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What is a Vegetarian?
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A presentation I have on veganism. I'm a flexible vegan, which means that I prefer eating vegan, but when I'm not I follow a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.

A presentation I have on veganism. I'm a flexible vegan, which means that I prefer eating vegan, but when I'm not I follow a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.

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Veganism

  1. 1. VeganismVeganism Robert BesharaRobert Beshara Adapted fromAdapted from Becoming vegan: The complete guide to adopting a healthy plant-based dietBecoming vegan: The complete guide to adopting a healthy plant-based diet (2000) by Brenda(2000) by Brenda Davis, R.D. & Vesanto Melina, M.S., R.D.Davis, R.D. & Vesanto Melina, M.S., R.D.
  2. 2. What’s my agenda?What’s my agenda?  I’m aI’m a flexible veganflexible vegan, that is, I’ve been a, that is, I’ve been a lacto-ovo-lacto-ovo- vegetarianvegetarian for 7 years, but I am trying to transition intofor 7 years, but I am trying to transition into being a vegan.being a vegan.  I founded and co-organized the first vegetarian festivalI founded and co-organized the first vegetarian festival in Egypt, called:in Egypt, called: Veggie Fest CairoVeggie Fest Cairo. So obviously, I’m an. So obviously, I’m an activist of sorts.activist of sorts.  TheThe 3 national foods of3 national foods of EgyptEgypt are vegan, believe it or not!are vegan, believe it or not!  I think there are strong environmental, ethical, health,I think there are strong environmental, ethical, health, and spiritual arguments to be made for veganism. Weand spiritual arguments to be made for veganism. We will explore some of the health arguments today.will explore some of the health arguments today.
  3. 3. Veggie Fest CairoVeggie Fest Cairo
  4. 4. 3 speakers3 speakers
  5. 5. Veggie potluckVeggie potluck
  6. 6. Live musicLive music
  7. 7. Live artLive art
  8. 8. Mind you this wasMind you this was 17 days17 days before…before…
  9. 9. thethe Egyptian RevolutionEgyptian Revolution
  10. 10. EgyptEgypt’s’s 3 national foods3 national foods
  11. 11. FulFul ((‫للل‬‫للل‬))
  12. 12. KushariKushari ((‫لللل‬‫لللل‬))
  13. 13. Mulukhiyah (Mulukhiyah (‫لللللل‬‫لللللل‬))
  14. 14. WTF is Veganism?WTF is Veganism? Veganism is a diet, wherein one does not consume meat, dairy products, eggs, or honey Why should you care? Because "well-constructed vegan diets" not only foster good health for people of all ages, but may afford significant benefits for disease risk reduction Also, nutrient-rich plant foods such as tofu, nut butters, legumes, leafy greens, and fortified soymilk do not necessitate policies that harm the environment
  15. 15. What is a “well-What is a “well- constructed vegan diet”?constructed vegan diet”?
  16. 16. Disease risk reduction?Disease risk reduction? Any facts?Any facts?  vegan diets are useful in the prevention and/or treatment of numerousvegan diets are useful in the prevention and/or treatment of numerous chronic diseases, including heart disease, hypertension, stroke, cancer,chronic diseases, including heart disease, hypertension, stroke, cancer, obesity, diabetes, gallbladder disease, arthritis, kidney disease,obesity, diabetes, gallbladder disease, arthritis, kidney disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and asthmagastrointestinal disorders, and asthma  animal-centered diets:animal-centered diets: rich in saturated fat and cholesterol, and low inrich in saturated fat and cholesterol, and low in fiber INCREASE the risk of chronic diseasesfiber INCREASE the risk of chronic diseases  plant-centered diets:plant-centered diets: low in saturated fat and cholesterol, and rich inlow in saturated fat and cholesterol, and rich in dietary fiber and phytochemicals DECREASE the risk of these diseasesdietary fiber and phytochemicals DECREASE the risk of these diseases  heart disease: risk factors reduced by a vegan diet include bloodheart disease: risk factors reduced by a vegan diet include blood cholesterol level, oxidation of LDL cholesterol, hypertension (high bloodcholesterol level, oxidation of LDL cholesterol, hypertension (high blood pressure), obesity and high waist-to-hip ratiopressure), obesity and high waist-to-hip ratio  cancer: vegetable and fruit consumption is associated with lower risk ofcancer: vegetable and fruit consumption is associated with lower risk of cancer at almost every site, alcohol is highly detrimental for cancers ofcancer at almost every site, alcohol is highly detrimental for cancers of many sites (not just liver), and meat and animal fats are detrimentalmany sites (not just liver), and meat and animal fats are detrimental
  17. 17. MalnutritionMalnutrition  There areThere are 3 types of malnutrition3 types of malnutrition: 1) hunger, 2) overconsumption, and 3): 1) hunger, 2) overconsumption, and 3) micronutrient deficiencymicronutrient deficiency  Vegan and nonvegetarian diets can lead to malnutrition. It all depends onVegan and nonvegetarian diets can lead to malnutrition. It all depends on planningplanning—remember when I said “well-constructed vegan diet”?—remember when I said “well-constructed vegan diet”?  Vegans may struggle with under-nutrition, while nonvegetarians withVegans may struggle with under-nutrition, while nonvegetarians with over-nutritionover-nutrition  Micronutrient deficiency among vegans: vitaminsMicronutrient deficiency among vegans: vitamins B12B12 andand DD. Diets. Diets centered around junk foods and/or refined carbohydrates and lacking incentered around junk foods and/or refined carbohydrates and lacking in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes.fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes.  Nutrients requiring attention in vegan diets: protein (seitan, tempeh, tofu,Nutrients requiring attention in vegan diets: protein (seitan, tempeh, tofu, etc.), essential fatty acids (flax seed), riboflavin (almonds), and mineralsetc.), essential fatty acids (flax seed), riboflavin (almonds), and minerals (calcium, zinc, and iodine).(calcium, zinc, and iodine).  critical age for being vegan: 1 - 3 years.critical age for being vegan: 1 - 3 years.
  18. 18. B12B12  the plants we eat lack vitamin B12, but neitherthe plants we eat lack vitamin B12, but neither plants nor animals synthesize the vitamin--it isplants nor animals synthesize the vitamin--it is made bymade by bacteriabacteria. Our plant foods may also be. Our plant foods may also be contaminated with these bacteria, but we generallycontaminated with these bacteria, but we generally wash away the vitamin B12 during foodwash away the vitamin B12 during food preparation. Nondairy beverages, breakfast cereals,preparation. Nondairy beverages, breakfast cereals, and meat substitutes all are now being fortified withand meat substitutes all are now being fortified with vitamin B12.vitamin B12.
  19. 19. Welcome to the world ofWelcome to the world of faux meatfaux meat
  20. 20. TofuTofu
  21. 21. SeitanSeitan
  22. 22. TempehTempeh
  23. 23. The most annoyingThe most annoying question to ask a veganquestion to ask a vegan  Nonvegetarian: Where do you get your protein from?Nonvegetarian: Where do you get your protein from?  Vegan (thinks): From your mother.Vegan (thinks): From your mother.  Then replies: From all of the whole plant foods I eat.Then replies: From all of the whole plant foods I eat.
  24. 24. 0.8 grams per kilogram (2.20.8 grams per kilogram (2.2 pounds) body weight per daypounds) body weight per day For example, I weigh 75 kg, so I need 60 g of protein/day.
  25. 25. Unpacking the P-wordUnpacking the P-word  ““Proteins are the building blocks of life. The body needsProteins are the building blocks of life. The body needs protein to repair and maintain itself. The basic structure ofprotein to repair and maintain itself. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. Every cell in the humanprotein is a chain of amino acids. Every cell in the human body contains protein. It is a major part of the skin, muscles,body contains protein. It is a major part of the skin, muscles, organs, and glands. Protein is also found in all body fluids,organs, and glands. Protein is also found in all body fluids, except bile and urine.You need protein in your diet to helpexcept bile and urine.You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is alsoyour body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development during childhood,important for growth and development during childhood, adolescence, and pregnancy” ("Protein in diet: MedlinePlusadolescence, and pregnancy” ("Protein in diet: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia", n.d.).Medical Encyclopedia", n.d.).  Protein consists of 22 amino acids. 9 are essential amino acidsProtein consists of 22 amino acids. 9 are essential amino acids (EAAs)(EAAs)
  26. 26. How much fat should ourHow much fat should our diet include?diet include?  Some fat is necessary. But the more importantSome fat is necessary. But the more important question is: whatquestion is: what kindskinds ofof fat are we consuming?fat are we consuming?  fatty acids:fatty acids: 1) saturated (-), 2) monounsaturated (+1) saturated (-), 2) monounsaturated (+ minus trans fatty acids), and 3) polyunsaturatedminus trans fatty acids), and 3) polyunsaturated (+/-).(+/-).  essential fatty acids:essential fatty acids: linoleic/omega-6 and alpha-linoleic/omega-6 and alpha- lineolenic/omega-3lineolenic/omega-3  Sources ofSources of good fatgood fat for vegans, particularly since it’sfor vegans, particularly since it’s a low-fat diet, include:a low-fat diet, include: nutsnuts (walnuts),(walnuts), seedsseeds (flaxseed),(flaxseed), soysoy, and, and avocadoavocado
  27. 27. The Unified DietaryThe Unified Dietary GuidelinesGuidelines  eat a variety of foods, choose most of what you eateat a variety of foods, choose most of what you eat from plant sources, eat 5 or more servings of fruitsfrom plant sources, eat 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day, eat 6 or more servings ofand vegetables each day, eat 6 or more servings of bread, pasta, and cereal grains each day, eat high-fatbread, pasta, and cereal grains each day, eat high-fat foods sparing, especially those from animal sources,foods sparing, especially those from animal sources, and keep your intake of simple sugars to aand keep your intake of simple sugars to a minimum. total fat: 30% of calories, saturated fat:minimum. total fat: 30% of calories, saturated fat: 10% of calories.10% of calories.  vegan diets come closer to national nutritionvegan diets come closer to national nutrition recommendations for fat, cholesterol, trans fattyrecommendations for fat, cholesterol, trans fatty acids, protein, and fiber than any other diet.acids, protein, and fiber than any other diet.
  28. 28. A clip fromA clip from SamsaraSamsara (Fricke, 2011)(Fricke, 2011)  WARNING:WARNING: not for the faint of heartnot for the faint of heart  http://vimeo.com/73234721http://vimeo.com/73234721
  29. 29. BibliographyBibliography  Davis, B., & Melina, V. (2000).Davis, B., & Melina, V. (2000). Becoming vegan: TheBecoming vegan: The complete guide to adopting a healthy plant-based dietcomplete guide to adopting a healthy plant-based diet.. Summertown, TN: Book Pub. Co.Summertown, TN: Book Pub. Co.  Fricke, R. (Director). (2011).Fricke, R. (Director). (2011). SamsaraSamsara [Motion[Motion picture]. US: Magidson Films.picture]. US: Magidson Films.  Protein in diet: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia.Protein in diet: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). In(n.d.). In National Library of Medicine - NationalNational Library of Medicine - National Institutes of HealthInstitutes of Health. Retrieved from. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/articlhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/articl e/002467.htme/002467.htm

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