4. REGION 9
• 3.0 INTRODUCTION
• 4.0 CLIMATE
• 5.0 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
• 6.0 REGIONAL CULTURAL HISTORY
• 7.0 ORGANIZATION
• 7.1 MERCOSUR
• 7.2 CARICOM
• 8.0 SUBREGIONS
5. 3.0 INTRODUCTION
• Come from high to low incomes
• From dependence on a single economic product to a diverse and integrated
• Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, and Chile contain large urban area-industrial
areas around their major cities, such as Mexico city, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro,
Buenos Aires, Lima-Callao, and Santiago-Valparaiso.
6. • Sao Paulo and Mexico City is world’s largest urban centers.
• The Andes Mountains, the second highest mountain in the world’s,
contrasts with the huge, low-lying basins of the world’s largest river system
(the Amazon River).
• The Earth’s largest tropical rain forest, the Amazon Tropical Rain Forest, is
situated across the mountains from one of the world’s driest deserts, the
• Contrasts between the materially wealthy and materially poor are most
dramatic within Latin America’s cities.
8. • Temperatures remain around 30C (86F ).
• There is no dry season.
• Location as in Mexico, Central America &
4.1 Tropical Rainy Climate
Sunset over the Amazon
9. 4.2 Tropical Savanna
• These areas have hot climates with seasonal rain.
• Temperatures about 18 °C.
• Long dry season.
• Location as in Brazil, Colombia, and
Emas National Park Brazil
10. • Dry climate zones are found in Mexico on the North American
continent and in various countries of South America. Neither Central
America nor the Caribbean, though, has dry climate zones.
4.3 Dry Climate
The Elqui River basin in Chile’s Coquimbo
• An earthquake described by Mexico's president as the country's strongest in a
century has struck off the southern coast, killing at least 36 people.
• The quake, which President Enrique Peña Nieto said measured 8.2 magnitude,
struck in the Pacific, about 87km (54 miles) south-west of Pijijiapan.
14. On April 22, Calbuco erupted, forcing mass evacuations. The
volcano lies 1,000 kilometers from the capital Santiago in Chile.
5.1.2) Volcanic Eruption
15. View of the aftermath of Hurricane Irma on Saint Maarten
Dutch part of Saint Martin island in the Caribbean September 7,
2017. Picture taken September 7, 2017.
16. 5.2 SOIL
• Soil erosion is a very serious problem in Bolivia with 35% to 41% of
the soil being affected by erosion, be it wind (35%) or
water erosion (45%). One of the causes of this soil erosion is the
overgrazing of livestock, deforestation and poor land use.
Rio De Janeiro – Brazil has detained a land-grabber thought tothe
Amazon's single biggest deforester, the country's environmental
protection agency said.
Ezequiel Antonio Castanha, who was detained Saturday in the state
of Para, operated a network that illegally seized federal lands, clear
cut them and sold them to cattle grazers.
19. 5.5.1 Air Pollution
Chile’s groundbreaking Price Stabilization Fund (PSF), which will be
enacted soon, is a prime example of how developing countries are
mitigating climate change through NAMAs. The Chilean power
sector is expected to need an additional 8,000 to 10,000 megawatts
of electricity by 2020, an increase of 50 percent in seven years.
Meeting this energy demand through additional coal power plants
would increase carbon dioxide emissions by 32 to 40 million tons
over current levels.
5.4.1 Air Pollution
20. 5.5.2Water Pollution
Pigs lie in water contaminated by the
rotten garbage and waste, close to the
sheet-metal houses in a shanty town of
Cité Soleil, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 9 July
5.4.2 Water Pollution
21. 6.1 Pre- European People
6.2 Spanish Colonization and Control
6.3 Portuguese Colonization
6.4 Other European Colonies
6.5.1 Independence from Spain
6.5.2 Brazilian independence
6.5.3 Economic Colonialism
6.6 Continuing External Influences
6.0 REGIONAL CULTURAL HIST
22. 6.1 PRE-EUROPEAN PEOPLES
oThe indigenous peoples present in Latin America when the European
arrived migrated to the region several thousand years earlier through
western North America
oMany indigenous groups had a village based substance economy that
supposed only modest number of people, several urban-based civilizations
or empire emerged.
oUrban based civilizations in Latin America prospered through strict societal
hierarchies and large-scale agricultural production.
oThe number of people living in Latin America before European entry range
widely, with 50 million serving as a conservative middle figure.
24. The Maya civilization rose to regional prominence through agriculture surplus
and a rigid social structure.
The classic period, in which the Maya flourished, occurred from the AD200s
The classic Maya society were organized in city-states, individually ruled and
independently functioning urban centers, primarily located in the Yucatan
Peninsula lowlands of southeastern Mexico, the Petén of Guatemala, parts of
Belize and El Salvador and eventually parts of western Honduras.
During the pinnacle of the classic Maya civilization, cities flourished with abundant
food supplies, extensive construction of urban structures, religious, royal and
ceremonies, and detailed attention to the arts and science.
6.1.1 THE MAYA
25. City states of the Maya region conducted trade, competed trade, with
each other in athletics and arranged marital unions among their royal children.
The city states also competed fiercely at the times for regional resources and often
waged bloody welfare with one another.
The Maya imprint remains etched in the cultural landscape today in the
form of pyramids and other ceremonial structures.
There are people throughout the Yucatan and northern central America
today who tie their ancestral heritage to the Maya of the classic period
6.1.1 THE MAYA
26. 6.1.2 THE AZTEC
In 1100s, a group of tribe from central and northern Mexico settled in the
area of modern Mexico city.
In 1325s, the Aztec dominated the region with a heretical society entered
on the massive urban capital of Tenochtitlan.
The capital of the Aztec empire built on marshland and lakeshore in the
central valley of Mexico.
This city had many civic , commercial, ceremonial, and residential structure
built on island connected throughout the marshes of the valley by
In 1400s the Aztec were dominant empire in middle America and gathered
great tribute riches in their capital.
The elite of the empire converted acquired lands and peoples to their
systems and used human and natural resources to further their goals.
The Aztec forced conquered peoples into slavery, which fueled widespread
animosity towards the empire leadership.
In 1500s, when the Spanish conquistadors reached what is now Mexico,
their goals was to topple the Aztec leaders and transform the Aztec cultural
landscape to one suited for the glory of Spain.
27. 6.1.3 THE INCA
Far removed from the Aztec empire, the warlike Inca formed a strong society
based in the southern part of modern Peru around the mountain city of Cuzco
during the early centuries of the second millennium.
During the 1400s and early 1500s, the Inca empire expanded dramatically and
covered a region some 4,300km in length from southern Colombia to central
Inca ruler established a well-connected system of roads running the length of
their territory, which facilitated the empire’s resources use, military control, and
The agricultural based society also organized gold and silver mining and a system
of messengers and transportation that maintained administrative cohesion.
The tightly ruled empire functioned from a hierarchical system of noble
leadership believed to be the offspring of the sun god.
All resources of the controlled territory were considered to be the property of
the Inca leader.
The official language of the Inca empire, Quechua remains widely spoken today
among the indigenous people of Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru.
29. • In 1492, Christopher Columbus come from Spain on the first of four
• He explore at several Caribbean islands, large stretch of the east coast of
Central America and the coastal waters of north-eastern South America.
• Spanish military and missionary groups soon followed.
• 50 years of the initial voyage of Columbus, most of the region was
30. • Except, some of the smaller Caribbean islands, far southern extremity of
South America and the territory that became Brazil .
• In 1494, Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Treaty of Tordessilas in 1494- established a demarcation
line, giving the eastern quarter of South America to
31. • Before the Treaty of Tordesillas, Spain & Portugal made an agreement
fighting for the land rights. Spain (Areas of the Atlantic ocean around
Canary Islands). Portugal (Southern regions of the Canary islands & West
• But, Portugal argues that the lands of Spain explore in Atlantic Ocean
are the areas that have been explored by Portugal.
• Spain & Portugal are the two primary catholic powers, the conflict
between two countries has been settled by Pope Alexander VI, he has
ordered in 1493 to divide the claims of Spanish & Portugal by making a
dividing line from North to South. (100 leagues assuming about 300
nautical miles from west of the Cape Verde Islands)
• Spain hold the area on the west side of the line and Portugal was on the
• Then, Portugal soon realized that Spain got better deal compared to
Portugal and the line’s placement threatened their exploration routes
• Portugal returned to the Pope seeking a revision.
• In 1494, Spanish and Portuguese ambassadors meeting at Tordesillas in
northwestern Spain, moved the line 370 leagues (1,185 nautical miles)
further west. Thus, formed the Treaty of Tordesillas.
32. • In 1510, the early Spanish occupation is centered on the large Caribbean islands
of Cuba and Hispaniola.
• Inspired by tales of gold and other vast riches
• In 1519, Hernán Cortés (Spain) led a group of colonizer with a mission to take
down the Aztec Empire.
• Aztec thought the colonizer were gods, they permitted the Spain to get in the
• The colonizer combined the multiple advantages of being respected as gods
with have more advanced weaponry.
• In 1521, The Colonizer take down the Aztec Empire.
• After Spain captured Aztec lands, Spain take over the Former Aztec Capital.
• In 1535, Spanish governor began to govern the colony of New Spain.
• Spain claimed Mexico and Central America, northern Colombia, northern
Venezuela and Caribbean islands such as Jamaica and Trinidard.
• Expedition from New Spain pushed northward into the southern parts of the
modern United States from the 1530s but found no gold.
• In 1532, A small Spanish force captured Cuzco, the capital of the Inca Empire.
• Spain founded new cities to handling the gold and silver mining industries and
facilitate the transportation of resources across the Panamanian isthmus onward
33. • Spain conquered most of the region in 1500s and imposed a high degree of
control on their colony of New Spain by establishing an oppressive system of
agricultural production and tightly connected urban settlements and ports.
• After the conquest, the indigenous populations were drastically reduced due to
• Mining settlements in the Andes Mountains used various forms of slavery to
force the local people.
• Spain give large land areas to nobles, soldiers and church dignitaries
(responsibility for political control, establishment of settlements and exploitation
of natural resource wealth).
• They were given powers over the native peoples to use them as laborers
• The feudal encomienda (tribute) system was applied throughout the Spanish
colonies for more than 200 years.
• In addition of native peoples, Spanish imported 1.5 million people from the
African continent to become slaves in mining and agriculture.
34. • Spanish colonial agriculture developed large production estates, or haciendas, to
cultivate crops and livestock products for local or domestics markets.
• Corrupt colonial administration of the region established a foundation for pervasive
and lasting tension between various socioeconomic groups.
• Native peoples were dispossessed of land and rarely afforded educational
• At the other end of the socioeconomic scale, the peninsulares (Spaniards born in
Spain who were living or working in the New World) took the highest offices and
largest land grants.
• Criollos (Spaniards born in the colonies) and the increasing numbers of mestizos
(mixtures of European and Native American ancestry) had fewer privileges and
became resentful as their links to Spain weakened.
• The native peoples and many of mixed ancestry were downgrade to being landless
36. 3.3 Portuguese Colonization• 1530- Attempted to colonize areas previously claimed by Portugal ; Treaty of
• 1549- A Portuguese governor general was installed in 1549, also city of
Salvador became the first capital.
• 1600- The discovery of gold inland of Rio de Janeiro led to increased
• 1680- Various attempts were made to push the Portuguese boundaries
southward to the Plata estuary, where Spanish settlement was slow.
• 1750- Spain agreed to permit Brazilian interior expansion westward of the
• Colonial Brazil was economically and socially controlled by an elite class.
37. • The Portuguese were responsible for the forced migration of more people
from the African continent.
• Estimates suggest that more than 4 million Africans were shipped to Brazil
to fill the labor needs of economic development.
• Large numbers of present-day Brazilians trace their ancestral heritage to
38. MERCOSUR was founded in 1991 through the Asunción Treaty.
If taken as a whole, MERCOSUR would be the fifth largest economy in the world
MERCOSUR is the leading receiver of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the region.
The bloc constitutes a privileged space for investments, through purchase, share control,
and association of companies from member States.
The expansion of the economic integration agenda, in the last decade, has contributed to
a significant increase of direct investments assigned by member States to other parties of the bloc.
The bloc can be characterized as a customs union in the process of consolidation, with common
market features, with the elimination of obstacles to the circulation of factors of production, as
well as the adoption of a common tariff policy regarding third countries, through a Common External Tariff (CET).
More than twenty years, MERCOSUR has proved to be a great success in economic-commercial terms.
In brief, MERCOSUR is not limited to its economic and commercial dimension, comprising also of common
initiatives from infrastructure to telecommunications, from science and technology to education, from family
farming to the environment, from border cooperation to the fight against transnational crimes, from gender
policies to the full promotion of human rights.
This is what makes MERCOSUR one of the broadest integration projects in the world.
6.4 OTHER EUROPEAN
French, Dutch and British attempt to colonize Latin America came later and were
largely resisted by the Spanish and Portuguese.
There were limited incursions on lands controlled by the dominant colonizes primarily
in and on the periphery.
Independence and controlling people and the country
40. • Establishment of the modern countries in the region spread out slowly after independence.
• In 1821, when Mexico separated from Spanish rule, it covered an area from the present-
day southwestern United States through modern Costa Rica-Panama border.
• In 1823, the Central American separated from Mexico as the United Provinces of Central
• In 1838, divided into the individual Central America republics existing today.
• Northwestern South America functioned a part from Spanish rule as Gran Colombia from
1822 to 1830.
• In 1830, the independence countries of Colombia( included present-day Panama), Ecuador
and Venezuela arise.
• Panama did not gain independence from Colombia until 1903, when U.S interest in building
a canal across the isthmus then Panama get independence.
• During 1810s and 1820s, the remainder of Spanish South America splintered into several
countries independent of the Spanish crown.
• The newly independence countries were poorly prepared to capitalize on their control.
• 150 years after independence were marked by political instability punctuated by short
periods of economic growth.
• Spain left behind a geographic system based on mineral exploitation, transportation, to a
limited number of ports and large estates engaged in raising livestock.
6.5.1 INDEPENDENCE FROM
41. 6.5.2 BRAZILIAN INDEPENDENCE
Brazil gained independence in 1820s.
Had a stronger foundation in place for modernization than other postcolonial
The Portuguese royal family evacuated from Europe to Brazil in 1807s when
Napoleon threatened to take their country.
Rio de Janeiro became the temporary capital for the Portuguese government.
Royal family went back to Portugal after napoleon defeat by Spanish.
The peninsular war 1814s ( military conflict)
Prince regent returned to Brazil in 1816, at a flourishing (successful) revolutions
in the Spanish colonies.
In 1822, he proclaimed brazil independence from Portugal and make himself as
a King Pedro 1 of Brazil.
44. José de San Martín Simón Bolívar,
The most important leaders of the Latin
American independence movements
THE MAIN PEOPLE IN
Military general who became
the first emperor of France.
His drive for military expansion
changed the world.
45. 6.5.3 ECONOMIC COLONIALISM
Europe remained the primary post independence market for Latin
Britain in particular established a relationship of economic colonialism
with several Latin American countries that lasted until early 1900s.
Areas targeted for economies development and control by the British
were set up for the export of raw materials and product to supply
The British built railroad networks and port installations aimed at
developing the production of minerals, cotton, beef, grain and coffee.
Elite families in Latin American countries who worked within the system
often sent their children to schools in Europe and the United States.
They also banked their wealth in those countries.
46. • Economic depression of the 1930s in the US and Europe significantly
disrupted trade and economic activity for Latin America.
• The global economic depression of the 1930s was World War II in the
• Combination of these two dramatic events caused many decision makers
in Latin America countries to strive to be more internally self-sufficient.
• Countries of the region established the goal of becoming less dependent
on selling unprocessed or unrefined raw materials.
• Under import substitution, Latin America countries attempted to use
their raw materials in their own internal production of various
manufactures for domestic markets.
• Governments established high tariffs, quotas and bureaucratic barriers
on goods arriving from countries outside the region.
• Many of new industries were owned by the various country
governments, and others established earlier by foreign interest were
nationalized or taken over by the governments of the Latin America
country in which they operated.
6.6 Continuing External
47. • Process proved to be costly for many Latin American countries as they
incurred large amounts of debt to fund construction of industry and
purchase of manufacturing equipment.
• By 1970s, this policy contributed to rapid growth of one or two major
urban centres in each country.
• Because of their larger home markets, most populous countries
(Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico) produced the most under this
49. The south American trade bloc, Mercosur was the fourth largest trade bloc in
the world in 2001.
The trade bloc’s full member to continue to push for a greater integration of
South America’s economies.
Several of the continent’s countries continue to maintain associate
membership and to prioritize membership in other regional trade associations.
The request by Caribbean countries for parity with NAFTA did not progress
through the U.S Congress.
The countries of the Southern South America opened talks with the European
Union, their biggest trading partner and primary source of investment since
Early 1990s proposal by U.S President George H.W Bush to establish a Free
Trade of the Americas trade bloc by 2005 remained unrealized in 2002.
50. MERCOSUR (continued)
• The members states of Mercosur is Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay,
Uruguay – is the founding members, and Venizula .
• Chile, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia and Ecuador are Associate
members of Mercosur, in addition to Guiana and Suriname,
which acquired this status in July 2013.
• All South American countries are linked to Mercosur, either as
member State or Associate member.
51. MERCOSUR (continued)
Mercosur, the “Common Market of The South” is the largest
trading bloc in South America.
The purpose of Mercosur :
To promote free trade and the fluid movements of good
people, and currency.
The function of Mercosur :
A customs union and free-trade area and has ambitions to
become a common market along the lines of the European
52. MERCOSUR (continued)
The Objective of Mercosur :
The free transit of produced goods, services and factors among
the member states
Fixing of a common external tariff(CET)
Move member countries economies away from import
Develop institutional groups
53. 7.2 Caribbean Community and
Common Market (CARICOM)
• The organization was established in 1973.
• The Caribbean Community is a grouping of 15 full members countries plus
several member with associate and observer status
• Replaced the former Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA), which had
become effective in 1968.
• Main purposes are to promote economic integration and cooperation among its
members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and
to coordinate foreign policy
• The permanent secretariat has its headquarters in Georgetown, Guyana
• List of members is Antigua and Barboda, Bahamas, Barbadas, Belize, Dominica,
Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitt and Nevis, Saint Vincent
and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.
54. Function of CARICOM:
• Actively working toward a single market economy
• Establishment of common passports for the residents of member
• A combined regional commercial airline
• A single monetary union
• A regionalized stock exchange
• The establishment of trade agreements with large international trade
blocs and associations, among other goals
55. 8.0 SUBREGIONS OF LATIN
• 8.1 Mexico
• 8.2 Central America
• 8.3 The Caribbean Basin
• 8.4 Northern Andes
• 8.5 Brazil
• 8.6 Southern South America
56. 5.0 THE SUBREGIONS OF LATIN AMERICA
5.2 CENTRAL AMERICA
5.3 THE CARIBBEAN BASIN AND ENVIRONS
5.4 NORTHERN ANDES
5.6 SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA
• Company : Grupo La Norteñita
• Location : Cuauhtemoc, Chihuahua, Mexico
• The company produces apples whose quality and quantity, apple juice, jelly
Logo of the Company
60. 184.108.40.206 MANUFACTURING
• A maquiladora in Mexico is a factory that operates under preferential tariff
programs established and administered by the United States and Mexico.
Materials, assembly components, and production equipment used in
maquiladoras are allowed to enter Mexico duty-free.
• Products made can be exported into the U.S. at lower tariffs than those
from other countries. Recently, the term “maquiladora” has been used for
similar operations in Latin America and Asia as well, though its roots are
deeply imbedded in Mexico
61. • As such, a maquiladora in Mexico, and especially Tijuana, has advantages.
• Despite its impressive, successful history, the maquiladora industry in
Mexico never fully bloomed until the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) was approved in 1994.
• NAFTA wasn’t entirely a boon to the industry, as it eliminated certain
customs benefits enjoyed by the maquiladora program and determined
strict ‘rules of origin’ for products to qualify for preferential tariffs.
62. • Mexican laws continue to make establishment and management of a
maquiladora in Mexico intimidating and confusing to even the most intrepid
and savvy businessmen.
• Reduced labor costs of 50% or more, a highly skilled and conscientious
workforce, 6-day work week, and logistical advantages over other offshore
locations persuaded these businesses to explore manufacturing options in
63. Examples of Maquiladoras:
• (Tijuana, Mexico) - Eight years after beginning operation in Mexico, the
Samsung Group inaugurated Samsung Tijuana Park, a vertically integrated
production site that represents total investments for US$ 200 million.
Samsung Electronics, Samsung Display Devices and Samsung Electron
Mechanics started simultaneously producing color TVs and TVCRs, color
picture tubes and tuners among other products.
Logo of the Company
64. • Canon Business Machines, a Costa Mesa-based U.S. subsidiary of the
Japanese electronics giant, said this week that it plans to significantly
expand the Tijuana manufacturing plant it opened last summer.
• Since June, Canon has been manufacturing printed circuit boards and ribbon
cassettes for electronic typewriters at a 60,000-square-foot facility in a
business park in the Fundadores district in southern Tijuana. The plant
employs about 90 people, Canon's director of administration David Shiffman
Logo of the Company
65. 220.127.116.11 SERVICES
The company’s name is Alma's LDS Tours in Cancun.
Owned by Alma Petlacalco & Miguel. Located at Av
Carlos Nader 100 Suit 1, Centro, 77505
Cancún, Q.R., Mexico
Logo of the Company
70. 18.104.22.168 AGRICULTURE
• Produce and export Pineapple.
• Location: Pital San Carlos, Costa Rica.
• Name of Company: Agricola Industrial La Lydia
• Additional info: A family company with more than 70 years dedicated to
agricultural activities and livestock.
• The leaders since 2005 in production and exporters of the best golden
pineapple, MD2 variety, of Costa Rica and the world.
Logo Of Company
71. 22.214.171.124 SERVICE
• Name of Company: Panama Travel Services
• Location: Bajo Boquete, Chiriqui, Panama.
• Services offer: Shuttle services, travel services and tours.
• Tours activities: Horse back riding, hot springs, rafting, cloud forest
hiking tour, bird watching tour, coffee tour and city tour.
Logo of Company Travel services
73. 126.96.36.199 Manufacturing
• Textiles and Apparel
• Located in San Salvador, El Salvador.
• Name of Company: Hanesbrands Inc
• Additional info: Founded in 1901 . Hanes has a long history of
innovation, product excellence, and brand recognition
• The world’s largest marketer of basic apparel.
Logo Of Company
75. 8.3.1 LIST OF COUNTRIES
IN THE CARIBBEAN
6) DOMINICA 7) DOMINICAN
4) GRENADA2) HAITI1) FEDERATION OF
5) SAINT VINCENT
76. THE CARIBBEAN BASIN
15) JAMAICA14) REPUBLIC
10) SAINT LUCIA
16) FRANCH GUIANA
79. 188.8.131.52 TOURISM
Company : SunTours Caribbean
Owned by Johnson Tours
Location : Barbados, Antigua and St. Lucia, The Caribbean
Work closely with destination management industry partners in
Grenada, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, and Tobago to provide
the highest quality representation services in the Caribbean.
Offer attractive destination management and representation service fees.
PICTURES OF BEACH AT
80. 184.108.40.206 AGRICULTU
CONDIMENTS & SPICES
OTHER CONDIMENTS & SPICES
Company : Caribbean Agribusiness
Coined by Goldberg and Davis in 1957
Location : Antigua & Barbua, Bahamas, Bardabos, Belize, Dominica, Grenada,
Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montstreat, Sint Vincent & The Grenadines,
Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad & Tobago
Logo of Caribbean Agribusiness
Company : CARIBBEAN BASIN ENTERPRISES, INC.
Serving The Greater Caribbean and South & Central America
Owner of the company : Carvin Malone, 1995
The main location : Washington D.C. Metro Area
Location : The British Virgin Islands and the Greater Caribbean
Service : Architecture, construction, engineering and program management
Logo of Caribbean Basin Enterprise The Owner of CBE, Carvin Malone
86. 220.127.116.11 Agriculture
• Company : Yachana Gourmet
• Location : Francisco Andrade Marin 188, Almagro, Quito, Ecuador
• Produce cacao: tropical fruits, such as mango and papaya (all-natural
Product of Yachana Gourmet Logo of the Company
Company : Maestranza Diesel
Location : Bogotá, Santiago
Established date : May 1st, 1942
Maestranza Diesel (MD) is a metallurgical company with more than 70 years of
experience developing applied engineering solutions using high-quality standards
for a variety of industrial sectors such as mining, energy, fishing, forestry, pulp and
paper, construction, manufacturing, maritime/shipping and naval. .
Logo of the Company
88. 18.104.22.168 SERVICES
• Company : PERU SAFARI
• Location : 12 The Manor, Rainford, Saint Helens WA11 8GH, UK
• If you only do Peru once in your lifetime, our incredible journey across 28
climate zones, 2,900km of stunning roads over 5000m peaks, heads to the
magical citadel of Machu Picchu, offering you the ultimate guided 4×4
touring experience through the best of Peru.
Logo of the Company
92. 22.214.171.124 Agriculture
• Produce Soybean.
• Products: ABC’s soybean oil, Fortpass and Racafort.
• Location: Urbelandia, Brazil.
• Name of Company: Algar Agro
• Additional Info: company active in the soybean market since 1978.
• One of the most advanced industrial complexes in the country for
crushing, refining and packaging soybean oil, with a capacity to store 180
thousand tons of grains and crushing 1.8 thousand tons of soybean per
Logo Of Company Products
93. 126.96.36.199 Manufacturing
• Manufacturer Bus and Coach
• Products: Intercity, Urban and Minibus.
• Location: Caxias do Sul, Brazil.
• Name of Company: Marcopolo
• Additional Info: Founded in 1949.
• One of the largest bus body manufacturers in the world and exports its
coaches to more than 60 countries.
Logo of Company Products
94. 188.8.131.52 Mining
• Iron ore
• Carajas Mine or Carajas Mountain is the largest iron ore mine in the
• Location: Para, Brazil
• Additional Info: Iron ore is usually smelted to produce pig iron (metallic
iron), which is used to make steel. It is for this reason iron is perhaps one
of the most important metals used in developed and developing
Carajas Mine in Para
96. 8.5.4 Deforestation in
• The Amazon is the world’s largest rainforest and the largest river basin
on the planet.
• Since 1978 over 750,000 square km (289,000 square miles) of Amazon
rainforest have been destroyed.
• Causes of deforestation:
I. Cattle ranching
II. Commercial agriculture (Soybean Plantation)
III. Projections of new roads
IV. illegal logging
V. Hydroelectric projects
97. 184.108.40.206 Impact of
II. Less biodiversity in plant and animal species
III. Less natural filters for water to become drinkable
99. 8.5.6 FUNAI
• What is FUNAI ? the National Indian Foundation, is the Brazilian
government body that establishes and carries out policies relating to
• Which seeks to provide education, health care and support for Native
• FUNAI is responsible for mapping out and protecting lands traditionally
inhabited and used by these communities.
100. 8.5.7 FUNAI RIGHTS &
• All over Brazil, indigenous peoples are living in differing degrees of
• Illegal miners, ranchers, loggers and other groups pose a risk to Indians’
lives and well-being and destroy their natural resources.
• FUNAI’s task is to ensure that their rights are respected as set out in the
Brazilian Constitution and the Indian Statute.
• Favela in Brazil, a shantytown located within or on the outskirts of the country’s
large cities, especially in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
• Over 7 million people in Sao Paolo and up to 6 million in Rio de Janeiro live in
• The community build their own makeshift housing.
• They have no water, electricity, water disposal, paves roads and security.
• Centers of disease and crime
• High poverty rates, high death rates for women in childbirth, high teenage
pregnancy, high illiteracy rates and high jobless rates
• The street children either literally live on the streets with no shelter or work the
streets at a young age, trying to earn money for survival.
• Children often end up in prostitution or in an illegal narcotics trade.
107. 220.127.116.11 SERVICE
Service : financial sservice (bank and financial)
Location : Santiago,Chile
Owner : Luis Enrique Yarur Rey (Chairman) Lionel
Olavarría Leyton (CEO)
Established : 1937
Product : Banking
LOGO OF BANCO DE
Luis Enrique Yarur
108. 18.104.22.168 AGRICULTURE
Company : Agria company
Location : South America also has many commercial farms,
especially in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, and
Owner : Ballylough and Mitchellstown
Established year : 1990s
Product : Grains, such as corn and wheat, sheep, cow and
109. 22.214.171.124 MANUFACTURING
Company : Encyclopedia Britannica
Location : Chicago, Illinois, United Stated (Headquarters) , Brazil
and Argentina, South America
Owner : Jacyu Safras
Established year : 1938
Product : Foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco , cement,
chemicals, petroleum, automobiles and household appliances
Logo Encyclopedia Britannica