Definition of cross culture
• The interaction of people from different backgrounds in the business world.
• Cross culture is a vital issue in international business, as the success of
international trade depends upon the smooth interaction of employees from
different cultures and regions.
• A growing number of companies are consequently devoting substantial resources
toward training their employees to interact effectively with those of companies in
other cultures in an effort to foment a positive cross-cultural experience.
Elements of Culture
• Culture has normative value. It prescribes Do’s and Don’ts which are
binding on the members of a society.
• Culture is a group Phenomenon.
• Cultural practices are passed on from generation to generation
Cross Cultural Management seeks to,
• understand how national cultures affect management practices
• identify the similarities and differences across cultures in various
management practices and organizational contexts
• increase effectiveness in global management
Cross cultural management helps organization members to gain better
understanding of other cultures, of their culture and of the consequences
of people from different cultures working together
Doing business in India
Business in India, one of the fastest growing economies
10th largest economy of the world & 3rd largest on count
of purchasing power parity
It brandishes great business opportunities in all sectors
2nd largest labor class in the world with 48.66 billion
workmen, is poised to attract massive foreign
Business houses & multinational corporations across the
globe have great expectations’ from India's blooming
• Religion, education and social class all influence greetings in India.
• This is a hierarchical culture, so greet the eldest or most senior person first.
• When leaving a group, each person must be bid farewell individually.
• Shaking hands is common, especially in the large cities among the more educated who
are accustomed to dealing with westerners.
• Men may shake hands with other men and women may shake hands with other women;
however there are seldom handshakes between men and women because of religious
beliefs. If you are uncertain, wait for them to extend their hand.
• Indians prefer to do business with those they know.
• Relationships are built upon mutual trust and respect.
• In general, Indians prefer to have long-standing personal relationships prior to doing
• It may be a good idea to go through a third party introduction. This gives you immediate
Relationships & Communication
• If you will be travelling to India from abroad, it is advisable to make appointments by
letter, at least one month and preferably two months in advance.
• It is a good idea to confirm your appointment as they do get cancelled at short notice.
• The best time for a meeting is late morning or early afternoon. Reconfirm your meeting
the week before and call again that morning, since it is common for meetings to be
cancelled at the last minute.
• Keep your schedule flexible so that it can be adjusted for last minute rescheduling of
Business Meeting Etiquette
• You should arrive at meetings on time since Indians are impressed with punctuality.
• Meetings will start with a great deal of getting-to- know-you talk. In fact, it is quite
possible that no business will be discussed at the first meeting.
• Always send a detailed agenda in advance. Send back-up materials and charts and
other data as well. This allows everyone to review and become comfortable with the
material prior to the meeting.
• Follow up a meeting with an overview of what was discussed and the next steps.
• Business attire is conservative.
• Men should wear dark colored conservative business suits.
• Women should dress conservatively in suits or dresses.
• The weather often determines clothing. In the hotter parts of the country,
dress is less formal, although dressing as suggested above for the first
meeting will indicate respect.
• Business cards are exchanged after the initial handshake and greeting.
• If you have a university degree or any honor, put it on your business card.
• Use the right hand to give and receive business cards.
• Business cards need not be translated into Hindi.
• Always present your business card so the recipient may read the card as it
is handed to them.
• China is the world's most populous country,
with a continuous culture stretching back
nearly 4,000 years
• China now has the world's fastest-growing
economy and is undergoing what has been
described as a second industrial revolution.
• Economy: Economic reform has replaced
state socialism with a more capitalist system
and generated rapid growth, turning China
into one of the world's largest economies,
but problems such as growing inequality,
pollution, rural poverty, an inefficient state
sector and low domestic consumption
Meeting & Greeting
• Meetings start with the shaking of hands and a slight nod of the head
• The Chinese are not keen on physical contact
• Body language and movement are both areas should be conscious
• Business cards are exchanged on an initial meeting. Make sure one side of the
card has been translated and try and print the Chinese letters using gold ink
as this is an auspicious colour.
• Relationships in China are very formal. when doing business you are
representing your company so always keep dealings at a professional level.
Never become too informal and avoid humour.
• China establishing a contact to act as an intermediary is important. This
brings with it multiple benefits.
Giving Gift Etiquette
• The giving of gifts does not carry any negative connotations. Gifts should
always be exchanged for celebrations, as thanks for assistance and even as a
sweetener for future favours.
• Business gifts are always reciprocated. They are seen as debts that must be
repaid. When giving gifts do not give cash.
Meetings and Negotiations
• Meetings must be made in advance. Preferably some literature regarding
your company should be forwarded to introduce the company. Try and book
meetings between April - June and September - October. Avoid all national
holidays especially Chinese New Year
• Punctuality is most important. Meetings should begin with some brief small
talk. If this is your first meeting then talk of your experiences in China so far.
Keep it positive and avoid anything political.
• Prior to any meeting always send an agenda.
• The Chinese are renowned for being tough negotiators. Their primary aim in
negotiations is 'concessions'. Always bear this in mind when formulating your
• Chinese negotiators is to begin negotiations showing humility and deference.
This is designed to present themselves as vulnerable and weak.
Above all, be patient and never show anger or frustration. Practise your best
'poker face' before negotiating with the Chinese.
Doing business in Brazil
Brazil is south Americans most influential country
It is the one of the world biggest democracies country
Population more than 190 million people
-more than half are white
-just fewer than 40% are mixed black & white
-less than 10% are black
Official language is Brazil
In business, Brazilians tend to deal with individuals,
Business etiquette and protocol
Relationship and communication
• Brazilians need to know who they are doing business with before to work effectively
• Brazilians prefer face to face meeting to written communication as it allows them to
know the person with whom they are doing business
• The individual they deal with is more important than the company
• Brazilian take time when negotiation
• Do not rush them or appear impatient
• Expect a great deal of time to be spent reviewing details
• Brazilian business is hierarchical
• Decisions are made by the highest ranking person
• Use local lawyers & accountants for negotiations
• Meetings are generally rather informal
• Expect to be interrupted while you are speaking or making a presentation
• Avoid confrontations.
• Business appointments are required and can often to be scheduled on short
• Confirm the meeting in writing
• Brazilians pride themselves on dressing well
• Men should ware conservative ,dark colored business suits.(Three piece suit
typically indicate that someone in an executive)
• Women should wear suits or dresses that are elegant and feminine with good
Doing business in Saudi Arabia
• Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with
strong government controls over major
• It possesses about 16% of the world's proven
petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest
exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading
role in OPEC.
Relationships & Communication
• Need a Saudi sponsor to enter the country. The sponsor acts as an
intermediary and arranges appointments with appropriate individuals.
• Saudis do not require as much personal space as most western cultures. As
such, they will stand close to you while conversing and you may feel as if
your personal space has been violated.
• Saudis prefer to work with people they know and trust and will spend a great
deal of time on the getting-to-know-you part of relationship building.
• must be patient in relationships.
• Saudis will most likely judge person on appearances and dress
Business Meeting Etiquette
• Appointments are necessary and should be made several weeks in advance.
• When meeting with government officials, a firm date will not be settled upon
until the person who physically be in the country.
• schedule meetings in the morning.
• should arrive at meetings on time, although it is an accepted custom to keep
• It is not uncommon to have a meeting cancelled once the person is arrived.
• Decisions are made slowly. Do not try to rush the process.
• The society is extremely bureaucratic. Most decisions require several layers of
approval. It takes several visits to accomplish simple tasks.
• Saudis are tough negotiators.
• Business is hierarchical. Decisions are made by the highest-ranking person.
• Repeat your main points since it will be interpreted as meaning you are telling the
• Do not use high-pressure tactics.
• Decisions are easily overturned.
• Most Saudis wear long white thobes.
• Dress well if you want to make a good impression.
• Business women should make certain that their collarbones and
knees are covered and that their clothes are not form-fitting.
• Business cards are given to everyone you meet, although it may be an idea to
be selective if you have few in your possession.
• Have one side of your card translated into Arabic. Be sure to check the
translation carefully as there is often confusion with the order of western