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LIVING IN THE IT ERA LESSON 2.pptx

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LIVING IN THE IT ERA LESSON 2.pptx

  1. 1. THE COMPUTER SYSTEM
  2. 2. TERMINOLOGIES DATA - consists of raw facts represented with help of characters such as alphabets, digits, special characters INFORMATION - organized or classified data which has some meaningful values for the receiver - processed data on which decisions and actions are based COMPUTER SYSTEM - a set of integrated devices that input, output, process, and store data and information.
  3. 3. THE COMPUTER SYSTEM
  4. 4. PARTS OF A COMPUTER HARDWARE SOFTWARE PEOPLEWARE OR USER -all physical and tangible parts of a computer • INPUT DEVICES – permit the user to communicate with the computer • OUTPUT DEVICES – releases/displays the processed data • STORAGE MEDIA – where the data and instructions are stored 1. Primary – or main memory, stores information for a brief amount of time Example: RAM, Cache Memory, ROM 2. Secondary – stores large amount of data for extended periods of time Example: hard drives, diskettes • CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) – where the conversion and processing of data is done -a set of instructions or program that tell a computer how to perform a specific task • SYSTEM SOFTWARE -collection of programs design to operate, control, or extend processing capabilities of a computer • APPLICATION SOFTWARE -designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment
  5. 5. RAM (Random Access Memory) ROM (Read-Only Memory)
  6. 6. MEMORY CAPACITY -the amount of data which can be stored in a storage unit -expressed in terms of Bytes Bit vs Byte Bit is a binary digit, either 0 or 1; smallest unit Byte is composed of eight bits, can store 255 characters
  7. 7. OVERVIEW OF THE 4 BASIC COMPUTER PERIODS
  8. 8. 4 BASIC COMPUTER PERIODS The Pre- mechanical Period • around 3000 BCE to 1450 CE • During this time, human started communicating with one another using words and pictograms curved in rocks. Then they started to write symbols as substitutes for pictures to depict ideas, objects, and animals. These gave rise to our modern-day alphabet The Mechanical Period • around 1450-1840 • During this time, the interest in automating and speeding up numerical calculation grew. The machines driven by mechanical means such as steam and gears dominated information processing and calculation The Electromechanical Period • around 1840-1940 • In this period, the use of electricity for information handling and transfer bloomed. The need and the urgency to share information with one another in a faster yet reliable manner over long distances aroused. This period saw the use of the telegraph to transmit information over long distances. The Electronic Period • 1940s to present • The highlight of this period is focused on the advent of solid state devices or electronic devices. The four main events found in this period are the late vacuum tubes period, the transistors period, the integrated circuits period, and the computer processors period
  9. 9. THE FIVE GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER
  10. 10. 5 GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER -Present and Beyond -Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth- generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. Fifth Generation Artificial Intelligence -1971 to Present -The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls— on a single chip. Fourth Generation Microprocessors -1964 to 1971 -Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. Third Generation Integrated Circuits -1956 to 1963 -Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Second Generation Transistors -1940 to 1956 -The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First Generation Vacuum Tubes
  11. 11. FIRST GENERATION First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
  12. 12. FIRST GENERATION
  13. 13. SECOND GENERATION
  14. 14. SECOND GENERATION
  15. 15. THIRD GENERATION
  16. 16. THIRD GENERATION
  17. 17. FOURTH GENERATION
  18. 18. FOURTH GENERATION
  19. 19. FIFTH GENERATION
  20. 20. FIFTH GENERATION

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