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ISSN 2349-4336 (Online)
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STM Journals, a strong initiative by Consortium E-Learning Network Private Ltd. (established 2006), was
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STM Journals (division of Consortium e-Learning Network Private Ltd. ) having its Marketing office located at Office
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Gargi Asha Jha
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PUBLICATION MANAGEMENT TEAM
Internal Members
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It is my privilege to present the print version of the [Volume 3 Issue 3] of our Journal of Water
Resource Engineering and...
1. Groundwater Resources and its Development through Artificial Recharge in Mehsana
District of Gujarat State, India
Yoges...
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Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management
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Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management
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Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management vol 3 issue 3

Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management (JoWREM) The Journal aims to cover latest developments in the field of Water Resource Engineering. The Journal welcomes emerging methodologies and techniques which have potential for real world Applications.

Focus and Scope Covers

Geographical Management system
Meteorology & Geology
Water Resource system Analysis
Groundwater modeling & management
Geographical information systems
Water supply and hydrological modeling
Computational river hydraulics

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Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management vol 3 issue 3

  1. 1. STM JOURNALS Scientific Technical Medical www.stmjournals.com ISSN 2349-4336 (Online) conducted Ch Instrumentation/ / / Energy Science/ / 22 STM Journals Empowering knowledge Free Online Registration ISO: 9001Certified (JoWREM) September December 2016 www.stmjournals.com STM JOURNALS Scientific Technical Medical Water Resource Engineering & Management
  2. 2. STM Journals, a strong initiative by Consortium E-Learning Network Private Ltd. (established 2006), was launched in the year 2010 under the support and guidance by our esteemed Editorial and Advisory Board Membersfromrenownedinstitutes. Objectives:  Promotion of Scientific, Technical and Medical research.  Publication of Original Research/Review, Short Articles and Case Studies through Peer Review process.  Publishing Special Issues on Conferences.  Preparing online platform for print journals.  Empowering the libraries with online and print Journals in Scientific, Technical and Medical domains.  Publishing and distribution of books on various subjects in the category of Nanotechnology, Scientific and Technical Writing, and Environment, Health and Safety. SalientFeatures:  A bouquet of 100+ Journals that fall under Science, Technical and Medical domains.  Employs Open Journals System (OJS)—a journal management and publishing system.  The first and one of the fastest growing publication website in India as well as in abroad for its quality and coverage.  Rapid online submission and publication of papers, soon after their formal acceptance/finalization.  Facilitates linking with the other authors or professionals.  Worldwide circulation and visibility. Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management ISSN: 2349-4336(online) Focus andScopeCovers  GeographicalManagementsystem  Meteorology&Geology  WaterResourcesystemAnalysis  Groundwatermodeling&management  Geographicalinformationsystems  Watersupply andhydrologicalmodeling  Computationalriverhydraulics Journal ofWater Resource Engineering and Management is published (frequency: three times a year) in India by STM Journals (division of Consortium e-Learning Network Private Ltd. Pvt.) The views expressed in the articles do not necessarily reflect of the Publisher. The publisher does not endorse the quality or value of the advertised/sponsored products described therein. Please consult full prescribing information before issuing a prescription for any products mentionedinthispublication. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or transmitted in any from without written permissionof thepublisher. To cite any of the material contained in this Journal, in English or translation, please use the full English reference at the beginningof eacharticle.Toreuseanyofthematerial,pleasecontactSTM Journals (info@stmjournals.com) STM Journals
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  4. 4. Gargi Asha Jha Manager (Publications) PUBLICATION MANAGEMENT TEAM Internal Members External Members Bimlesh Lochab Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India Dr. Rajiv Prakash Professor and Coordinator School of Materials Science and Technology Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi Uttar Pradesh, India Dr. Rakesh Kumar Assistant Professor Department of Applied Chemistry BIT Mesra, Patna, Bihar, India Prof. S. Ramaprabhu Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Technology Laboratory, Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai Tamil Nadu, India Himani Pandey Isha Chandra Senior Associate Editors Dr. Yog Raj Sood Dean (Planning and Development) Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur Himachal Pradesh, India Prof. Chris Cannings Professor, School of Mathematics and Statistics University of Sheffield, Sheffield United Kingdom Dr. D. K. Vijaykumar MS, MCh (Surgical Oncology), Professor and Head Department of Surgical Oncology Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre Ponekkara, Cochin, Kerala, India Dr. Durgadas Naik Associate Professor (Microbiology) Management and Science University, University Drive, Seksyen13 Selangor, Malaysia Prof. José María Luna Ariza Department of Computer Sciences and Numerical Analysis Campus of Rabanales University of Córdoba, Spain Dr. Khaiser Nikam Professor, Library and Information Science Department of Library and Information Science University of Mysore Mysore, India Quaisher J Hossain Senior Editor Group Managing Editor Dr. Archana Mehrotra Managing Director CELNET, Delhi, India Meenakshi Tripathi Shivani Sharma Chairman Mr. Puneet Mehrotra Director Shambhavi Mishra Associate Editors Sugandha Mishra
  5. 5. Prof. Priyavrat Thareja Director Principal Rayat Institute of Engineering and Information Technology Punjab, India Dr. Baldev Raj Director, National Institute of Advanced Studies Indian Institute of Science campus Bangalore Karnataka, India Former Director Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India Dr. Pankaj Poddar Senior Scientist Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory Pune, Maharastra India Prof. D. N. Rao Professor and Head Department of Biochemistry All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India Dr. Nandini Chatterjee Singh Additional Professor National Brain Research Centre Manesar, Gurgaon Haryana, India Dr. Ashish Runthala Lecturer, Biological Sciences Group Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani, Rajasthan, India Dr. Bankim Chandra Ray Professor and Ex-Head of the Department Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Odisha, India Prof. Yuwaraj Marotrao Ghugal Professor and Head Department of Applied Mechanics Government College of Engineering Vidyanagar, Karad Maharashtra, India Dr. Hardev Singh Virk Visiting Professor, Department of Physics University of SGGS World University Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India Former Director Research DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology Jallandhar, India Dr. Shrikant Balkisan Dhoot Senior Research Scientist, Reliance Industries Limited, Mumbai, India Former Head (Research and Development) Nurture Earth R&D Pvt Ltd., MIT Campus Beed Bypass Road, Aurangabad Maharashtra, India STM JOURNALS ADVISORY BOARD
  6. 6. Dr. Rakesh Kumar Assistant Professor Department of Applied Chemistry Birla Institute of Technology Patna, Bihar, India Prof. Subash Chandra Mishra Professor Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Odisha, India Dr. Shankargouda Patil Assistant Professor Department of Oral Pathology KLE Society's Institute of Dental Sciences Bangalore, Karnataka, India Prof. Sundara Ramaprabhu Professor Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai, Tamil Nadu India Dr. Baskar Kaliyamoorthy Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology, Trichy Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India STM JOURNALS ADVISORY BOARD
  7. 7. Editorial Board Dr.Ajaykumar Ramdas Kambekar Faculty,Department of Civil Engineering Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Bhavan's Campus, Munshi Nagar, Andheri, Mumbai, India. Dr. Chander Kumar Singh Assistant Professor, Department of Natural Resources,TERI University, India. Dr. Erfan Mondal, Professor, Department of Geology, AMU, Aligarh, India. Mr. Gobinath Ravindran Assistant Professor ,Department of Civil engineering, Jay Shriram Group of Institutions, Avinashipalayam, Tirupur, Tamilnadu, India. Dr. Dalchand Jhariya Assistant Professor,National Institute of Technology ,Raipur, India. Dr. Arindam Sarkar Assistant Professor, School of Infrastructure, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, India. Mr. Ishtiyaq Ahmad Assistant Professor,Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology , Raipur, India. Dr. Javed Alam Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department,A.M.U, Aligarh, India. Dr. Jyoti Sarup Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal, India. Dr. K. S Kasiviswanathan Assistant Professor (SG) Department of Civil Engineering, India. Dr. Kanhu Charan Patra Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Former Head and Dean (AR), National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India. Dr. M. Mizanur Rahaman Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering University of Asia Pacific House- 8/A, Road - 7 Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209 Bangladesh.
  8. 8. Editorial Board Dr. N. Vishwakarma Assistant Professor, National Institute of Technology, Raipur, India. Dr. Prosenjit Ghosh Assistant Professor,Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. Dr. Rajesh Gupta Professor, Civil Engineering, VNIT Nagpur. Dr. Ramesh H Gowda Water Resources Engineering Specialist, National Institute of Technology, Karnataka, Suratkhal, India. Prof. Quamrul Hassan Prof. Quamrul Hassan, Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering & Technology Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India. Dr. Pabitra Ranjan Maiti Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), India. Dr. Saravanan Subbarayan Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology , Tiruchirappalli, India. Dr. Shamsuddin Shahid Associate Professor ,Department of Hydraulics and Hydrology, Faculty of Civil Engineering,Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Johor, Malaysia. Dr. Syed Zaheer Hasan Scientist-G,Petroleum Research Wing, Gujarat Energy Research and Management Institute, PDPU Campus, Raisan,Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. Dr. Jagadeesha Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, India. Dr. Ali Mohammad Kimiagari Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran. Dr. Susama Sudhishri Senior Scientist Water Technology Center IARI, Pusa, New Delhi, India.
  9. 9. It is my privilege to present the print version of the [Volume 3 Issue 3] of our Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management, 2016.The intension of JoWREM is to create an atmosphere that stimulates vision, research and growth in the area of Water Resource Engineering and Management. Timely publication, honest communication, comprehensive editing and trust with authors and readers have been the hallmark of our journals. STM Journals provide a platform for scholarly research articles to be published in journals of international standards. STM journals strive to publish qualitypaperinrecordtime,makingitaleaderinserviceandbusiness offerings. The aim and scope of STM Journals is to provide an academic medium and an important reference for the advancement and dissemination of research results that support high level learning, teaching andresearchinalltheScience,TechnologyandMedicaldomains. Finally, I express my sincere gratitude to our Editorial/ Reviewer board, Authors and publication team for their continued support and invaluable contributions and suggestions in the form of authoring writeups/reviewing and providing constructive comments for the advancement of the journals.With regards to their due continuous support and co-operation, we have been able to publish qualityResearch/Reviewsfindingsfor our customersbase. Ihopeyouwillenjoyreadingthisissue andwewelcomeyourfeedbackonanyaspectof theJournal. Dr.ArchanaMehrotra ManagingDirector STM Journals Director's Desk STM JOURNALS
  10. 10. 1. Groundwater Resources and its Development through Artificial Recharge in Mehsana District of Gujarat State, India Yogesh S. Patel, G.P. Vadodaria 1 2. An Assessment of CartoDEM v1 over National Capital Region of India Farhat Rafiq, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Shamshad Ahmad 11 3. Analysis of Groundwater Quality Parameters of Part of Nanded City, Maharashtra State (India) J.V. Khanapurkar, R.A. Suryawanshi 38 4. Experimental Investigation of Influence of Key-shape Variation on Discharge Capacity of Piano Key Weir Vinodray D. Ujeniya, Kautilya G. Mehta, Mohmood Khan 44 5. Rainfall Runoff Modeling Using SCS-CN Method: A GIS Based Case Study of Pawana Watershed A. S. Ghate, V. Sivakumar, Kunal More, Vipul V. Pawar 50 ContentsJournal of Water Resource Engineering and Management.
  11. 11. JoWREM (2016) 1-10 © STM Journals 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 1 Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management ISSN: 2349-4336(online) Volume 3, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com Groundwater Resources and its Development through Artificial Recharge in Mehsana District of Gujarat State, India Yogesh S. Patel1, *, G.P. Vadodaria2 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Sankalchand Patel College of Engineering, Visnagar, Gujarat, India 2 Principal, Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of Engineering, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Abstract Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources and supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. Timely and reliable information on occurrence, movement and deterioration of groundwater is a pre-requisite for demanded water quantity with satisfying quality. Artificial groundwater recharge plays a vital role in sustainable management of groundwater resources. The study area has been facing severe water scarcity due to scanty precipitation and intensive agriculture during the last few years. The present study was carried out to assess groundwater resources and its development through artificial recharge in Mehsana district of Gujarat state. The result shows that the stage of groundwater development is more than 100%, so groundwater falls under over exploited category. An attempt is made to identify the artificial groundwater recharge sites using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. As per the available details pertaining to recharge structures, total 2708 structures are already in existing conditions to augment 228.46 Mm3 /year water to the aquifer, while 224 suitable sites are identified through which rest 9.54 Mm3 /year surface water can be recharged. The results of the study can be used to formulate an efficient groundwater management plan for sustainable utilization of limited groundwater resources. Keywords: Groundwater resources, artificial recharge, geographical information systems, remote sensing, recharge sites INTRODUCTION In many parts of the Mehsana district, groundwater development has already reached a critical stage, resulting in acute scarcity of the resource. Overdevelopment of the groundwater resources results in declining groundwater levels, shortage in water supply, intrusion of saline water in coastal areas and increased pumping lifts necessitating deepening of groundwater abstraction structures [1]. Recharge is very complex and slow process and is unable to keep pace with the excessive and continued exploitation of groundwater resources. This has resulted in depletion of groundwater resources in the area. The surface water resources of the district are very limited. Groundwater is the main source of irrigation, about 93% of the area is irrigated by groundwater [2]. A systematic planning of groundwater development using modern techniques is essential for the proper utilization and management of this precious groundwater resource. Artificial recharge aims at augmenting the natural replenishment of groundwater storage by some method of construction, spreading of water, or by artificially changing natural conditions. It is useful for reducing overdraft, conserving surface runoff, and increasing available groundwater supplies. As groundwater is dynamic and interdisciplinary in nature, an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS technique is very useful in various groundwater management studies. Remote sensing provides diverse datasets over a large inaccessible area that can be efficiently handled and analyzed in a GIS framework [3]. North Gujarat is naturally endowed with one
  12. 12. JoWREM (2016) 11-37 © STM Journals 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 11 Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management ISSN: 2349-4336(online) Volume 3, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com An Assessment of CartoDEM v1 over National Capital Region of India Farhat Rafiq, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Shamshad Ahmad Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi, India Abstract The most reliable and common source of elevation information for a given region has always been topo-sheet maps. However, other sources of elevation are now freely available with the advancement in the technology. SRTM DEM and ASTER DEM are the best examples of such freely available elevation sources. Still there is constantly a demand of better elevation data among the users. Recently, National Remote Sensing Center, India released CartoDEM v1. It is freely available with a horizontal resolution of 30 m and covers pan India. It is always challenging to ascertain the quality and accuracy of freely available DEMs. This paper, over National Capital Region (NCR) of India, assesses the quality of the CartoDEM v1 using 127 surveyed spot-heights and bench-marks captured from 1:50,000 scale SOI topo-sheet maps and carries out a comparison with SRTM DEM v4 and ASTER DEM v2. It is demonstrated that mean error is 1.34 m and absolute RMSE of CartoDEM is 2.83 m. The relative RMSE with SRTM DEM is 2.77 m and ASTERDEM, is 3.34 m. The trend of hydrological sinks in CartoDEM is similar to SRTM DEM and ASTERDEM. The drainage network delineated shows better match with channels in actual on ground and catchment divides are clearly demarcated by CartoDEM. The achieved results develop confidence in the quality of CartoDEM over NCR in India and opens alternatives to use CartoDEM over publicly available SRTM DEM and ASTER DEM. Also, it opens avenues for research either on version 1 or on other versions of CartoDEM for its better usability over Indian region. Keywords: CartoDEM v1, NCR in India, SRTM DEM and ASTER DEM INTRODUCTION A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital 3D representation of a terrain surface [1]. It is represented as a mesh of squares (raster or grid) or as a vector-based triangular irregular network (TIN). The DEM can be divided into digital surface model (DSM) and digital terrain model (DTM). The DSM contains heights of artifacts, infrastructure and vegetation whereas DTM contains only bare earth elevation [2]. The DEM could be generated through different techniques such as lidar, photogrammetry, land surveying, etc. [3]. A DSM may be useful for landscape modeling, city modeling and visualization applications [4–6] while a DTM is required for flood or drainage modeling, land-use studies, geological applications, and similar other applications [7]. The conventional method of developing the elevation data through contour and surveyed spot-heights is quite lengthy and tedious. These maps need utmost care in scanning and geo-referencing along with digitization of the contours and capturing the bench-marks require good amount of the precision. SRTM DEM Version 4 The SRTM elevation data (DEM) resulted from a collaborative effort led by the national aeronautics and space administration (NASA) and the national geospatial-intelligence agency (NGA), as well as the participation of the German and Italian space agencies, to generate a near-global DEM of the earth using radar interferometry. The SRTM DEM covers almost exactly 80% of Earth’s total landmass [8, 9]. The SRTM DEMs, at many places, have ‘no-data’ gaps where there are water bodies and huge shadows; due to which its implementation is critically restricted in many domains, for example, hydrological modeling [10]. Though due to its widespread spatial coverage, SRTM
  13. 13. JoWREM (2016) 38-43 © STM Journals 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 38 Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management ISSN: 2349-4336(online) Volume 3, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com Analysis of Groundwater Quality Parameters of Part of Nanded City, Maharashtra State (India) J.V. Khanapurkar1, *, R.A. Suryawanshi2 1 Department of Geology, Gopal Krishna Gokhale College, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India 2 Department of Geology, Y.C. College of Science, Karad, Satara, Maharashtra, India Abstract In Nanded township, generally the water is drawn from the shallow aquifers. As the soil thickness is more and because of its permeable and porous nature, the effluent water percolates into the ground and contaminates the groundwater. In this assessment, the physicochemical parameters like pH, calcium, chloride, alkalinity, total hardness, and salinity are determined by following the standard procedures given by Trivedi and Goel (1986). The sources of these contaminants are the industries, septic tank disposal, agricultural effluents, waste disposals, etc. Keywords: Aquifers, effluents, contaminants, physicochemical parameters INTRODUCTION Groundwater pollution may be defined as the artificial induced degradation of natural groundwater quality. Pollution can impair the use of water and can create hazards to public health through toxicity or through spreading of diseases. Most pollution originates from the disposal of wastewater following the use of water for any of the wide variety of purposes. Thus, a large number of sources and causes can modify from groundwater quality, ranging from drainage system, septic tank, agriculture discharges of water in excess amount. In contact with surface water pollution, subsurface water also gets polluted. With growing importance of groundwater resources, efforts are increasing to prevent, reduce and removal of groundwater pollution [1, 2]. The possible pollutants in groundwater are virtually limitless. The sources and causes of groundwater pollution are closely associated with human use of water. The principle sources come under four categories, i.e., municipal, industrial, agricultural and miscellaneous [1]. But the disposal of refuse (domestic and industrial solid waste) is the major source for the groundwater pollution as well as a major environmental problem [1–3]. In this part of Nanded township, the groundwater is contaminated mostly due to excessive discharge and there is no artificial resource to recharge the groundwater. STUDY AREA Nanded district in between 18º15ʹN to 19º55ʹN latitude and 77º7ʹE to 78º15ʹE longitude, covering an area of about 10,502 km2 (Figure 1). As this area is too vast, the study area is restricted to part of Nanded city only, which constitutes the area from railway line southwards to the main Godavari bridge between the main through fares (Figure 2), i.e. the railway over bridge (Shivaji Nagar) to watch tower chowk and railway station to main gurudwara road to watch tower chowk. The area is approximately 3000250 m in size. This part of the city is considered to be having higher population density and maximum flooding problems. METHODOLOGY During the field survey, 20 bore wells with sufficient discharge were identified for a detailed study. Water samples were collected from these 20 bore wells (Figure 2, locations 1 to 20) during post monsoon (November, 1998) season. The bore-wells from which samples have been collected, were being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. The water samples were analyzed for the physicochemical parameters as per the
  14. 14. JoWREM (2016) 44-49 © STM Journals 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 44 Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management ISSN: 2349-4336(online) Volume 3, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com Experimental Investigation of Influence of Key-shape Variation on Discharge Capacity of Piano Key Weir Vinodray D. Ujeniya1, *, Kautilya G. Mehta2 , Mohmood Khan3 1 School of Engineering, RK University, Rajkot-Bhavnagar, Highway, Rajkot, Gujarat, India 2 Merchant Engineering College, Basana, Vishnagar, Gujarat, India 3 Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara, Gujarat, India Abstract The piano key weir is a nonlinear free flow type weir with small foundation width. There are many geometrical parameters which influence the discharge capacity of the piano key weir. As in Labyrinth weir, the piano key weir is zigzagged in a plan to increase the crest length. Overhanging on both sides reduces the foundation width of such weir. To investigate the effects of key-shape variation of piano key weirs on flow capacity of piano key weir, laboratory experiments were performed on the models in the laboratory. Each model was tested at various discharges, flow depths were measured on the upstream and downstream side for the purpose. Experimental results depict the influence of the crest length magnification ratio and key width ratio of the discharge capacity. Keywords: Piano key weir, Crest length magnification ratio, Key width ratio INTRODUCTION The ground surface water is normally collected by the reservoir of dams. The performance is influenced by two major problems: The first, day to day decreasing storage capacity of the dam due to gradual increase of silting and the second, referred to risk of inadequacy of the flow capacity of the spillway. The details regarding the occurrence of a failure of the dams showed that nearly one third of the total numbers of failure of the dam are due to the insufficient discharge capacity of the spillway. Many existing spillways are presently undersized and required rectification. For the weir, head-discharge relationship, Eq. (1), the discharge capacity of weir (Q) influenced by water head on crest and the weir length. Where, Q = Cd 2 3 2g L Ht 3 2 (1) Cd is the discharge coefficient, g is the gravitational constant, L is the crest length and Ht is the total head (Piezometric head (H) plus velocity head (V2 /2g)) measured on the weir crest. Normally, there are two options for increasing the discharge capacity of a nongated weir spillway when restricted by a maximum pool elevation; 1. Lengthening the spillway width, 2. Reducing the crest elevation of the spillway. Taking into consideration the dam geometry and economic point of view, increase in length of the spillway is not a pragmatic resolution. Besides lowering the crest elevation decreases the storage capacity of the dam, which is infeasible. In general, the nonlinear weir represents the most viable option. In recent times, the piano key weir is a newly developed option to linear weir designs [1]. The piano key weir has been studied and tested for the last five years by a no-profit Association Hydrocoop with a view to avoid the above drawbacks [2]. Hydrocoop- France in association with the Laboratory Hydraulic Developments and Environment of the University of Biskra (Algeria) developed a new shape of nonlinear weir, piano key weir [3]. This innovative type of weir has the benefit that it is used for existing as well as new dams. Its construction is simple, easy and can be carried out by local resources available in country [4]. The piano key weir will minimize
  15. 15. JoWREM (2016) 50-58 © STM Journals 2016. All Rights Reserved Page 50 Journal of Water Resource Engineering and Management ISSN: 2349-4336(online) Volume 3, Issue 3 www.stmjournals.com Rainfall Runoff Modeling Using SCS-CN Method: A GIS Based Case Study of Pawana Watershed A.S. Ghate1, *, V. Sivakumar2 , Kunal More3 , Vipul V. Pawar3 1 Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, Pune, Maharashtra, India 2 Centre for Development and Advanced Computing, Pune, Maharashtra, India 3 Civil Engineering, Sinhgad Academy of Engineering, Pune, Maharashtra, India Abstract In a country over 125 million, we are proudly an agricultural based economy, wherein 51% of population is indulged in any business related to somehow with agriculture. Of course, we still are in a developing stage as far as methodologies or their implementation is concerned. But surely somewhere we have started focusing on modern techniques and strategies to improve pattern, productivity, profit and all. The two vital natural resources required for the agricultural production of any country are soil and water. The net productivity of crops depends on the proper management and utilization of these natural resources. To overcome the water related problems, extensive care should be given to the operation and management of reservoirs and watersheds. Hydrological modelling is a commonly used tool to estimate the basin’s hydrological response to precipitation. It allows to predict the hydrologic response to various watershed management practices and to have a better understanding of the impacts of these practices. This paper highlights a study of lake involving computation of runoff maps and there curve numbers. The selected watershed is been observed for the runoff pattern and the rainfall variations throughout the season. It revealed that, urbanization has led to increase in surface runoff, where as there is decrease in infiltration. This results in increase of surface runoff and contributes more to the natural streams. As a result, the discharge and the surface area of the river increased. These discussed changes seriously lead to water management issues. Keywords: Rainfall, Runoff, SCS-CN, GIS, Hydrology INTRODUCTION Hydrology means the science of water. It is the science that deals with the occurrence, circulation and distribution of water of the earth and the earth’s atmosphere. The word ‘Hydrology’ has been derived from two Greek words ‘Hydro’, i.e., water and ‘logos’, i.e., science. It can be defined as “A science which deals with the properties, distribution and circulation of water on the surface of the land, in the soil, in the underlying rocks and also in the atmosphere mainly in the form of moisture or water atmosphere mainly in the form of water vapour and in the form of water droplets during rainfall or in the solid form of snow particles during snowfalls [1].” Urbanization leads to change in land use. It decreases vegetation and increases concretization. Rain water runoff increases due to concretization. This changes the water- drainage patterns and rainfall-runoff pattern. This eventually results in rise of water management issues in a long period of time [2]. GIS is a computer based system used to capture, store, analyse, update and display data. GIS handle mainly two classes of data which are spatial data, identifying the location and topography of map and attribute data, identifying the characteristics of these feature [3]. CASE STUDY Study area is a part of Watershed. The major water body in this watershed is Pawana Lake. Pawana Lake is essentially an artificial lake brought into existence due to the Pawana dam. Pawana River originates from the Western Ghats. The river is reported to be severely populated, causing the civic activists to blame the governing body for not taking appropriate steps to limit the degradation.
  16. 16. STM JOURNALS Scientific Technical Medical www.stmjournals.com ISSN 2349-4336 (Online) conducted Ch Instrumentation/ / / Energy Science/ / 22 STM Journals Empowering knowledge Free Online Registration ISO: 9001Certified (JoWREM) September December 2016 www.stmjournals.com STM JOURNALS Scientific Technical Medical Water Resource Engineering & Management

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