• It is defined as:
Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse,
garbage, junk) is any unwanted or useless materials.
“Any materials unused and rejected as worthless
or unwanted” and “A useless or profitless activity;
using or expending or consuming thoughtlessly or
• Since the beginning, Human kind has been
• It could be in the form of:
Other parts of animals they slaughter
• With the progress of civilization the waste
generated became of a more complex nature.
5. • At the end of 19th century (Industrial
revolution) there was rise in the world of
• The increase in population and
urbanization was also largely responsible
for the increase in solid waste
10. TYPES OF SOLID WASTE
Broadly there are 3 types of waste which are as
1.Household waste is generally classified as
2.Industrial waste as Hazardous waste
3.Biomedical waste or Hospital waste as
11. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
• Municipal solid waste consists of:
Construction and demolition debris
Waste from streets.
13. • With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and
food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has
been increasing rapidly and its composition changing.
• The existing landfills are neither well equipped or
well managed and are not lined properly to protect
against contamination of soil and groundwater.
14. The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it
takes to degenerate
Type of litter Approximate time it takes to
degenerate the litter
Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit
peels, leftover foodstuff, etc
A week or two.
Paper 10–30 days
Cotton cloth 2–5 months
Wood 10–15 years
Woolen items 1 year
Tin, aluminum, and other metal items such as
Plastic bags one million years
15. HAZARDOUS WASTE
• Industrial and hospital waste is considered
hazardous as they may contain toxic
• Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to
humans, animals, and plants. They are
Highly inflammable, or explosive
React when exposed to certain things e.g.
16. Household wastes that can be categorized as
hazardous waste include:
17. • Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals
used in hospitals is considered hazardous.
• These chemicals include formaldehyde and
phenols, which are used as disinfectants.
18. In the industrial sector, the major generators of
hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper,
pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods
Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous
waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.
19. HOSPITAL WASTE
• Hospital waste is generated during the
diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of
human beings or animals
• It may include wastes like
• Soiled waste
• Anatomical waste
• Discarded medicines
20. • These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs,
bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc.
• This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious
threat to human health if not managed in a scientific
and discriminate manner
• It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of
waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be
21. SOURCES AND OTHER TYPES OF
Source Typical Waste
Types of solid wastes
1:Residential Single and multifamily
(e.g bulky items, consumer
electronics, white goods,
batteries, oil, tires), and
22. 2: Industrial Light and heavy
construction sites, power and
3:Commercial Stores, hotels, restaurants,
markets, office buildings, etc.
4: Institutional Schools, hospitals, prisons,
Same as commercial.
23. 5:Construction and
New construction sites, road
repair, renovation sites,
demolition of buildings
6:Municipal services Street cleaning, landscaping,
parks, beaches, other
recreational areas, water and
wastewater treatment plants.
landscape and tree
General wastes from
Heavy and light
chemical plants, power plants,
mineral extraction and
Industrial process wastes
Spoiled food wastes
24. CAUSES OF SOLID WASTE
• The main sources for solid wastes are domestic,
commercial, industrial, municipal, and agricultural
• The composition of a city waste is as follows:
Paper, wood, cardboard 53 %
Garbage 22 %
Ceramics, glass, crockery 10 %
Metals 8 %
Rubber, plastics, discarded textiles 7 %
25. Composition of City Waste
Type of Wastes
26. • The increase in the quantity of solid waste is
Affluence (material comfort)
27. EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE
a) Health Hazard
• If solid wastes are not collected and allowed to
accumulate, they may create unsanitary conditions.
• This may lead to epidemic outbreaks.
• Many diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery,
plague, jaundice, or gastro-intestinal diseases may
spread and cause loss of human lives.
• In addition, improper handling of the solid wastes is a
health hazard for the workers who come in direct
contact with the waste
28. b) Environmental Impact
• If the solid wastes are not treated properly,
decomposition and putrefaction (decay) may take
• The organic solid waste during decomposition may
generate obnoxious (intolerable) odors.
29. WASTE MANAGEMENT
4 R’s CONCEPT
• Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle and Reduce)
to be followed for waste management.
• Instead of buying new containers from
the market, use the ones that are in the
house. Refuse to buy new items though
you may think they are prettier than the
ones you already have.
• Do not throw away
the soft drink cans or
the bottles; cover
them with homemade
paper or paint on
them and use them as
pencil stands or small
• Reduce the
waste, e.g. carry
when you go to
the market and
put all your
directly into it.
37. CONTROL MEASURES
• The main purpose of solid waste management
is to minimize the adverse effects on the
environment. The steps involved are:
Collection of solid wastes
Disposal of solid wastes
Utilization of wastes
38. COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTES
• Collection of waste includes gathering
the waste, transporting it to a
centralized location, and then moving it
to the site of disposal.
• The collected waste is then separated into
• Non-hazardous materials.
39. DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES
• Before the final disposal of the solid wastes, it
is processed to recover the usable resources
and to improve the efficiency of the solid
waste disposal system.
• The main processing technologies are
• Manual separation.
40. The appropriate solid waste disposal method
has to be selected, keeping in view the
1.Should be economically viable
2.Should not create a health hazard
3.Should not cause adverse environmental
4.Should not result in unpleasant sight, odor, and
41. UTILIZATION OF WASTES
• The solid wastes can be properly utilized to
gather the benefits such as:
Conservation of natural resources
Generate many useful products
Control of air pollution
42. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
• Waste management is the collection, transport,
processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of
• The term usually relates to materials produced by
human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce
their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.
• Management is also carried out to recover resources
from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid,
gaseous or radioactive substances
43. • Waste management practices differ for developed and
developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for
residential and industrial producers.
• Management for non-hazardous waste residential and
institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the
responsibility of local government authorities.
• Management for non-hazardous commercial and
industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the
44. METHODS OF DISPOSAL
• Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the
waste, and this remains a common practice in most
• Landfills were often established in
Abandoned or unused quarries,
45. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively
inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials
• Incineration is a disposal method in which solid
organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to
convert them into residue and gaseous products.
• This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20
to 30 percent of the original volume.
• Incineration and other high temperature waste
treatment systems are sometimes described as
• Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of waste
materials such as empty beverage containers.
• The materials from which the items are made can be
reprocessed into new products.
• Material for recycling may be collected separately
from general waste using dedicated bins and
collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed
48. • The most common consumer products recycled
Aluminum such as beverage cans
Copper such as wire
Steel food and aerosol cans
Old steel furnishings or equipment
Polyethylene and PET bottles
Glass bottles and jars
Newspapers, magazines and light paper
Corrugated fiberboard boxes.
• The management of waste is a key component in a
business ability to maintaining ISO 14001 official
• Companies are encouraged to improve their
environmental efficiencies each year.
• One way to do this is by improving a company’s
waste management with a new recycling service.
(such as recycling: glass, food waste, paper and
cardboard, plastic bottles etc.)
50. BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING
• Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as
• plant material
• food scraps
• paper products
• Can be recycled using biological composting and
digestion processes to decompose the organic matter
51. • The resulting organic material is then recycled
as mulch or compost for agricultural or
• In addition, waste gas from the process (such
as methane) can be captured and used for
generating electricity and heat
(CHP/cogeneration) maximizing efficiencies
52. ENERGY RECOVERY
• The energy content of waste products can be
harnessed directly by using them as a
• Direct combustion fuel
• Indirectly by processing them into another
• Type of fuel
• There are 2 types of Thermal Treatment
53. AVOIDANCE AND REDUCTION
• An important method of waste management is the
prevention of waste material being created, also
known as waste reduction.
• Methods of avoidance includes:
Reuse of second-hand products
Repairing broken items instead of buying new
54. Designing products to be refillable or reusable (such
as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags)
Encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable
products (such as disposable cutlery)
Removing any food/liquid remains from cans
Designing products that use less material to achieve
the same purpose (for example, light weighting of
55. WASTE HANDLING AND
• Waste collection methods vary widely among
different countries and regions.
• Domestic waste collection services are often provided
by local government authorities, or by private
companies in the industry.
• The waste management industry has been slow
to adopt new technologies such as:
• RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags,
• Integrated software packages
57. WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT
• There are a number of concepts about waste
management which vary in their usage between
countries or regions.
58. • Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the
"3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify
waste management strategies according to their
desirability in terms of waste minimization.
59. • Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays Principle is
a principle where the polluting party pays for the
impact caused to the environment. With respect to
waste management, this generally refers to the
requirement for a waste generator to pay for
appropriate disposal of the waste.
60. EDUCATION AND AWARENESS
• Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste
management is increasingly important from a global
perspective of resource management. The Talloires
Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about
the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution
and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local,
regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and
distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of
forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and
emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of
humans and thousands of other living species.
61. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
• Solid waste collection by government owned
and operated services in Pakistan's cities
currently averages only 50 percent of waste
quantities generated; however, for cities to be
relatively clean, at least 75 percent of these
quantities should be collected.
• Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan
has a proper solid waste management system
right from collection of solid waste up to its
62. URBANIZATION PATTERN
• According to the 1981 census, of the 5.92
million persons who had migrated within the
country, 87.6% moved from rural to urban
areas, while only 12.4% moved in the opposite
direction. Over 50% of them permanently
settled in cities.
• During the last several decades, migration has
occurred from rural to urban areas. The chief
factors responsible for this migration are:
Slow progress in the agriculture sector,
63. Lack of alternate employment opportunities
Environmental degradation due to water
logging/salinity, deforestation and
According to a study, the selected cities are
growing at a growth rate from 3.67% to
7.42% which is much higher than the overall
growth rate of Pakistan, i.e. 2.8%. Major cities
in Pakistan are estimated to double their
population in next ten years. These cities are
64. GROWTH IN SOLID WASTE GENERATION
Presently it is estimated that, 54,888 tons per
day of solid waste is generated in Pakistan.
The Ministry of Environment undertook a
study during 1996 on "Data Collection for
Preparation of National Study on
Privatization of Solid Waste Management in
Eight Selected Cities of Pakistan". The study
revealed that the rate of waste generation on
average from all type of municipal controlled
areas varies from 0.283 kg/capita/day to 0.613
kg/capita/day or from 1.896 kg/house/day to
65. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SCENARIO -
Solid waste in Pakistan is generally composed of
• Plastic and rubber
• Paper and cardboard
• Textile waste
• Food waste
• Animal waste
66. • Grass
• Straws and fodder
• Stones and fines to various extents.
67. INSTITUTIONAL, LEGALAND MANAGEMENT
Under the recently devolved local government system,
the Town/ Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMAs)
are responsible for the solid waste collection,
transportation and disposal. However, TMAs are
unable to cope with continuously increasing volumes
of municipal waste due to inadequate funds, lack of
rules, regulations and standards, lack of knowhow on
the subject, lack of expertise and lack of collection
vehicles and equipment
68. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY
• The Government of Pakistan enacted the
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA)
in 1997 which is the most recent and updated
legislation on environment.
• It provides a framework for establishing
federal and provincial Environmental
Protection Agencies (EPAs).
• Presently the legal rules and regulations
dealing with solid waste management in
Pakistan are as follows:
1: Section 11 of the Pakistan Environmental
Protection Act prohibits discharge of waste in
an amount or concentration that violates the
National Environmental Quality Standards.
2: Draft Hazardous Substances Rules of 1999.
3: Islamabad Capital Territory Bye Laws, 1968
by Capital Development Authority Islamabad
4: Section 132 of the Cantonment Act 1924 deals
with Deposits and disposal of rubbish etc
The rules and guidelines that are yet to be
• Basic Recycling rules
• Waste Management rules
• E-Waste Management rules
• Development of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPI)
• Eco-Labeling guidelines and its promotion
• Adoption of Life Cycle Assessment Approaches
• Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Collection and
• Guidelines for model landfill sites
71. CURRENT STATUS OF SWM PRACTICES
Currently solid waste in Pakistan has not been
carried out in a sufficient and proper manner in
• Disposal or dumping regardless of the size of
• These aspect may include:
72. • Rate of urbanization
• Pattern and density of urban areas
• Physical planning and control of development
• Physical composition of waste
• Density of waste
• Temperature and precipitation
• Scavenger’s activity for recyclable separation
• The capacity
• Adequacy and limitations of respective
73. According to the 1998 census, of the 130.579 million persons
living in Pakistan, 67% live in rural areas, while 33 % live in
urban areas. Furthermore, out of 33 % of persons living
urban areas, 54 % of them live in ten major cities of Pakistan.
During the last several decades, migration has occurred from
rural to urban areas. The major factors responsible for this
• Slow progress in the agriculture sector
• Low crop yields
• Lack of alternate employment opportunities
• Environmental degradation due to water logging/salinity
• Deforestation and desertification.
74. POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD ESTIMATES
• The number and growth of population and
households is the foremost factor affecting the
solid waste and its management at various
• The selected cities are growing at a rate
ranging between 3.67% to 7.42%, which is
much higher than the overall growth rate of
Pakistan, i.e. 2.8% (EPMC, 1996).
75. • Major cities of them are estimated to double
their population in next ten years.
• The numbers of households also play an
important role in generation and collection of
the solid waste.
• The average household size in the selected
cities varies from 6.7 to 7.3 persons.
76. WASTE GENERATION AND COLLECTION ESTIMATES
• The average rate of waste generation from all
type of municipal controlled areas varies from
1.896 kg/house/day to 4.29 kg/house/day in a
few major cities.
• It shows a trend of waste generation wherein
increase has been recorded in accordance with
city's population besides its social and
77. • In Pakistan, solid waste is mainly collected by
municipalities and waste collection efficiencies
range from 0 percent in low-income rural
areas to 90 percent in high- income areas of
• Collection rate of solid waste by respective
municipalities ranges from 51% to 69% of the
total waste generated within their jurisdiction.
78. PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTE
The move from landfill-based to resource-
based waste management systems requires a
greater knowledge of the composition of
municipal solid waste. Solid waste in Pakistan
is generally composed of three categories i.e.
• Biodegradable such as food waste, animal
waste, leaves, grass, straws, and wood.
• Non-biodegradable are plastic, rubber, textile
waste, metals, fines, stones and
79. WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
The waste is disposed off within or outside
municipal limits into low lying areas like
ponds etc, without any treatment except
recyclable separation by scavengers. The land
is also hired/leased on long term basis for
disposal. Moreover, the least mitigating
measures have also never been reported from
any municipality. Treatment and disposal
technologies such as sanitary land filling,
composting and incineration are comparatively
80. Crude open dumping is the most common practice
throughout Pakistan and dump sites are commonly set
to fire to reduce the volume of accumulating waste.
At present, there are no landfill regulations or
standards that provide a basis for compliance and
monitoring, but national guidelines for these
standards are being prepared by the Consultant under
National Environmental Action Plan Support
Program (NEAP SP).
• The overall conclusion of the study on present status
of solid waste management in Pakistan as follows:
1.There is a limited focus on control mechanisms which
is adversely effecting on safety, health and the
2.Regulations are inadequately enforced and SWM does
not seem to be a priority.
3.None of the cities has an integrated solid waste
82. • Collection rate 5 1-69 % of total waste
• Hospital and industrial wastes are treated as
• A lot of potential for recycling and
involvement of private sector which is
• No disposal facilities
83. • Open burning of waste or open disposal is most
• No weighing facilities are installed at any disposal
• Open burning of non-degradable components like
plastic bags are adding to air pollution
• Much of the uncollected waste poses serious health
• Following recommendations are proposed for
1.The involvement of people and private sector through
NGOs could improve the efficiency of SWM.
2.Public awareness should be created especially at
3.Littering of SW should be prohibited in cities, towns
and urban areas.
4.Moreover, house-to-house collection of SW should be
85. • The collection bins must have a large enough capacity
to accommodate 20% more than the expected waste
generation in the area.
• Municipal authorities should maintain the storage
facilities to avoid unhygienic and unsanitary
• Proper segregation would lead to better options and
opportunities for scientific disposal of waste.
86. • An open dump or an uncontrolled waste disposal area
should be rehabilitated. It is advisable to move from
open dumping to sanitary land filling in a phased
• Land filling should be restricted to non-biodegradable,
inert waste and other waste that are not suitable either
for recycling or for biological processing