Marine Patrol or Water patrol units are a highly
specialized form of police patrol and are utilized in
those communities that have access to navigable
waterways such as lakes, oceans, and rivers. They
represent an extremely valuable addition to the
regular patrol force. Search and rescue and fire
detection are among the most important functions
of marine patrol units. They are very useful in
patrolling inland waterways that may be otherwise
inaccessible. Marine patrol units are called upon to
prevent drug trafficking, detection of smuggling and
other serious crimes that may be beyond the scope
or capability of traditional patrol units.
140. What is horse patrol?
Mounted or Horse Patrol. They are utilized
for certain patrol areas such as large parks
or similar places where automobiles either
cannot access or may be forbidden. Mobile
patrol may not be expected to be used in
wooded areas and fields but animals such
as horses provide the best mobility in these
141. WORKING THE STREET
Preparation for Duty – the patrol officers job starts
even before they are in the AOR because they need to
prepare the following that are necessary in the
performance of their routines.
1. Police uniform
5. Flashlight, spare battery and bulbs
6. Notebook or tickler
7. List of stolen and wanted vehicles
8. Handheld radio and other equipment as required
142. B. Information Check – Prior to actual
patrolling the police officer should:
1.Secure and review descriptions of missing
and wanted persons.
2.Arrange any follow-up work from previous
3.Check with the officer being relieved for
any problems requiring your attention
during the shift.
4.Check patrol area log for problem areas
requiring extra surveillance.
143. C. Vehicle Check – in case of patrol officers
assigned on mobile cars:
1.Check the inside of your patrol car, paying
particular attention to the rear seat.
2.Record the condition of your vehicle’s
interior in your notebook for possible
latter use as evidence.
3. Check your vehicles siren, roof light, radio
and other equipment to ensure that they
are in proper working order. Note any
damage or mechanical problems.
144. COVERING THE PATROL AREA
Always present an alert, businesslike, and disciplined
appearance while on patrol – speak and span.
Do not loiter on the street, business places, or in parked
cars. Do not engage in a lengthy, idle conversation.
Report to your dispatcher or supervisor ASAP whenever
you are required to leave your patrol area on unassigned
Your message must be clear and to the point.
Use the telephone for lengthy, detailed or highly
confidential exchanges of information.
Learn the locations of all the operative pay telephones in
your patrol area.
146. What is the difference between
high and low visibility patrol?
High visibility patrol can be virtually anything designed to
increase patrol visibility. It might include saturating a given
area with additional kinds of units, walking beats in the
downtown area, park and walk program for recreation
centers and large parks and similar strategies. The key to
high visibility patrol is the identification of crimes and
locations which can be most affected by increased police
visibility and conduct of such efforts on a systematic but
irregular basis. They are deemed most effective when
frequently changed, in terms of composition, location and
frequency. It is basically intended to deter street crimes.
147. While, low Visibility Patrol. Low visibility patrol is
designed to increase the rate of apprehension of
persons engaged in selected types of crimes. Its
secondary effect is that other types of crimes will
be deterred as a result of greater probability of
persons being arrested in the commission of the
crime. Surprise is the primary element in the
design of low visibility patrol program. The idea is
to provide a police presence in an area where
selected crimes are likely to occur without the
presence of the police being detected.
148. What is directed deterrent
Directed Deterrent Patrol. Directed deterrent patrol differs
from traditional patrol methods in that patrol officers perform
specific predetermined preventive functions on a planned
and systematic basis. These preventive activities are
designed on the basis of detailed analysis of crime incidents,
offender characteristics, methods of operating, and locations.
It attempts to identify certain crime trends and then develop
specific patrol methods to interrupt these patterns. Directed
deterrent patrol is ideally suited for cities which are large
enough to experience crime problems in which patterns and
characteristics can be identified.
149. What is TOP?
Target Oriented Patrol. Target oriented patrol
strategies are those that are directed toward
specific persons, places or events. It combines the
elements of high visibility and low visibility patrol,
and directed deterrent patrol to identify persons,
places or events which attract to create crime
problems. Various means are then used either to
deny the opportunity for the crime to occur or to
intercept the criminal in the commission of the
offense. Target oriented patrol programs consists
of either: Location oriented patrol, Offender
oriented patrol and Event oriented patrol.
150. Location Oriented Patrol. Is the process of
conducting intensified surveillance over selected areas that
have been identified through crime analysis or through
intelligence data as being high risk areas for the
commission of selected types of crimes.
Offender Oriented Patrol. It is the process of
conducting surveillance of an individual. In this case, police
intelligence data as well as criminal history information on
known offenders will form the basis for the identification of
targets against which patrol efforts are directed.
Event Oriented Patrol. It is simply the identification of
events which may require the application of intensified
patrol efforts or different kinds of patrol strategies due to
the nature of the problems they may create.
151. What is split force patrol?
The split force patrol concept is a means of
satisfying the needs of both preventive
patrol and the demands made by calls for
service. It grew out of the recognition that
both preventive patrol and responding to
calls are important. It involves assigning
one part of the patrol force the
responsibility of conducting preventive
patrol and assigning another part of the
patrol force the task of responding to calls
152. What is the difference between
Reactive and proactive Patrol.
In reactive patrol, the activity which consists of driving around
the district and waiting for something to happen. An old concept
in patrolling which is not very different from policemen sitting
around at the precinct while waiting for calls. The affordability
and sensibility is now being questioned for it does not seem to
effectively augment the crime prevention drive of the police.
While, proactive Patrol. An alternative patrol system which entails
anticipation on the part of the patrol units that something
unusual would occur. It consists of fielding of units in their
respective area of responsibility with described objectives and
specific tasks for the day to augment calls and other on sight
activities. The proactive patrol units will be making burglar
prevention, inspection of business establishments and residences,
saturating places and locations of known gambling dens, drug
dealers and shadowing them for a while to see if they are plying
their illegal trade.
153. What is an attractive
A known doctrine of law wherein an
individual is said to maintain on his
business or residential premises a
condition, situation, instrumentality, or
machine that is dangerous to the youth
particularly for young children due to
their inability to recognize and
154. What are patrol hazards?
A hazard is defined as any person, place,
thing or condition which if allowed to exist
may induce an accident or cause the
commission of the crime. They refer to
situations which possess a high potential for
criminal attack or may create any type of
problem necessitating a demand for
immediate police services. Classification of
hazards: Persons, Places, Property, and
155. What are factors that create
Deficient visibility resulting from obstruction of view,
inadequate illumination may cause either crime or
accident hazards. The presence or conditions of
things may create hazard. Such as poorly designed
roadways, obstructions in public places, presence of
combustibles or fire hazards, a lake or stream of
water. The presence of people may create a patrol
hazard. Their gathering may present opportunity for
crime commission specifically thefts, mob formation,
assaults, damage to property or panic may cause
injury to other persons.
156. Types of call responses by the police patrol
ROUTINE CALL - under this category, the mobile
car is required to observe all traffic laws and rules and
does not normally use its flashing lights and siren
while on its way to the scene. This includes when the
police responds to:
Provide police car transportation
Obtain reports about offenses discovered after the
criminal has left and which does not involve injury.
Obtain information the nature of which is not given.
Investigate apparently abandoned vehicles.
Obtain damage reports.
Provide additional traffic control and direction.
157. URGENT CALL – this is similar to the routine
call, which also requires the responding police car
to observe all traffic rules and does not use its
flashing lights or siren. However, it proceeds
directly to its destination and does not stop unless
an incident of far more serious nature occurs. This
includes when the police responds to investigate:
Trouble of unknown nature
Vehicular accidents in which there no physical
Lost children complaints
Report of mob activities
Reports of domestic conflicts
158. EMERGENCY CALL – in most cases, this
category requires the use of the flashing light and
fluctuating siren although there are exceptions, which
include the attempt to surprise criminals in the act. It
is permissible in this case for the responding police car
to violate traffic laws provided that extreme care is
exercised while driving at high speed. This includes
when the police responds to:
Investigate a crime in progress
Investigate a traffic accident in which people are
Rescue or assist another patroller in trouble
Aids an injured person
Pursue or apprehend suspected criminal/s
Assist in firefighting
Stop an ongoing fight
159. What are the two schools of thoughts
regarding the best means of approaching any
scene where a crime is believed to be in progress?
First is to approach the scene with lights and
siren flashing and to pull on directly at the
scene of the reported crime. The idea here is to
frighten the criminal in order to prevent him
from completing his criminal act.
Second is to approach the crime scene as
inconspicuously as possible in order to use the
advantage of surprise in apprehending the
criminal or preventing his escape.
160. What are the factors to be considered by the
patroller in choosing the manner by which
an approach to a crime in progress is to be
These are the factors of: time and day;
condition of traffic; possibility of ongoing
physical assault; and the neighborhood
161. How Police Visibility is attained?
Police visibility can be done in three (3) ways: physical
presence by being visible as police and easy to locate police
units; patrolling scheme through mobile, integrated, and
widespread, supportive, and redundant coverage; and
response which should be proper, adequate and timely (ideal
is 5minutes response time).
Further, the Police Visibility Program of the PNP can be
accomplished thru the use of the Integrated Patrol System
(PNP-IPS). The PNP-IPS has the following features:
Widespread and Forward Deployment
Force Mixture (complementary & supportive)
Cross checking of Deployment
Support the COPS
162. What is telecommunications?
Telecommunications refers to the
transmission of words, sounds, images, or
data in the form of electronic or
electromagnetic signals or impulses.
Transmission media include the telephone
using wire or optical cable, radio, television,
microwave, and satellite. Data
communication, the fastest growing field of
telecommunication, is the process of
transmitting data in digital form by wire or
163. 1. In police communication, present patrol
officers MUST use 10 codes thru radio
2. Alexander Graham Bell was credited for
inventing the telephone which is considered one
of the best means of communication in patrol
3. Radio communication is the most rapid
means of patrol communication
164. 4. In transmitting messages thru radio, the
operator should have loud and clear voice
5. One of the 10 commandments for radio
operator is to keep updated and proper log
165. INTELLIGENCE AND SECRET
SERVICE - The course converges on the
comparative study of police intelligence,
its application and principles, the types
of intelligence, the intelligence cycle,
Modus Operandi of undercover
operatives and the Order of battle
system for the identification of
criminals, subversive elements and
other threats to national security
166. What is Intelligence?
Defined as the product resulting from the
collection, analysis, integration, evaluation
and interpretation of all available information
which concerns one or more aspects of area
of operation potentially significant to
planning. As a process intelligence is an
activity which treats processed information as
the basis of departmental policy and decision
167. As an organization it is an institution
composed of personnel who pursue a
special kind of knowledge for the purpose of
planning, collecting, evaluating and
disseminating information relating to integrity
of its members, conditions that promote
disturbance due to peace and order,
organized criminal syndicates, insurgency
168. What is military intelligence?
refers to the use of processed information in
formulating military plans, programs and
policies. This would include strategic and
combat intelligence. Strategic intelligence
gives attention to the capability, vulnerability
and possible course of action of the enemy.
Combat intelligence highlights knowledge
pertaining to weather, enemy and terrain.
169. What is police intelligence?
refers to the output or end product resulting
from the collection, evaluation, analysis,
integration and interpretation of all available
facts which concerns the activities of criminal
elements and its activities significant to police
planning and operation. This covers Line,
strategic and counter intelligence.
170. What is counter intelligence?
are measures undertaken to deny the enemy of
any information consisting of passive and active
intelligence measures. In passive counter
intelligence; secrecy discipline, movement control,
camouflage and proper handling of information is
practiced. Active counter intelligence on the other
hand covers reconnaissance, patrolling, sabotage,
espionage, interior guard duty and fortification of
173. What comprises the intelligence
The Intelligence Cycle is composed of :
-Collection of information
-Processing of information
-Dissemination and Use of
-Direction of the Collection Effort.
174. Collection of Information
Each collecting agency of a command is responsible
for procurement, collecting and transmitting all
information of perceived intelligence value to
adjacent and higher headquarters with the least
possible delay even in the absence of specific
instruction. This is referred to as the essence of
procurement of information of which the most vital
factor is access of either the agents or informants to
the desired facts without arousing the attention of
the subject or those given the task to protect them.
175. Processing of Information
Intelligence Data Processing:
(1) is a process through which information is
(2) can increases our knowledge of a particular
problem and situation, and
(3) results in preventive and informed public
policy. Intelligence is a necessity for the
successful investigation of today’s sophisticated
criminals and an invaluable asset for police
managers in making well informed decisions.
176. The principle involved in the processing of
information is that all information with
relevant intelligence value to determine the
credibility of its source and the accuracy of
the facts obtained. Evaluated information is
then subject to interpretation to determine its
significance in the light of all other
intelligence at hand. Processing- is a step by
which the intelligence is transformed from
raw facts or materials to intelligence data. It
involves three processes namely: Collation,
Evaluation and Interpretation.
177. What is the Evaluation Code?
The Evaluation Code:
According to Reliability of
A. Completely Reliable,
B. Usually Reliable,
C. Fairly reliable,
D. Not Usually reliable,
F. Reliability Unknown.
According to Credibility of
1- Confirmed by other Sources,
2- Probably true,
3- Possibly true,
4- Doubtfully true,
5- Improbable report
6- Truth Cannot be judged.
178. According to the source of information:
T - Direct observation by the Unit
U – Report made by the intelligence Agents
V – Report rendered by military or law
W – A result of interrogation
X - Observation of any government civilian
Y/Z – Obtained from documents
179. Dissemination and Use of
The intelligence duly processed must be
presented to the Commander to enable him
to formulate decisions and plans and is
distributed to all higher, adjacent and lower
offices in the time for it to be of value.
Timeliness which connotes that it should be
forwarded without delay when needed and
Propriety in the sense that it must be clear
and concise, the two must be observed at all
180. Direction of the Collection
The principle in planning the collection
effort is based on the collecting agency's
capability. This is to ensure that the
coordinated search for information
sought may be obtained to govern the
future conduct of the unit. It embodies
the following elements or features:
181. -The essential elements of
-The collection plan including
choosing the personnel
-The implementation process
by issuance of necessary orders
Supervision and follow up.
182. What is EEI?
Essential Elements of Information. They are particular
requirement for information which the end user needs to
govern the conduct of the operations. In the formulation of
the essential elements of information the following must be
-The available lines of actions the target, subject or
enemy may adopt which will interfere with or favor the
accomplishment of the mission.
-The next major decision which can be foreseen at
present and additional information needed to
decide.(Alternate or back-up plan)
-Information pertaining to the situation confronting the
unit requested by adjacent or higher command.
183. What are document security
Document Security Classification:
Class I- Vital/Top Secret documents. They are
considered irreplaceable official matters the
unauthorized disclosure of which would cause
exceptionally grave damage to the interest of an
establishment since it is important to its survival.
Class II- Important/Confidential Documents. The loss
or damage of which will pose a threat to operations.
The reproduction of said documents will cause delay
and would entail a considerable expense on the part of
the collecting agency.
184. Class III- Useful/Secret documents.
Contains operational procedures and
guidelines, wherein loss or compromise
would hamper operations but can be readily
Class IV- Restricted documents. These
refer to duly processed intelligence reports
not made available for public consumption.
185. How do we handle classified
Handling Classified Security Matters/Dissemination
of classified matters: The “Need to know Principle”,
classified matters should be passed only to whom it
is necessary for the fulfillment of their duties. Every
organization with such confidential information
should insure that only authorized persons should
decide and determine the distribution of such
matters. Distribution of vital documents should be
recorded and tracked down.
186. Secret matters are as a general rule
not reproduced unless instructions from
higher authorities would be issued. No
classified information should be
discussed in public, over the telephone,
radio and other venue or channel
susceptible to being observed and
overheard by other persons or
187. What is cryptography?
Cryptography is simply defined as an art and science of
making, devising and protecting codes and ciphers. It is a
science of preparing communication intended to be
intelligible only to the person possessing the key or method
of developing the hidden meaning by crypto-analysis using
apparently incoherent text. In its widest sense, cryptography
includes the use of concealed messages, ciphers, and codes.
Concealed messages, such as hose hidden in otherwise
innocent text and those written in invisible ink, depend for
their success on being unsuspected, once they are
discovered, they frequently offer little difficulty to
188. Codes, in which words and phrases are
represented by predetermined words, numbers, or
symbols, are usually impossible to read without
they key code book. The term cryptography is
sometimes restricted to the use of ciphers, that is,
to methods of transposing the letters of plain text
(unencrypted) messages or to methods involving
the substitution of other letters or symbols for the
original letters of a message, and to various
combinations of such methods, all according to
189. SECRET SERVICE
VIP protection or security- also
referred to as Personal Security, it
utilized in the protection of personnel
especially high ranking officials,
foreign dignitaries, and prominent
private individuals from harm,
kidnapping and other similar threats
190. Goal of Security for VIP:
1. To insure the safety of the VIP and the
2. To prevent unauthorized access to
installations, equipment, documents and
3. To protect facilities and documents from
sabotage, espionage, damage, theft or robbery.
4. To avoid humiliation or internal impediment
191. Methods of Attack against VIP:
1. Physical assault, inflicting injury and taking life.
2. Insult which is intended to humiliate and ridicule the
VIP in the public eye by hoax,
3. Coercion usually undertaken by blackmail
4. Threats which are usually grave in nature to inflict
injury or harm to the VIP or any close relatives and
associates usually done by means of anonymous letters,
crank calls, text messages, e MAIL
It can be traced back as early as the
11th century when a secret society was
established in Persia by Hassen
Sabbah to inflict acts of violence
directed against the crusaders from
Europe. In its simplest definition,
assassination refers to murder by
193. “Theory of Concentrate Circle
Type of Defense”
It states that any potential attack will
have to penetrate layer after layer of
defenders the heaviest layer of defense
is located at the VIP area. In practice
three rings are to be established
covering the VIP.
It consists of the Outer ring, Middle
ring and Inner ring.
194. The outer ring - personnel posted
at sidewalks, in front of residence,
office and covering all entrances.
The Middle ring - personnel
deployed inside the residence,
office, quarters covering all
stairway and elevators.
Inner ring - composed of personnel
posted immediately outside the
VIP’s door and the close-in security
195. General duties of VIP security in
1. The primary duty is to attempt to cover the VIP as
closely as possible so as to effectively shield the VIP by
placing themselves between the VIP and the direction or
source of threat or danger.
2. Second duty is to remove the VIP as quickly as
possible from the established attack or kill zone.
3. Neutralization is undertaken when the VIP is out of
harm’s way by trying to locate, identify and capture
alive if possible the attackers.
196. POLICE RECORDS AND PERSONNEL
MANAGEMENT -The course deals with
the study of the concepts and principles
of management as applied to law
enforcement. The activities and
processes involved in human resource
of the PNP from recruitment to
retirement. The PNP and NAPOLCOM
Rules and Regulations. It also focus on
police records, documents its
classification and use from creation to
197. What is police personnel
Police personnel management is an art of
preparing, organizing and directing the efforts of
the members of the police force in order that they
may achieve the accomplishment of the police
purpose. It is that field of management involving
planning, organizing, directing and controlling the
efforts of a group of people toward achieving a
common goal with maximum dispatch and
199. What are the elements of
Elements of Management:
Authority- which comes from law, delegation
Responsibility- which is a state of being
200. Authority and Responsibility going
hand in hand:
Authority must be commensurate with
responsibility. No one should be held
responsible for the outcome of task
unless he has been given the
corresponding authority for the
performance of the task. This requires
proper delegation of authority-that is- the
one to whom authority has been
delegated is accountable for its proper
201. What is the difference
between administration and
Administration denotes functions that determine the basic
policies, programs and the means and methods to the
employed to achieve them. While, management covers
functions that directs and guides the activities of the human
resources of the organization toward realization of policies
and programs and objectives. By its structure and legal
creation, the Philippine National Police is characterized as a
centralized police force, adhering to the Continental theory,
wherein the police force is a tool or servant of higher state or
202. What is the difference
between vision and mission?
THE PNP VISION “ We are committed to the
vision of a professional, dynamic and highly
motivated PNP, supported by a responsive
community regarded as one of the most credible
national institutions and ranked among the best
in Asia.” An organization’s mission is its rationale
for existence. Mission statements are brief,
believable, easy to understand and widely
known. Mission statements are supplemented by
values to which they are based.
203. The PNP Mission “The PNP shall
enforce the law, prevent and control
crime, Maintain peace and order,
ensure the public safety and internal
security with the active support of the
204. What are policies?
Policies refer to those tools of management which
life and direction to the programs of activities and
sets limits within which action is to be pursued by
the personnel concerned. It may also be defined
as a “general plan of action” that serves as a
guide in the operation of the organization. It
defines authority and responsibility of
subordinates. And formulated by management to
guide the men on operational level.
205. What are the types of
Originated policy- this type comes from the
highest rank or top management and is intended to
set up guidelines in the operation of the
Appealed policy- this type of policy is born when
problems arise at the lower levels of the
organization and the man in charge does not know
how to meet the problem.
Imposed policy- This type of policy comes from
the government in forms of laws, administrative
orders, rules and procedures and specifications.
206. Policies and Procedure
Policies are guideline governing future courses of action and
therefore they have to be stable. Procedure on the one
hand is the actual courses of action such working details
methods of operation, paperwork, review, routing letters.
Regulations are rules intended to guide the conduct of the
personnel which are restrictive and aim to force the officers
to adhere to specific codes of conduct. Work simplification it
is a method of finding easier ways of doing work to increase
productivity, work quality, meet work schedule, reduce
waste, lower accident rates and reduce costs. This method
is also utilized in law enforcement administrative service.
207. What are the functions of
Functions of Management is enumerated as follows:
Is the determination in advance how the objectives
of the organization will be attained. This would
include the determination of the course of action
to take in a particular task, function or activity.
Planning may be further defined as the act of
determining guidelines and policies for police
activities and operations and providing safeguards
and controls for such endeavors in the
Involves the allocation and determination of
men and women as well as the resource of
an organization to achieve pre-determined
objectives and goals of the organization. Two
villains in the waste of manpower in an
-Doing unnecessary work; and
-Doing necessary work inefficiently.