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Week 1.2 learning and using new words

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Week 1.2 learning and using new words

  1. 1. Learning and Using New Words WEEK 1.2
  2. 2. “Some purple gnats are starting to tango on microwave”.
  3. 3. What’s the point of learning and using new words?
  4. 4. Next to each photograph, predict how learning new words relates to reading and writing in academic life, everyday life, and working life.
  5. 5. Next to each photograph, predict how learning new words relates to reading and writing in academic life, everyday life, and working life. Learning and using new words in academic courses raises comprehension and improves writing. In order to conduct personal business such as buying a car, it is important to learn and understand the legal terms of contract. A businessperson uses words effectively to perform well and advance responsibility and pay.
  6. 6. What’s the point of learning and using new words? Learning and using new words increases our ability to understand and share ideas in academic classes, communicate as we make purchases in everyday life, and achieve success on the job.
  7. 7. Employ Context Clues to Comprehend and Make a Point S A G E Synonyms Antonyms General Context Examples
  8. 8. Synonyms  A synonym is a word that has a meaning similar to that of another word.  Many times, a writer will place a synonym near a new or difficult word or term as a context clue to the world’s meaning. Usually, a synonym is set off with a signal word and a pair of commas, a pair of dashes, or a pair of parentheses before or after it.  Synonym signal words: OR, THAT, IS
  9. 9. Practice  The following text explores the connection between our dreams and the reality of our everyday life.  Before reading, skim the passage and underline the terms in bold and italic.  During reading, circle the signal words for each synonym and underline the synonym for the word in bold or italics.  After reading, complete the “Write to Learn: Synonyms as Context Clues” chart with key terms, their synonyms from the passage, and an example that you have observed or experienced.  Finally, write a response to the after reading question that follows the passage.
  10. 10. You may have wondered whether dreams, especially those that frighten us or that recur, have hidden meanings. Sigmund Freud believed that dreams function to satisfy unconscious sexual and aggressive desires. Because such wishes are unacceptable to the dreamer, they have to be disguised and therefore appear in dreams in symbolic or representative forms. Freud differentiated between manifest content of a dream --- the straightforward material of the dream as recalled by the dreamer --- and the latent content – or the underlying, hidden meaning of the dream – which he considered more significant. Beginning the 1950s, psychologists began to move away from the Freudian interpretation of dreams. For example, Hall (1953) proposed a cognitive theory of dreaming – that is dreaming is simply thinking while asleep. Hobson and McCarley (1977) advanced the activation—synthesis hypothesis of dreaming. This hypothesis or explanation suggests that dreams are simply the brain’s attempt to make sense of input from the environment during their waking hours, they try to find meaning in the synthesis (combination) of sensations and memories that are activated, or triggered internally by this random firing of brain cells. Hobson (1989) believes that dreams also have psychological significance, because the meaning a person imposes on the random mental activity reflects that person’s experiences, remote memories, associations, drives, and fears. Some dream experts suggest that dreams may have more meaning than Hobson and McCarley originally theorized. A survey questioning subjects about their dream content, for example, concluded that much of the content of dreams is meaningful, consistent over time, and fits in with past or present emotional concerns rather than being bizarre, meaningless and random (Damhoff, 1996, 2005). Hobson and colleagues have reworked the activation-synthesis hypothesis to reflect concerns about dream meaning, calling it the activation-information mode model, or AIM (Hobson, et al., 2000). In this newer version, information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams. In other words, when the brain is “making up” a dream to explain its own activation , it uses meaningful bits and pieces of the person’s experiences from the previous day or last few days rather than just random items from memory. INTERPRETING DREAMS
  11. 11. Write to Learn: Synonyms as Context Clues Key Term Synonym Example 1. Symbolic 2. Manifest content 3. Latent content 4. Hypothesis 5. synthesis
  12. 12. Write to Learn: Synonyms as Context Clues Key Term Synonym Example 1. Symbolic representative A wedding ring represents love and commitment. 2. Manifest content Straightforward material I recently dreamed I was a little child climbing a ladder from my garage that disappeared into the sky. 3. Latent content Underlying, hidden meaning A ladder disappearing into the sky could be life after death, success, or overcoming a problem. 4. Hypothesis Explanation theory I have studied other scientific theories or hypotheses about evolution and relativity. 5. synthesis combination My dream combined details from my childhood and objects that I currently own.
  13. 13. What is the connection between our dreams and our waking life? Experts offer several theories about the connection between our dreams and our waking life. Freud believed that our dreams are ways we work out unconscious sexual desires and aggression. He believed our emotions greatly influence our dreams. Other experts believe that our physical brains create our dreams. When we sleep, brain cells activate physical feelings and memories and create dreams that make sense of that information. The activation-information mode model explains that our recent experiences become meaningful details in our dreams. A recent dream of mine is an example. The manifest content was that I was a child climbing a ladder that disappeared into the sky. The dream synthesized details of my appearance as a child with a ladder I now own. I think anxiety about my new job triggered the dream. The child may represent my new life with a new job. The ladder may symbolize my hope and success. The latent content could be that I want to be successful in my new job.
  14. 14. Antonyms An antonym has the opposite meaning of another word. Antonyms help you understand a word's meaning by showing what the original word is nt. Writers use antonyms to make a more vivid or powerful and to guide the reader to understand a deeper meaning. The following contrast words often act as signals that an antonym is being used. Antonym signal words: but however in contrast instead not on the other hand unlike yet
  15. 15.  Assume you are continuing your study of the theme of perception and reality. Skim the following passage from a philosophy textbook to preview the terms in bold print.  During reading, circle the words for antonyms and underline the key terms and their synonyms.  After reading, complete the vocabulary chart.  Finally, write a response to the after reading question that follows the passage. An Introduction to Metaphysics Metaphysics is an area of philosophy that tries to answer this question: What is reality? Metaphysics seeks to discover general standardized criteria for what is real and how that differs from what may seem to be real but actually is not. The distinction between appearance and reality is already familiar to us, of course, through common sense and ordinary language. That is, we know what someone means who says that the building appeared to be structurally sound, but really was severely damaged by termites. What philosophers try to do is explain this difference that is, to say why something is said to be real, or what counts as reality; in short, to state clearly the standards or criteria for wat is real. Metaphysics is by far the most ancient branch of philosophy, beginning with pre Socratic Milesian philosopher- scientists (sixth century B.C.E.), who proposed a system of methods to study observable rather than unseen entities. They speculated on the “ageless, deathless” substance underlying the changing temporal world. Some thought this was water, others air, and still others felt there had to be more than one basic ingredient in order to account for the enormous variety of things in the world. For many centuries this occupied the central place in philosophy. Originally called First Philosophy, metaphysics was thought to be the necessary starting point, or foundation, for all the other areas of philosophy. Before one could reasonably decide in moral philosophy, one must consider the nature of values. For example, if values are relative opposed to absolute, one must first decide whether values are the kind of thing that can exist independently of human perception. If so, then values could indeed be absolute, but if not, then all values would be relative to an individual’s or a society’s point of view. Similarly, before one could reasonably speculate on the fate of the soul after death, one would first have to determine if there is a soul. In this sense metaphysics was seen as the most fundamental part of philosophy, presupposed by all the rest.
  16. 16. Metaphysics, then attempts to determine the difference between appearance and reality. However, one may ask, “Is it not obvious what is real and what is not?” Reality is what one can touch, see, feel, smell, taste, and hear. This definition of reality establishes what can be discovered by the five senses as the basis for what is real. This theory of knowledge is called empiricism. Empirical knowledge is the kind of knowledge that comes from the senses. But since there are other plausible criteria for reality that may conflict with the empiricist criterion, it is clearly not obvious that reality is limited to what we can see and touch. In opposition to empiricism is a view of reality known as rationalism. Rationalism relies on intellect or reason, not the senses, as the source of knowledge. What is most real is what we know through the intellect. In this sense one might conclude that the chemical elements that make up the physical world are more real then the objects that they comprise. The wood is converted into paper and the paper finally burned, but the particles of carbon, which existed all along, linter on in the air. One could then go a step further and reason that since the chemical elements are made out of still simpler elements (atoms and molecules), these entities are more real than the chemical elements of which they are a part.
  17. 17.  Assume you are continuing your study of the theme of perception and reality. Skim the following passage from a philosophy textbook to preview the terms in bold print.  During reading, circle the words for antonyms and underline the key terms and their synonyms.  After reading, complete the vocabulary chart.  Finally, write a response to the after reading question that follows the passage.
  18. 18. Write to Learn: Antonyms as Context Clues Key Term Antonym Example 1. reality 2. Observable 3. Absolute 4. Empiricism 5. reason
  19. 19. Write to Learn: Antonyms as Context Clues Key Term Antonym Example 1. reality appearance Key term: Things as they exist. Antonym: Things as they seem to be. 2. Observable unseen Key term: seen Antonym: unnoticed, invisible, hidden 3. Absolute Relative Key term: independent Antonym: dependent 4. Empiricism Rationalism Key term: knowledge based on the senses Antonym: knowledge based on reason 5. reason senses Key term: intellect Antonym: feelings
  20. 20. How may metaphysics help us explain our dreams?
  21. 21. General Context  Often you will find that the writer has chosen not to provide either a synonym clue or an antonym clue. In that case, the writer expects the reader to rely on the general context of that passage to understand the meaning of the unfamiliar word. This involves either reading the entire sentence or looking ahead in the text for information that will help clarify the meaning of the new word.  Information about the word can be included in the passage in several ways. Sometimes, a writer gives a definition. Other times, a writer uses vivid description of a situation to convey the word’s meaning. A reader has to use logic to figure out the meaning of the word.
  22. 22. Example  Read the following poem that, according to some critics, depicts a nightmare.  Before you read the poem and predict the meaning of the word vagabonds.  During reading, underline the cues to the meaning of the title.  After reading, complete the vocabulary graphic organizer and write a response to the after reading question.
  23. 23. “Vagabonds” by Arthur Rimbaud Pitiful brother – the dreadful nights I owed him! “I've got no real involvement in the business. I toyed with his weakness, so –it was my fault--- we wound up back in exile and enslavement. He saw me a loser, a weird child; he added his own prods. I answered my satanic doctor, jeering, and made it out the window. All down a landscape crossed by unheard-of music, I spun my dreams of a nighttime wealth o come. After that more or less healthy pastime, I’d stretch out on a pallet. And Almost every night, soon as I slept, my poor brother would rise – dry mouth and Bulging eyes (the way he’d dreamt himself!)---and haul me into the room, howling his stupid dream. Truly convinced, I’d vowed to take him back to his primal state --- child of the sun--- and so we wandered, fed on wine from the caves and gypsy bread, me bound to find the place itself and the code.
  24. 24. “Vagabonds” by Arthur Rimbaud Pitiful brother – the dreadful nights I owed him! “I've got no real involvement in the business. I toyed with his weakness, so –it was my fault--- we wound up back in exile and enslavement. He saw me a loser, a weird child; he added his own prods. I answered my satanic doctor, jeering, and made it out the window. All down a landscape crossed by unheard-of music, I spun my dreams of a nighttime wealth o come. After that more or less healthy pastime, I’d stretch out on a pallet. And Almost every night, soon as I slept, my poor brother would rise – dry mouth and Bulging eyes (the way he’d dreamt himself!)---and haul me into the room, howling his stupid dream. Truly convinced, I’d vowed to take him back to his primal state --- child of the sun--- and so we wandered, fed on wine from the caves and gypsy bread, me bound to find the place itself and the code.
  25. 25. • Made it out the window • stretch out on a pallet wandered • bound to find • Pitiful • No involvement • Loser • weird Exile and enslavement A gypsy
  26. 26. Answer the following question in the given space. Use the information from the chart you completed. Based on the details given in this poem --- the manifest content of nightmare --- how does Rimbaud define the word vagabonds?  The manifest content of vagabonds are images of them as “pitiful”…loser…weird,” with “no involvement”, gypsies in “exile government”. They wander…to find “a place, crawl out windows, and stretch out on pallets. “Vagabonds are drifters outside of society.
  27. 27. Examples  Many times a writer will state the meaning of a new or difficult word and then provide examples of it. To further clarify, a writer may also include examples of what the word is not. The following signal words often introduces an example.  Signal words: Consists of for example for instance including such as
  28. 28. Example  Assume you are continuing your studies on the theme of perception and reality.  Read the following article.  Before reading, skim the passage and underline the key terms each time they are repeated.  During reading, circle examples of the terms.  After reading, complete the vocabulary graphic organizer.  Then write a response to the after reading question.
  29. 29. Why Zombies, Robots and Clowns Freak Us out What do zombies and androids have in common? They’re almost human, but not quite. That disconnect is creepy, in a way that scientists are searching to understand. The uncanny valley is the idea that as a robot’s appearance becomes more and more humanlike, we don’t always respond to it more positively. Rather, there’s a point on the scale between robot and human where we are repulsed. If it’s mechanical but not entirely human, a robot seems disturbing. Why would that be? It would make sense that as human likeness increases in a robot, so would our comfort with it. But on a graph showing that relationship, there’s a “valley” where this familiarity dips down into creepiness, and then comes back up again with more human characteristics. You may have experienced feeling this while watching animated movies that incorporate humanlike forms. It’s also the reason that you might get freaked out by clowns or by photos of people with extreme plastic surgeries who don’t look quite real anymore. Our brains come to an impasse when we see something that resembles a member of our species but just doesn’t make the cut. Some animators sidestep the issue: in the movie “WALL-E” for example, the main character has eyes but is not very humanlike otherwise; he is clearly a robot. His friend, EVE, looks like a white shape with eyes. Both express emotions clearly but don’t try to mimic the human shape or form. And HAL 9000 from: 2001: A Space Odyssey” is just a red camera eye, but it too conveys feelings. But when you get more humanlike, things get weird. Some reviewers were put off by characters in the film “Polar Express”, for instance. Then there are the Na’vi in “Avatar”, who have many physical human characteristics in addition to morphed features and tails. But they are also blue, creating a sense of “otherness” that may have made them less distasteful to viewers – in other words, they were sufficiently un-human.
  30. 30. Key term: Uncanny Valley ____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________
  31. 31. zombies Androids, humanlike robots clowns Extreme plastic surgeries Polar Express characters WALL-E EVE, WALL-E’s friend HAL 9000, from 2001 A Space Odyssey Na’vi, in Avatar Key term: Uncanny Valley is the idea that as character of object’s appearance becomes more and more humanlike, we reach a point where we are repulsed.
  32. 32. Use the information from the chart you completed.  How does the “uncanny valley” engage empirical knowledge in our attempt to make the distinction between appearance and reality?  Answer Empirical knowledge is based on the information we gain from our five senses. The uncanny valley comes into play through our sense of sight. When we see an image of something like a zombie or an android that looks almost human, but isn’t, we are uncomfortable with the visual distortion; it creeps us out.

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