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Rnm mangwele 201148228

  1. Content of this presentation…  Introduction to tourism  The impacts of tourism  Economic impacts of tourism  defining ecotourism  Tourism concepts and applications  Reference
  2. Definition R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  3. First Definition for Tourism The first definition of tourism was made by Guyer Feuler in 1905. UNWTO Definition of Tourism "Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes." R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  4.  Tourism is different from travel  In order for tourism to happen, there must be a displacement  But all travel is not tourism.  Three criteria are used simultaneously in order to characterize a trip as belonging to tourism:  It involves a displacement outside the usual environment:  Type of purpose: the travel must occur for any purpose different from being remunerated from within the place visited: the previous limits, where tourism was restricted to recreation and visiting family and friends are now expanded to include a vast array of purposes;  Duration: only a maximal duration is mentioned, not a minimal. Tourism displacement can be with or without an overnight stay. R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  5.  Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.  The World Tourism Organization defines  tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".  Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity.  In 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 4.6% when compared to 940 million in 2010.  International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010 R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  6.  In 2011, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.  After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007.  The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  7. In 1994, the United Nations classified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:  Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country.  Inbound tourism, involving non- residents traveling in the given country.  Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  8. World tourism statistics and rankings  Most-visited countries by international tourist arrivals  The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited in terms of the number of international travellers. In 2011, Turkey overtook the UK to become the sixth most visited country. R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  9. International tourism receipts  International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.  The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2011, with the United States by far the top earner R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  10. International tourism expenditure  The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten biggest spenders on international tourism for the year 2011. R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  11. Most-visited cities by international tourist arrivals R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  13. CLASSIFYING TOURISTS  By Product  Mass Tourism: Package tour  Alternative Tourism: Ecotourism By nature of the activity  Active: Adventure tourism, Ecotourism, Golf  Passive: Sightseeing, Beach, Cruise  Location preference  Coastal, Rural, City, Mountains, Lakes  Duration of trip  Day trip, weekend trip, annual holiday  Psychographic  Allocentric  Mid-centric  Psychocentric  By age/socio-economic group  Backpackers  DINKS  SINKS  Empty Nesters  Boomers  Youths R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  14. Tourist Typologies  Dalen (1989)  Traditional Materialists  Traditional Idealists  Modern Materialists  Modern Idealists  American Express (1989)  Adventurers  Worries  Dreamers  Economizers  Indulgers  Valene Smith  Explorers  Elite Tourists  Offbeat tourists  Unusual tourists  Incipient mass tourists  Mass Tourists  Perreault &Dorden (1979)  Budget tourists  Adventure tourists  Homebody tourists  Vacationer  Moderates  Cohen (1972)  Recreational tourists  Diversionary tourists  Experimental tourists  Experiential tourists  Existential tourists  Gray (1970)  Wanderlust  Sunlust  Plog (1977)  Psychocentric  Allocentric  Peters Inventory of Tourist attractions  Cultural attractions  Traditional attractions  Scenic attractions  Entertainment attractions  Other attractions  Iso Ahola  Push-Pull Factors  Cooper Tourism Demand  Life Cycle Factors  Life style FactorsR'tist @ Tourism, PU
  15. Tourism Theories  Leiper’s Tourism System Model (1990)  Stanley plog’s model of Destination preferences  Stanley Plog’s psychographics model (1974)  Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC - 1980)  Doxey’s Irritation Index (Irridex - 1975)  Matheison and Wall Travel – Buying Behavior Model (1982) R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  16. Tourism System  Leiper’s model, which was suggested in 1979 and adapted in 1990 R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  17. Stanley plog’s Tourist model of Destination preferences (1980)  Smith(1990) argued that the allocentric-psychocentric model fails to support the hypothesized association between personality types and destination preferences.  Litvin (2006) tested Plog’s model by showing that ideal destination and the destination most recently visited differ. R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  18. Stanley Plog’s psychographics model (1967) R'tist @ Tourism, PU Allocentric Near Allocentric Mid - Centric Near Psychocentric Psychocentric
  19. Butler’s Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC - 1980) R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  20. Doxey’s Irritation Index (Irridex - 1975) R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  21. Matheison and Wall Travel – Buying Behavior Model (1982)  Mathieson and Wall (1982) suggested a linear five- stage model of travel buying behaviour R'tist @ Tourism, PU
  22. Key Perspectives to Tourism  Tourism impacts are likely to change over time as a destination area develops (Butler, 1980).  The impacts are also affected by time (when), location (where) and seasonality.  Tourism impacts also occur beyond the destination.
  23. Key Perspectives to Tourism  Tourism also has an impact on tourists themselves.
  24. Some Fundamental Truths about Tourism 1. Tourism consumes resources and creates waste. 2. Tourism has the ability to over-consume resources. 3. Tourism competes with other resource users and needs to do this to survive. 4. Tourism is private sector dominated.
  25. Economic Costs of Tourism  Inflation  Increase in prices of land, houses and food that can occur as a result of tourism.  Lies heavily on the demand.
  26. Economic Costs of Tourism  Leakage  Goes out of the local economy to pay for imported items, expatriate salaries or franchise fees.
  27. Economic Costs of Tourism  Seasonal Character of Jobs  Job (and therefore income) insecurity  No guarantee of employment from one season to the next  Difficulties in getting training, employment-related medical benefits, and recognition of their experience  Unsatisfactory housing and working conditions.
  28. SW China Ecotourism
  29. Yunnan’s Stone Forest
  30. Yunnan Culture
  31. Ecotourism in Southeast Asia  Malaysia  A leader in national park and nature reserve management  Focus on Natural Ecosystem Management  Combined with ecotourism principles  Taman Negara National Park (West Malaysia)  Sarawak and Sabah on Borneo (East Malaysia)  Benefitted from Malaysia’s growing middle class  Indonesia  Most popular ecotour destination until 1997 political crisis  Focus on Ecotourism to replace agriculture & fishing in nature reserves  Pro-poor economic development  Initial success has struggles in recent years  Major problems with illegal logging and burning of rainforests to clear land
  32. Indonesia
  33. Borneo Orangutan
  34. Tour Group Size Smallest Average Largest Group Group Group  Mean 4.5 11.4 24.7  Median 2 8 15  Range 1 - 22 3 - 60 4 - 125  Do you intentionally limit tour group sizes?  Yes 34 (81%) No 8 (19%)  If yes, what is your size limit?  Mean: 14.9  Median: 14.5  Range: 6 - 40
  35. Reasons Limiting Tour Group Size – p.1 IMPACTS: 1. Impacts are greater with more than 16 persons 2. To reduce/lessen impact/damage (7) 3. To ensure sustainable impact 4. To minimize cultural concerns/impacts (3) 5. Prevent negative impacts on culturally sensitive areas 6. To minimize environmental impacts (3) 7. To ensure privacy 8. Lower impact from camping 9. We will limit tour size to one person to some pristine environments to lessen environmental and animal damage SERVICE: 1. Guides are unable to have personal contact and control the situation with more than 17 persons 2. More than eight is a mob 3. Ease of handling/controlling smaller groups (2) 4. Some private groups may exceed our maximum 5. Logistics of moving too large a group in the destination region 6. Manageable, yet profitable, size 7. We break our larger groups into smaller groups of four to five persons each for daily activities
  36. Role of Tourism  As an instrument for employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human development  Promotes national integration and international understanding and gives support to local handicrafts and cultural activities  Foreign exchange earnings  Domestic tourism plays a vital role in achieving the national objectives of promoting social and cultural cohesion and national integration  Contribution to generation of employment is very high R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 37
  37. Semantic barriers of communication for Tourism  Lack of common language  Poor vocabulary  Use of jargons  Poor grammar, punctuation  Round about verbiage  Lack of clarity in the message R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 38
  38. R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 39
  39. Reference list.  by shweta gaur, Data Analyst (Knowledge Resource Centre) at Azim Premji Foundation on Mar 11, 2011  Reymarie Oohlala, Lobby Ambassador at Pan Pacific Hotel singapore on Sep 19, 2013 2,244  tofujay on Oct 07, 2012  Ramakrishna Kongalla, Assistant Professor at Indian Institute of Tourism & Travel Management on Dec 31, 2012  Ramakrishna Kongalla, Assistant Professor at Indian Institute of Tourism & Travel Management on May 22, 2013  Alan Lew, Professor at Northern Arizona University on Apr 27, 2008 R'tist@Tourism, Pondicherry University 40

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  2. Economic recession, the impacts of natural disasters such as tropical storms and changing tourism patterns can all have a devastating effect.
  3. Photos: Guilin and Yunnan, China, by A.A.Lew
  4. Photo: Yunnan, China, by A.A.Lew
  5. Photo: Yunnan, China, by A.A.Lew
  6. Chin, L.M. et al. (2000) Ecotourism in Bako National Park, Borneo: Visitors’ Perspectives on Environmental Impacts and their Management in Journal Of Sustainable Tourism. Vol. 8 (1), pp. 20-35. Available from: Accessed: 28 February 2008. Borchers, H. (2002) Ecotourism As A Conservation Strategy In Komodo National Park, Indonesia. University Of Auckland, NZ. Available from: Accessed: 28 February 2008.
  7. Photo: Java, Indonesia, by A.A.Lew
  8. Photo: Balikpapan, Indonesia, by A.A.Lew
  9. Photo: Khumbu, Nepal, by A.A.Lew Photo: Sarawak, Indonesia, by A.A.Lew
  10. Photo: Shennongjia, China, by A.A.Lew