PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Before getting invested in a project, a construction manager needs to
make sure it's feasible. In this stage, you'll do extensive preliminary
research to decide if you want to proceed.
Ask the following questions:
• What’s the expected ROI?
• What are the risk, and are they manageable?
• Is this project a good fit for my company?
• Stakeholders at this phase, crate increasingly precise renderings of
the final build.
• It is critical to the success of a project, as all panties need to be in
agreement about the design specs.
• In this stage, you'll develop a course of action to see the project
through to completion.
• Determine the project workflow
• The goal in this stage is to get what you need as quickly and as
economically as possible. You don't want to wait too long to order
materials and hold up the next steps in a project.
• When it comes to safety, the
construction industry has a higher
fatality rate than the national
average. To reduce worker injuries
and fatalities, OSHA has created a
comprehensive set of safety
standards, as well as a construction
safety digest, safety training
guides, and more.
Safety should be first and foremost on every employer’s and employee’s mind. And given
that 20.5% of worker fatalities in 2014 were in construction, it’s imperative that employers
make sure the workplace is safe. To this end, OSHA requires that employers maintain a
safe work environment and follow all related OSHA safety and health standards. Most of
the applicable standards can be found in 29 CFR 1926, Safety and Health Regulations for
Improving construction safety is a complex task that requires a holistic safety approach.
This requires employers to use the following methods:
* Engineering controls
* Safe work practices
* Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) assessment and training
* Daily inspections and preventive maintenance
* Employee injury and illness programs
Using each of these methods will ensure that workers remain safe by eliminating
and reducing workplace hazards.
• * Construction planning includes
defining all the relevant processes,
procedures, and policies you need
to put in place to meet the needs
of a specific project.
• * Construction planning helps
assure that projects are completed
on time and within budget, meet
quality standards, and ensure
safety protocols for your crew.
• * Planning clarifies responsibilities
between owners, builders, and
tradespeople, leading to excellent
communication and teamwork.
• It is critical for
construction firms to
accurately estimate the
equipment cost as part of
the total cost of the
• An inaccurate estimate of
the cost of construction
negatively impact a
company's profit margin.
EQUIPMENT COST CAN BE CLASSIFIED
Ownership Cost Operating Cost
Interest cost or cost of capital
Major repairs & overhauls
Storage & miscellaneous
Repair and maintenance cost
Cost of lubricating oil, filter and grease
Equipment operator wages
Cost of replacing high-wear items
Cost of mobilization, demobilization
Ownership cost is the total cost of owning construction equipment, regardless of
whether it is used or not in the project.
1. Purchase Expense - refers to the cash outflow experienced by the company in
acquiring ownership of the machine.
2. Salvage value - represents the expected cash inflow from disposing of equipment at
the end of its useful life.
3. Interest cost or cost of capital investment - is the annual cost of interest on borrowed
money or the capital investment required to acquire ownership of the equipment.
4. Major repairs & overhauls - are the costs incurred to bring an asset back to an earlier
condition or to keep the asset operating at its present condition.
5. Property taxes - are taxes to be paid to the state or central government.
6. Insurance cost - comprises the expense for covering a fire, a theft, and equipment
7. Storage and miscellaneous - is the cost of maintaining storage yards and facilities.
Operating cost is the sum of those expenses an owner experiences by working a
machine on the project. It is incurred only when the equipment is operated.
The operating cost of the equipment is influenced by various parameters
number of operating hours; location of job site; operating conditions; category of
1. Repair and Maintenance - refers to normal maintenance-type repairs includes the cost
of replacement parts and labor charges.
2. Fuel cost - Construction equipment is typically powered by internal combustion
engines that run on either gasoline or diesel fuel.
3. Cost of lubricating oil, filter and grease - The quantity of lubricating oil, filter and
grease required depends on: operating hours, frequency of changes, engine
characteristics, working conditions at the job site, and maintenance practices in the
4. Tire Cost - The cost of pneumatic tires (rubber tires) is considered as a part of
operating cost. The life of tires varies according to extent of wear it is subjected
to, which depends on the job site conditions.
5. Equipment operator wages - includes the company's hourly wages and benefits
paid to the operators.
6. Cost of replacing high-wear items - The high-wear items include blades, cutting
edges, drill bits, bucket teeth etc.
7. Cost of mobilization, demobilization and assembly - includes transportation
charges from one project site to another, cost required for getting road permits,
unloading charges, cost of assembly at the project site etc.
3 DIFFERENT METHODS TO ACQUIRE
CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT FOR A PROJECT
1. Buying - results in direct ownership of the equipment.
2. Renting - is a method of acquiring the equipment for a short
3. Leasing - is another method of acquiring the equipment, for a
longer period of time.
Rocks are made of one or more
minerals. There are three main
classifications of rock, based on
the way the rock was formed:
sedimentary, metamorphic and
Engineering properties of rock are
controlled by the discontinuities within
the rock mass and the properties of the
intact rock. Therefore, engineering
properties for rock must account for the
properties of the intact rock and for the
properties of the rock mass specifically
considering the discontinuities within the
Rock properties can be divided into two
• Intact rock properties
• Rock mass properties
Soil is formed of fine rock particles
mixed with air, water and particles
from dead plant and animal matter.
There are three main types of soil
which are classified according to the
amount of sand and clay in them.
PROPERTIES OF SOIL
1.) Laboratory Index Property Testing
Laboratory index property testing is
mainly used to classify soils, though in some
cases, they can also be used with correlations to
estimate specific soil design properties.
2.) Laboratory Performance Testing
Laboratory performance testing is
mainly used to estimate strength,
compressibility, and permeability characteristics
of soil and rock. For rock, the focus of
laboratory performance testing is typically on
the shear strength of the intact rock, or on the
shear strength of specific discontinuities (i.e.,
joint/seam) within the rock mass. See Soil shear
strength may be determined on either
undisturbed specimens of finer grained soil
(undisturbed specimens of granular soils are
very difficult, if not impossible, to get), or
disturbed or remolded specimens of fine- or
INFLUENCE OF EXISTING AND
FUTURE CONDITIONS ON SOIL
AND ROCK PROPERTIES
Many soil properties used for design are not
intrinsic to the soil type but vary depending
on conditions. In-situ stresses, changes in
stresses, the presence of water, rate and
direction of loading, and time can all affect
the behavior of soils. Prior to evaluating the
properties of a given soil, it is important to
determine the existing conditions as well as
how conditions may change over the life of
Some construction materials such as weak
rock may lose strength due to weathering
within the design life of the embankment.
These long-term effects shall be considered
when selecting properties to use for design.
SOIL AND ROCK
Subsurface soil or rock properties are
generally determined using one or more
of the following methods:
• In-situ testing during the field
• Laboratory testing, and
• Back-analysis based on site performance
The two most common in-situ test
methods for use in soil are the Standard
Penetration Test, (SPT) and the cone
penetrometer test (CPT)
The constructor must select the proper equipment to relocate and/or
process materials economically.
The analysis procedure for matching the best possible machine to the
project task requires inquiry into a machine’s mechanical capability.
The engineer must first calculate the power required to propel the
machine and its load.
This power requirement is established by two factors:
1. Rolling Resistance
2. Grade Resistance
Equipment manufacturers publish performance charts for individual
These charts enable the equipment planner to analyze a machine’s
ability to perform under a given set of job and load conditions
• The payload capacity of construction excavation and hauling
equipment can be expressed either volumetrically or gravimetrically.
• Volumetric capacity can be stated as struck or heaped volume and
either volume can be expressed in terms of loose cubic yard, bank cubic
yard, or compacted cubic yard.
• The payload capacity of excavation buckets and hauling units is
often stated by the manufacturer in terms of the volume of loose
material, assuming that the material is heaped at a specified angle of
Cycle time and payload determine a machine’s production rate, and
machine travel speed directly affects cycle time.
It is the power required is the power needed to overcome resisting forces and cause
The forces resisting the movement of mobile equipment are:
a. Rolling Resistance - The resistance of a level surface to constant-velocity motion
b. Grade Resistance - The force-opposing movement of a machine up a frictionless
Therefore, power required is the power necessary to overcome the total resistance to
machine movement, which is the sum of rolling and grade resistance.
Total Resistance(TR) = Rolling Resistance(RR)+Grade Resistance(GR)
• Internal combustion engines power most construction
• Because diesel engines perform better under heavy-duty
applications than gasoline engines, diesel powered
machines are the work horses of the construction industry.
• Diesel engines have longer service lives and lower fuel
• Diesel fuel presents less of a fire hazard.
Work and Power
Work is defined as force through distance.
Work = Force * Distance
An internal combustion engine by the combustion of fuel in a piston develops a
mechanical force that acts on a crankshaft having a radius r.
The crankshaft in turn drives the flywheel and gears that power the other components of
The force from a rotating object, such as crankshafts (a "twisting" force), is termed
• Manufacturers rate machine horsepower as either gross or flywheel
(sometimes listed as net horsepower)
• Gross horsepower is the actual power generated by the engine prior to
load losses for auxiliary systems, such as the alternator, air conditioner
compressors, and water pump.
• Flywheel horsepower (fwhp) can be considered as usable horsepower.
It is the power available to operate a machine-power the driveline-after
deducting for power losses in the engine.
Usable power depends on project conditions: primarily, haul-
road surface condition, altitude, and temperature.
Usable force = Coefficient of traction*Weight on powered