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iot with cloud

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  2. 5A and 3i To achieve such 5A (anything, anywhere, anytime, anyway, anyhow) and 3I (instrumented, interconnected, and intelligent) capabilities, some common, horizontal, general- purpose technologies, standards, and platforms, especially middleware platforms based on common data representations just like the three-tiered application server middleware, HTML language, and HTTP protocol in the Internet/web arena, have to be established to support various vertical applications cost effectively,
  3. six pillars of M2M 1) Remote monitoring 2) RFID 3) sensor network 4) smart service 5) Telematics 6) Telemetrics
  4. The four pillars of IoT 1) M2M(Machine to Machine Communication) 2) RFID 3) WSN(wireless sensor networks) 4) SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition)
  5. M2M: The Internet of Devices Consumer Electronics Offerings ◾ Personal navigation devices ◾ eReaders ◾Digital picture frames ◾ People-tracking devices ◾ Pet-tracking devices ◾ Home security monitors ◾ Personal medical devices
  6. M2M: The Internet of Devices
  7. M2M: The Internet of Devices What is M2M? M2M uses devices (such as an in-vehicle gadget) to capture events (such as an engine disorder), via a network (mostly cellular wireless networks, sometimes wired or hybrid) connection to a central server (software program), that translates the captured events into meaningful information (alert failure to be fixed).
  8. Strategy Analytics identifies five key barriers to scaling the global M2M market 1. Lack of a low-cost local access media that can be implemented on a global basis 2. The fragmented nature of both the technology vendors and the solutions they provide
  9. M2M: The Internet of Devices 3. Lack of any single killer application that can consolidate the market and drive demand forward 4. The increased costs associated with development and integration because of the complex nature of M2M solutions 5. Management’s inability to express the benefits of M2M in anything other than cost savings, rather than exploiting and encouraging the service enablement capacity of mobile M2M
  10. Architecture of M2M
  11. M2M: The Internet of Devices 1) Service enablement is a middleware layer that facilitates the creation of applications 2) A significant percentage of the functionality of the middleware comes from the charging, mediation, service management, and network management solutions that are being deployed in next-generation networks. 3) value chain of M2M business, which can be separated into two parts: the first relating to devices and the second to application development and service delivery 4) The broad intersection between these two parts represents the means by which devices are procured and integrated into M2M solutions and services
  12. M2M:The Internet of Devices 1) The M2M device market share of chipset vendors including TI, Infineon, ST-Ericsson, Qualcomm, and others, and module vendors including Enfora, Infone, Kyocera, Murata, Mobicom, Novatel, Panasonic, Semco, Siemens, Sierra Cellular, Simcom, Telit, Wavecom, and others 2) As MNOs become more directly involved with M2M application service providers (ASPs), some MNOs such as Sprint, AT&T, Verizon Wireless, China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom, Orange, Rogers Communications, Telenor, Telefonica, NTT DOCOMO, and others are actively deploying M2M-based services
  13. 1) Many are deploying key network elements, specifically mobile packet gateway, specifically for their M2M operations, separate from their general mobile data infrastructure. Key benefits of doing this are that it simplifies internal business operations and optimizes use of the network 2) A mobile virtual network operator is a communications service provider that does not use its own infrastructure to provide connectivity but leases out infrastructure from one or more cellular network carriers to offer a more competitive mobile connectivity plan 3) MVNOs active in the M2M market are also increasingly deploying mobile packet gateways and similar equipment to interconnect with their MNO partners’ radio infrastructure Examples of MVNO:Sprint, T-Mobile, and U.S. Cellular
  14. RFID: The Internet of Objects 1) The term Internet of Things was first used by Kevin Ashton, co-founder and executive director of the Auto-ID Center 2) An RFID tag is a simplified, low-cost, disposable contactless smartcard. 3) RFID tags include a chip that stores a static number (ID) and attributes of the tagged object and an antenna that enables the chip to transmit the store number to a reader
  15. RFID: The Internet of Objects
  16. 1) When the tag comes within the range of the appropriate RF reader, the tag is powered by the reader’s RF field and transmits its ID and attributes to the reader 2) An RFID system involves hardware known as readers and tags, as well as RFID software or RFID middleware 3) RFID tags can be active, passive, or semipassive RFID: The Internet of Objects
  17. 1) Passive RFID does not use a battery, while an active has an on-board battery that always broadcasts its signal. 2) A semipassive RFID has a small battery on board that is activated when in the presence of a RFID reader. RFID: The Internet of Objects
  18. RFID: The Internet of Objects SAMPLE APPLICATIONS Product Tracking – RFID tags are increasingly used as a cost-effective way to track inventory and as a substitute for barcodes. Toll Road Payments – Highway toll payment systems Passports incorporate RFID tags into passports to store information (such as a photograph) about the passport holder and to track visitors entering and exiting the country. Identification – RFID chips can be implanted into animals and people to track their movements, provide access to secure locations Libraries – Libraries use RFID tags in books and other materials to track circulation and inventory, store product information (such as titles and authors), and to provide security from theft Shipping – Large shipments of materials, such as retail goods, often utilize RFID tags to identify location, contents, and movement of goods. Wal-mart
  19.  A transducer is an electronic device that converts energy from one form to another  Common examples include microphones, loudspeakers, thermometers, and antenna WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  20. 1) Definition:A Wireless sensor network can be defined as a network of devices that can communicate the information gathered from a monitored field through wireless links. 2) A Sensor is a device that responds and detects some type of input from both the physical or environmental conditions, such as pressure, heat, light, etc WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  21. WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  22. 1) A sink, on the other hand, collects data from sensors 2) The sink may communicate with the end-user via direct connections, the Internet, satellite, or any type of wireless links 3) Sensor node: sense target events, gather sensor readings, manipulate information, send them to gateway via radio link ◾ Base station/sink: communicate with sensor nodes and user/operator ◾ Operator/user: task manager, send query WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  23. 1) Types of Sensor a. Thermal b. Electromagnetic c. Mechanical d. chemical e. Optical radiation WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  24. 1) In practice, special cases of WSNs are encountered such as wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs), wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) and wireless sensor-actor networks (WSANs) WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  25. 1) In practice, special cases of WSNs are encountered such as wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs), wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) and wireless sensor-actor networks (WSANs) WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  26. 1) Multimedia Wireless Sensor Networks The emergence of integrated complementary metal–oxide– semiconductor camera sensors and integrated microphones, with low power consumption and even low cost, has allowed the development of a subfield in WSN research that is called wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  27. 1) Multimedia WSNs WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  28. 1) WMSNs are characterized by their capability of collecting multimedia, mainly video and audio streams, as well as still images, from the environment 2) One of the potential applications is real-time multimedia surveillance, both in private areas and in critical infrastructures that are susceptible to terrorist attacks, such as airports or public sport centers WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  29. 1) Compared with traditional surveillance systems, visual WSNs allow extending area monitoring by scaling the number of cameras 2) Typically, these kinds of networks are deployed in a preplanned manner, to guarantee full coverage and to make easier the information processing 3) In the case of supervised video monitoring, information has to be transmitted from the visual sensors to a central controller, where it can be analyzed from either a human operator or an automatic system 4) The challenges with the multimedia WSN include high energy consumption, high bandwidth requirements, data processing, and compressing techniques WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  30. 2.Under Water WSNs 1) More than 70% of the earth is occupied with water 2) These networks consist of several sensor nodes and vehicles deployed underwater 3) Autonomous underwater vehicles are used for gathering data from these sensor nodes 4) A challenge of underwater communication is a long propagation delay, bandwidth and sensor failures. WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  31. Underwater, WSNs are equipped with a limited battery that cannot be recharged or replaced The issue of energy conservation for underwater WSNs involves the development of underwater communication and networking techniques.
  32. 3.Under Ground WSNs 1) Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs), which are characterized by the fact that the sensors are buried underground, located in caves or mines or embedded within dense soil or rock have been proposed to monitor conditions in these environments. WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  33. 1) The WSNs networks consist of several sensor nodes that are hidden in the ground to monitor underground conditions. 2) To relay information from the sensor nodes to the base station, additional sink nodes are located above the ground 3) The underground wireless sensor networks deployed into the ground are difficult to recharge 4) In addition to this, the underground environment makes wireless communication a challenge due to the high level of attenuation and signal loss WSN: The Internet of Transducers
  34. 4.wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) 1. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) defines an autonomous system which is used to monitor the daily life activities of a person. 2. It consists of intelligent sensor nodes which do not hamper the daily life activities and are useful in detecting chronic diseases like heart attack, asthma etc Types 1.Managed 2. Autonomous WBSN 3. Intelligent WBSN
  35. Characteristics a) Energy Efficient b) Heterogeneous c) Cost Effective d) Simple
  36. Advantages 1.No wires 2.Energy Efficient and user friendly 3.Support user mobility
  38. A WBSN consists of tiny devices that perform communication. Mainly there are three types of devices in a WBSN 1.Sensor nodes :A sensor node performs three mains tasks: signal detection, signal digitization/coding/controlling for communication that involves multiple access and finally transmitting the data through a transceiver wirelessly
  39. Commercially Available Sensors ECG Sensor:The electrical activity of heart is represented in the form of a graph which is known as ECG and is used for the diagnosis of any heart disease and to see how well are medicines given for heart are working Blood Pressure:This sensor is used for measuring systolic and diastolic blood pressure
  40. CO2 Gas Sensor:It is used to keep track of the change in the level of blood during respiration Humidity and Temperature Sensors:These sensors measure humidity of the surroundings of a person and also his body temperature EEG Sensor:This sensor is used for measuring the electrical activity that occurs inside the brain Pulse Oximetry :This sensor measures the oxygen saturation
  41. 2. Actuator Node: These nodes perform operation by getting data from the sensor nodes or by interacting with the user and getting data from it directly 3. Personal Devices: These devices are similar to sensor nodes and their task is to collect information which has been collected by the sensor nodes and actuator nodes Software:task scheduling, memory management and power optimization
  42. WBSN Architecture
  43. A WBAN consists of small sensor nodes which are heterogeneous in nature Figure depicts several sensor nodes which are placed over the human body for performing different functions Protocol Stack:It mainly consists of the PHY layer, MAC layer and Network layer
  44. Topology:Topology refers to the arrangement of sensor nodes in a network
  45. PHY Layer Issues 1.Band Selection 2.Data Rates 3.Interoperability 4.Fault Tolerance 5.Interference
  46. MAC layer Issues 1. Reliability 2. Control Packets Overhead 3. Dynamic Channel Assignment 4. Idle listening: 5. Scheduling
  47. Routing Issues 1. Varying Data Needs 2. Resource Constraints: 3. Overheating 4. Mobility 5. Attentuation
  48. SCADA: The Internet of Controllers 1. Building automation systems (BAS) would become fully integrated with communication and human interface practices and standards widely employed for information technology systems. 2. SCADA (supervisory, control and data acquisition) systems, as the core technology of the controls–IT convergence, will evolve and take the center stage. 3. it is an industrial computer-based control system employed to gather and analyze the real-time data to keep track, monitor and control industrial equipments in different types of industries
  49. SCADA was generally referring to industrial control systems (ICSs): computer systems that monitor and control industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes as follows 1. Industrial processes include those of manufacturing, production, power generation, fabrication, and refining, and may run in continuous, batch, repetitive, or discrete modes 2. Infrastructure processes may be public or private and include water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, wind farms, civil defense siren systems, and large transportation systems 3. Facility processes occur in both public and private facilities, including buildings, airports, ships, and space stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access, and energy consumption using PLCs (programmable logic controllers) and DCSs (distributed control systems) via the OPC (OLE for process control) middleware
  50. An existing SCADA system usually consists of the following subsystems 1. Human–machine interface (HMI) 2. Remote terminal units (RTUs) 3. PLCs 4. DCSs 5. M2M (telemetry), WSN, smart systems
  51. SCADA
  52. 1. A SCADA system could be a layer between the top-layer business systems such as ERP, WMS, SCM, CRM, EAM (enterprise asset management), PIMS (plant information management system), EMI (enterprise manufacturing intelligence), LIMS (laboratory information management system), and other applications and the lower layer DCS, PLC, RTU, MES (manufacturing execution system), SIS (supervisory information system in plant level), and others 2. A traditional SCADA system is a client/server system 3. New technological developments have turned C/S SCADA systems into middleware-backed, web-based, three-tiered open systems with SOA capabilities
  53. 1. Consider the application of SCADA in power systems for operation and control 2. SCADA in power system can be defined as the power distribution application which is typically based on the software package. 3. The electrical distribution system consists of several substations; these substations will have multiple numbers of controllers, sensors and operator-interface points
  54. SCADA in power system
  55. 1. In general, for controlling and monitoring a substation in real time (PLCs) Programmable Logic Controllers, Circuit breakers and Power monitors are used. 2. Data is transmitted from the PLCs and other devices to a computer- based-SCADA node located at each substation. One or more computers are located at different centralized control and monitoring points

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Cost Effective: